Tribal Level of Integraton

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Describe the characteristics of tribal societies.

Transcript of Tribal Level of Integraton

  • 1. Tribal Level of Integration Horticulturalists

2. Tribal Level of Integration: Features

  • Food producers: horticulture or pastoralism (herding)
  • Larger populations
  • Two or more extended kin groups
  • Cross-cutting sodalities
  • Balanced reciprocity
  • Headmen without power or office

3. Food-Producing Societies

  • First indications: Neolithic ca 10 kya
  • In the Fertile Crescent (upper left), Near East
  • Characteristics:
  • Domestication of plants (emmer wheat, lower), animals, or both
  • Human control over food production
  • Quantities of food greater than foragers
  • Settled communities (except herders)
  • Increases in population
  • Complex social structures.

4. Horticulture

  • Definition:
  • Cultivation of crops
  • Carried out with hand tools
  • Such as digging sticks or hoes
  • Neither plows or irrigation systems are used
  • Best known type of cultivation involves use ofslash-and-burnorswiddencultivation

5. Basics of Slash-and-Burn Cultivation

  • A site is cleared of brush and trees
  • Trees are felled, brush stacked
  • Once dried, the brush and trees are set afire (top photo).
  • Planting begins
  • Usually, crops are interplanted
  • Once soil is exhausted,site is abandoned (bottom photo)
  • Cultivators clear a new site

6. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Adaptive Significance

  • Most slash-and-burn cultivation is practiced in the tropics
  • Tropical climate is extremely hard on soils
  • Intense heat
  • Heavy rainfall
  • Chemical reaction from heat and rain
  • Slash-and-burn is best adapted to this climate--which the following will show

7. Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Intense Heat

  • Plant and animal matter decompose to formhumusortopsoil
  • Humus formation virtually stops if soil reaches 77 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Decomposition of humus exceed formation
  • Humic materials break down to gases: ammonia, nitrogen, carbon dioxide
  • Gases escape into the atmosphere

8. Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Rainfall

  • Rainfall acts on the soil in two ways
  • Erosion:
  • Rainfall carries away soil particles
  • Particles themselves scour surface
  • Abrasion carries off even more soil
  • Leaching
  • Warm water dissolves water-soluble nutrients
  • Nutrients seep into subsoil

9. Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Laterization

  • Laterite: the oxides of minerals
  • Such as iron oxide at top layer (photo)
  • Combined heat and moisture creates oxides
  • Process is irreversible
  • Removes phosphorus, an essential nutrient
  • Cannot absorb other nutrients

10. A Long-Term Constant: Age of Soil

  • This process has been going for centuries
  • Soil is mostly clay and sand
  • Plant and animal life is limited in protein
  • Most plants reproduce by vegetative means
  • Seeds involve large amounts of protein
  • Animals are small
  • Gregarious (herding) animals are rare

11. Adaptation of Tropical Rainforests: Overview

  • Protective canopy of leaves and epiphytic plants
  • Rate of growth
  • Juxtaposition of different types of trees

12. Protective Canopy

  • Mature forests contain trees with thick foliage at their tops (left)
  • The canopy comprises:
  • Thick network of leafy branches, and
  • Epiphytic plants that derive nutrients from rain and air
  • Protective functions of the canopy:
  • Provide protective shade from sun, allowing humus to accumulate
  • Lessen action and amount of rainfall

13. Rate of Growth

  • Rate of growth is spectacular
  • Enables rapid use of nutrients before they disappear through erosion or leaching
  • Litter fall of animal remains and dead vegetation
  • Is four times of woodland in New York state
  • Rainfall also captures nutrients from air
  • 75% of potassium in soil, 40% of magnesium, and 25% of phosphorus come from rainwater

14. Species Juxtaposition

  • Different tree species have different nutrient requirements
  • Some require more phosphorus than others
  • Other require more potassium
  • Nutrient left by one tree is taken by others
  • Dispersal of same species is protection against pestsand diseases

15. Clean Clearing of Tropical Rainforest

  • Clean clearing (left) would:
  • Compact the soil due to heavy rainfall
  • Erosion via runoff would increase
  • Minimize or eliminate formation of humus
  • Leach the soil
  • Convert the soil into laterite
  • Overall: reduce its fertility

16. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Technique

  • Review of distinctive features
  • Cutting and burning vegetation prior to planting
  • Shifting to new site after 2 or 3 crops
  • Munduruc practices
  • Site selection: sloping, well-drained area
  • Clearing
  • Removal of shrubs and small trees
  • Felling of trees by keystone method

17. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Technique: Burning

  • Munduruc practices (cont)
  • Burning
  • Vegetation allowed to dry: 2 months
  • Fire set on day of slight breeze to fan flames

18. Slash and Burn Techniques

  • Planting
  • Begins at first rains: no cultivation
  • Hole made with digging stick
  • Cuttings or seeds inserted and covered
  • Manioc (a tuber) and sweet potatoes are planted in the center
  • Other crops planted at edges

19. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Weeding and Harvest

  • Weeding
  • Done twice during growing season
  • Harvest
  • Planting is staggered; so is harvesting
  • Harvesting done as need arises
  • Entire crop is not removed at one time
  • Manioc replanted immediately after harvest to ensure permanent supply

20. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation as Imitation of Rainforest

  • Crops are intermixed, each with different nutrient requirements
  • Reduces competition for same nutrient
  • Dispersal of same plants retard disease, pests
  • Staggering planting and harvest minimizes soil exposure
  • Burning slash returns nutrients to soil

21. Slash and Burn Cultivation asImperfectImitation of Rainforest

  • Decomposition of stumps and branches
  • Attract pests away from crops
  • Supply added nutrients
  • Weeding of mixed value
  • Minimizes competition for nutrients
  • Reduces shade and protection from erosion
  • Imitation not the real thing
  • Yield declines by 3rd yeartime to move

22. Tribal Societies: Economic Systems

  • The economic systems of tribal societies include:
  • Property, which includes corporate kin groups
  • Exchange relations, involving reciprocity
  • Political organizations, again usually kin based
  • The economic and political system of a tribe are usually integrated into one system.
  • Carl Polanyi called a tribal economy an instituted processthe economy is embedded in the society in which it occurs

23. Property: Communalism and Joint

  • Communalism: ownership by community
  • Property is freely accessible to all
  • Or it involves a sharing arrangement--meat among !Kung or Inuit
  • Mesoamerica: communal ownership, private use rights (usufruct)

24. Joint property

  • All share in rights and obligations
  • Property held by members of a corporate lineage or clan
  • Example: cattle ownership among some East Africans
  • Analysis: Corporate Lineages and ClansSome background is necessary

25. Lineages and Clans

  • Most groups are organized into patrilineal or matrilineal groups
  • Patrilineal groups:A continuous line of males related by blood
  • Matrilineal groups:A continuous line of females related by blood
  • Lineages:A group of kin related by patrilineal or matrilineal ties who can trace their ancestry
  • Clan:A group of kin who