Transport Research Laboratory Transport Research Laboratory Creating the future of transport ... 6.2

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  • © Transport Research Laboratory 2012

    Transport Research Laboratory Creating the future of transport

    PUBLISHED PROJECT REPORT PPR639

    Construction logistics and cyclist safety Technical report

    E Delmonte, J Manning, S Helman, D Basacik, J Scoons, J Chappell, J Stannard, M Jones, I Knight

    Prepared for: Transport for London (TfL)

    Quality approved:

    J Stannard

    (Project Manager)

    S Helman

    G Coley

    A Parkes

    (Technical Referees)

  • Disclaimer This report has been produced by the Transport Research Laboratory under a contract with Transport for London (TfL). Any views expressed in this report are not necessarily those of Transport for London (TfL).

    The information contained herein is the property of TRL Limited and does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the customer for whom this report was prepared. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the matter presented in this report is relevant, accurate and up-to-date, TRL Limited cannot accept any liability for any error or omission, or reliance on part or all of the content in another context.

    When purchased in hard copy, this publication is printed on paper that is FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free) registered.

    Contents amendment record This report has been amended and issued as follows:

    Version Date Description Editor Technical Referee

    1 21.9.12 First draft for client review ED SH

    2 18.10.12 Second draft incorporating client comments ED SH/AP

    3 7.12.12 Final draft ED JS

    4 15.1.13 Final report for publication ED SH

  • Construction logistics and cyclist safety

    3 PPR639

    Table of Contents

    Executive summary 11

    Abstract 18

    1 Introduction 19

    2 Analysis of collision and exposure data 21 2.1 What is a construction vehicle? 21

    2.1.1 Goods vehicles 22 2.1.2 Construction plant 23 2.1.3 Comparison vehicles 24 2.1.4 Conclusion based on vehicle descriptions 24

    2.2 Risk analysis 24 2.2.1 Exposure to risk 25 2.2.2 Collisions 31 2.2.3 Contributory factors 40 2.2.4 Analysis of risk 41

    2.3 Vehicle specifications 42

    3 Literature review 44 3.1 Background information 44 3.2 Literature search findings 44

    3.2.1 Literature search method 44 3.2.2 Existing reviews of cyclist and HGV collision research 45 3.2.3 The extent of existing research into construction vehicles 45 3.2.4 Headline findings 46 3.2.5 Blind spot mirrors 47 3.2.6 Work-related road safety 48

    3.3 Review of current guidance and activities 48 3.3.1 Guidance provided by organisations/associations 48 3.3.2 Construction Design and Management Regulations 51 3.3.3 FTA Cycling Code (2011) 51 3.3.4 Driver CPC (Certificate of Professional Competence)

    syllabus 52 3.3.5 Croydon Council Code of Practice 53

    3.4 Overall findings from literature review and implications for research design 54

    4 Safety issues relating to vehicle routing and delivery restrictions 55

  • Construction logistics and cyclist safety

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    4.1 Purpose of Construction Logistics Plans and their role within the Transport for London ‘London Freight Plan’ 55 4.1.1 Progress made to date in CLP design – generic output 55 4.1.2 Croydon Council development of CLPs 56

    4.2 London Borough of Croydon CLP template 57 4.2.1 Supply chain management 57

    4.3 Examples of CLPs in use in Croydon 59 4.3.1 General findings 59 4.3.2 Content of exemplar road safety orientated CLPs 60

    4.4 Sample of best practice examples of CLP use outside of Croydon 60 4.4.1 General findings 60 4.4.2 Content of exemplar road safety orientated CLPs – external

    to Croydon 61 4.5 Conclusions 61

    5 Direct and indirect visibility assessment 63 5.1 Mirror classifications 63 5.2 Visibility assessment process 65 5.3 The visible and non-visible zones for each vehicle 72

    5.3.1 DAF CF Mixer (Cemex Vehicle) 72 5.3.2 DAF CF Tipper (Cemex Vehicle) 78 5.3.3 MAN TGM26 Curtain side (Dooley Rumble Vehicle) 83

