Tunguska Cosmic Body of 1908 is It From Planet Mars - John Anfinogenov

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Transcript of Tunguska Cosmic Body of 1908 is It From Planet Mars - John Anfinogenov

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    Manuscript: Anfinogenov et al.1

    Title: Tunguska cosmic body of 1908: is it from planet Mars?

    Authors:

    John Anfinogenov,

    1

    Larisa Budaeva,

    2

    Dmitry Kunetsov,

    !

    and "ana Anfinogenova

    2,#

    $

    Affiliations:

    1%unguss&y 'ature (eserve, Ministry of 'atura) (esources and *co)ogy of the (ussian+ederation.

    2'ationa) (esearch %oms& tate -niversity, Ministry of *ducation and cience of the (ussian

    +ederation

    !'ationa) (esearch %oms& o)ytechnic -niversity, Ministry of *ducation and cience of the

    (ussian +ederation

    #%oms& -niversity of /ontro) ystems and (adioe)ectronics, Ministry of *ducation and cienceof the (ussian +ederation

    $/orresponding author: Dr. "ana Anfinogenova. Address: %--(, +0%, # Lenina rospect,%oms&, !#3, (ussia. %e): 45663!622. *7mai): anfiy89gmai).com

    Astract ;ord count: 2#6

    'umer of (eferences: 25

    'umer of %a)es: 1

    'umer of +igures: 3

    mailto:[email protected]:[email protected]
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    Manuscript: Anfinogenov et al.2

    Abstract: %he aim of the study ;as to discover remnants of the 16< %ungus&a meteorite. Main

    o8ective of the fie)d studies ;as identification of e=otic roc&s, furro;s, and penetration funne)s

    reported y the first eye;itnesses, residents of the area ;ith severe forest destruction. Mainmethods inc)uded decoding of aeria) survey photographs, systematic survey of the epicenter area

    of the %ungus&a e=p)osion, e=p)oratory e=cavations of the o8ects of interest, reconstruction

    studies of e=otic ou)der y using its sp)inters, minera)ogica) and spectra) ana)ysis of specimens,e=perimenta) attempt of p)asma7induced reproduction of the fusion crust on specimen. %heauthors present resu)ts on discovery of penetration funne)7)i&e structures> e=otic ou)der ?&no;n

    as [email protected] tone ;ith its shear7fractured sp)inters and fresh furro; in the permafrost> severa)

    sp)inters ;ith g)assy coatings> evidence of high7speed [email protected] tone dece)eration in thepermafrost> and c)ear consistency in geometry of spacia) arrangements of a)) sp)inters, furro;s,

    c)eaved pe)es according to data of reconstruction studies. [email protected] tone is composed of high)y

    si)icified grave)ite sandstone ?6 residue presented ;ith ;hitish semi7transparent pumice7)i&e grains and

    irregu)ar)y shaped fused partic)es. Cvera)), our data suggest that [email protected] tone is %ungus&ameteorite candidate. (ecent discoveries of sedimentary roc&s, )ithified grave)ite sandstone, c)ay,

    and uart on Mars provide rationa)e for search and identification of si)ica7rich Martian

    meteorites of sedimentary origin.

    Key words: %ungus&a event of 16

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    Manuscript: Anfinogenov et al.

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    Introduction:

    0n history of %ungus&a catastrophe ?June !, 16

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    Manuscript: Anfinogenov et al.

    #

    configuration of the comp)ete forest fa)) area> it ;as necessary to esta)ish scattering e))ipse far

    end ;ith more massive meteorites.

    $ield %tudies# +ie)d studies too& p)ace in 163716

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    3

    conditions. %he )anding ve)ocity of the meteoroid ;as ca)cu)ated via the euation for its &inetic

    energy ;hich ;as eua) to ;or& on destruction of the given vo)ume of permafrost.

    *re"ious dissemination of )% specimens:

    Cra) reports and some characteristic specimens of J ;ere shared ;ith e=perts from thetate *nterprise GKrasnoyars& eo)ogica) urveyH ?Krasnoyars&, (ussia, %oms& tate

    -niversity ?%oms&, (ussia, 'ationa) (esearch %oms& o)ytechnic -niversity ?%oms&, (ussia,/ommittee on Meteorites of the -( Academy of ciences ?Mosco;, (ussia, 'atura) Iistory

    Museum ?London, -K, -niversity of Bo)ogna ?Bo)ogna, 0ta)y, tate -niversity of 'e; "or&

    ?A)any, '", -A, and some others.

    (esults:

    During the e=peditions of 163 to 16 t;o of them contained shear7fractured sp)inters ?n 2 composed of strong)y si)icifiedsandstone. eo)ogists stated that these specimens Gmay not e meteoritesH and ca))ed thepenetration funne)s7)i&e structures Go)d anthi))sH. %he specimens ;ere eventua))y )ost> the

    penetration funne)s ;ere disregarded.