    5.4 Comparison of the visibility zones 87 5.5 The potential of being able to ‘see’ a cyclist 92

    5.5.1 DAF Mixer 93 5.5.2 DAF Tipper 96 5.5.3 MAN Curtain side 98 5.5.4 Comparison of cyclist position assessment 101

    6 Driver behaviour 103 6.1 Method 103 6.2 Cognitive task analysis 104

    6.2.1 Description of the task 104 6.2.2 Human errors 105 6.2.3 Factors that affect the likelihood of error 107

    6.3 Comments and conclusions 109

    7 Construction site interviews 111 7.1 Method 111 7.2 Findings 111

    7.2.1 The general structure of construction site networks 111

  • Construction logistics and cyclist safety

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    7.2.2 Construction Site 1 113 7.2.3 Construction Site 2 121 7.2.4 Construction Site 3 126 7.2.5 Comparison of general haulage and construction contracts 132 7.2.6 Summary of interview findings 136

    8 Findings 139 8.1 General findings 139 8.2 Contractual and operational practices 140 8.3 Drivers and vehicles 143

    9 Recommendations 146 9.1 Raising the profile of work-related road safety 146 9.2 Improving work-related road safety management in the construction

    industry 147 9.3 Making construction vehicles and journeys safer 148 9.4 Making construction vehicles and journeys safer 148 9.5 Data improvements 150 9.6 Ownership of recommendations 151 9.7 Limitations, and general considerations for future research 151

    References 153

  • Construction logistics and cyclist safety

    6 PPR639

    List of figures Figure 1: Trend in killed and seriously injured pedal cyclists for GB (from Stats19) and London (TfL, 2011b) ...................................................................................... 32 Figure 2. Goods vehicles involved in small two wheeled collisions (source: TNO, November 2001) ................................................................................................. 46 Figure 3: Classification and description of the mirrors discussed and assessed in this project. The image is of the DAF Tipper lorry .......................................................... 63 Figure 4: The Class V convex side close proximity mirror fitted to the MAN Curtain side lorry showing the distortion in the image to the straight line of the nearside side window frame where it appears curved in the image ................................................ 64 Figure 5: The images show the internal view towards the nearside of the lorries, showing the four mirrors fitted on the nearside. The DAF mixer image shows the internally mounted front projection mirror .............................................................. 65 Figure 6: Comparison of the driver seating and eye position and the position of the steering wheel mounted laser assessment tool (DAF Tipper) ..................................... 66 Figure 7: The steering wheel mounted laser assessment tool and the rotating mount to simulate the eye ............................................................................................. 67 Figure 8: Point cloud images of the DAF Mixer, DAF Tipper and MAN Curtain side lorries ................................................................................................................ 68 Figure 9: The direct view through the windscreen and side window for the DAF Mixer lorry and a photograph showing the A-pillar and mirror obstructions ......................... 69 Figure 10: The visibility zones for the indirect (mirror) views for the DAF Tipper lorry .. 70 Figure 11: Demonstration that an object can be visible in both direct and indirect visibility ............................................................................................................. 71 Figure 12: Image to show the mirrors reducing the 'blind spot' area at the front nearside corner of the MAN curtain side lorry. The light grey section of the cylinder is not visible in any view ......................................................................................... 71 Figure 13: Image showing the effect of the 'step' shape in the window frame on the shape of the visible zone on the ground ................................................................. 72 Figure 14: The lower and side boundaries of the visibility zones of the DAF Mixer measured from the windscreen (purple), nearside side window (brown) and the rear window in the cab (blue), the light grey sections of the cylinders are all directly visible ................................................................................................................ 73 Figure 15: The lower and side boundaries of the indirect visibility zones of the DAF Mixer for the plain rear view mirror (green) and the wide angle rear view mirror (red). The whole boundary of the side close proximity mirror (orange) and the nearside and lower boundary of the front projection mirror (cyan) ............................ 73 Figure 16: The visibility zones mapped on an area at ground level for the nearside half of the DAF Mixer vehicle (grey area of ground not visible) .................................. 74 Figure 17: The images show a combination of the ground coverage and three dimensional modelling of the visibility areas for the rear view mirrors (top images) and the windscreen and nearside side window (bottom images) of the DAF Mixer ....... 75 Figure 18: A photograph of the forward projection mirror fitted internally in the DAF Mixer showing that the front of the vehicle is not visible.