    )ohn!s %tone# (econstruction studies# 0n 1652, the group discovered unusua) roc&

    [email protected] tone ?J on the top of the toy&ovich Mountain ?+igure 1. %he first impression ;asthat the roc& ;as the so7ca))ed GDeer toneH or G "an&ovs&[email protected] toneH, reported y *ven&is and

    /onstantine "an&ovs&y, respective)y. %he ou)der )ocated ! meters from the ottom)and

    s;amp near the east foot of the ;est up)ift of the toy&ovich Mountain, five meters from the eastta=ator profi)e. [email protected] tone ;as hard)y visi)e at first. Cn)y a sma)) patch ?2 = 2 cm of

    unusua) ;hite7gray7)ue co)or ;ith evident scorch mar&s pee&ed out of s)ight)y raised moss7

    covered hi))oc&. %he patch ;as oriented south7east and raised !3 cmaove the surroundingground. "oung 1#7year7o)d 1.37m-high irch gre; on the top of the hi))oc&. 'ear)y a)) surface of

    J ;as covered y 2R!7cm7thic& )ayer of moss, fa))en )eaves, and inter)acing roots. Birch roots

    ;ere c)inging to the ou)der fo))o;ing the cavities on its surface do;n to the ground. Minera)

    residue in the cavities ;as insignificant: from 1 to 3 mm. "oung irches, )arch7trees, pines, and#37year7o)d 8unipers gre; near J. Shen the young irch gro;ing at the top of the hi))oc& ;as

    ent y hand, the ou)der, covered on)y ;ith moss, easi)y came out. A)) surface of uncoated J

    had the same ;hite7gray7)ue co)or. Cn c)oser e=amination, the stone ;as composed of most)y)ight7toned concrete7ound pe)es and sand ?cong)omerate grave)ite sandstone ;ith un;ashed

    scorch mar&s. %he grain sie ;as in a range of .3 to 1.3 cm, rare)y up to 3 cm.

    ies of the aove7ground part ?cupo)a of J ;ere 2 = 1.3 = .3 m ?+igure !A> theou)der set a)ong a meridian ?from south to north. /upo)a ;as s)ight)y s)oping to the north and

    ;est and had steeper inc)ine to the east and south. %he vertica) south ;a)) of the ou)der seemedro&en. Cvera)), J ;as rounded, a)mond7shaped. ies of J after comp)ete recovery: 2.3 = 1.5

    = 1.2 m; estimated mass e=ceeded 1, kg. An attempt to sp)it off a samp)e sho;ed that the

    ou)der ;as uniform)y resistant, concrete, e=treme)y hard, and sonorous. hears of J revea)edc)ear uart, crysta))ine uart, and ana)cime crysta)s fi))ing space et;een the pe)es. %he

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    north7east, east, south, and upper surfaces of J cupo)a had pe)es that ;ere cut and sheared y

    po;erfu) mechanica) shear action> shears ;ere very c)ean and fresh. %he ;est surface of J had

    areas that )oo&ed )i&e very hard s)ags of the same composition ?si)ica, ut they ;eresignificant)y more porous and did not have shears.

    Cn c)oser e=amination of the ground surrounding the north part of the ou)der, shear7

    fractured sp)inter ?23 = 1< cm ;as found. (econstruction study confirmed that the sp)inter fitted

    J> the sp)inter ;as disp)aced from the corresponding depression on the ou)der y 26 cmup;ard. hears ;ere fresh.

    During the season of 1652, north, south, ;est, and east e=p)oratory trenches ;eree=cavated around J ?+igure 2. %he north trench contained a )arge fragment ?.3 m in sie> # to

    3 kg near J. pace et;een J and this sp)inter ;as fi))ed ;ith hardpac& soi). hears ;ere

    fresh. %he thic&ness of the specimen ranged from .3 to 13 cm. %e=ture of the e=posed ?northsurface of the sp)inter differed from that of the other surface: it ;as more smoothed and

    ;eathered. %he co)or of the shear7fractured surfaces differed from the rest of surfaces on oth J

    and the sp)inter. (econstruction study confirmed that this sp)inter perfect)y fitted the north f)atside of J.

    ma)) chipped p)ate7)i&e sp)inters ;ere found in sma)) radia) e=p)oratory trenches at a

    distance of 1 to 1.2 mfrom J. %he shear sp)inters ;ere found onlyin the trenches e=cavated

    east;ard from the north7east part of the ou)der.

    Large circu)ar e=p)oratory trench ?17m in radius> #7cm7deep> #7cm7;ide ;as

    e=cavated in the ground ringing aout J ?+igure 2. ear sp)inters ;ere found onlyin the eastsector of the circu)ar trench a)ong the aimuth of the sp)inters ;ere imedded into the furro; ;a))s> they ;ere a)so found in turf cover on

    ground surface.

    A .37m-diameter spot of )ight7toned sand ?+igure !/TD ;as found under the )itterfa))

    in the east sector of the circu)ar e=p)oratory trench at a distance of 1 m from J a)ong the

    aimuth of other sides ;ere fresh)y shear7fractured. Aove the spot of the)ight7toned sand, there ;as uprooted )arch7tree ;ithout soi) et;een the roots> the tree cro;n

    ;as directed north7east.At depth of U 1.3 mand .3 maside of the aove mentioned spot of sand, massive ?2,

    &g sp)inter ?ate))ite tone ? ;as found ?+igure 2> +igure !*. Mutua) positiona)re)ationship of pe)es suggested that ro&e off the south ;a)) of J ?+igure #. ate))ite

    tone ;as overturned upside do;n re)