Transitioning to a Zero or Near-Zero Emission Line-Haul ... Transitioning to a Zero or Near-Zero...

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Transcript of Transitioning to a Zero or Near-Zero Emission Line-Haul ... Transitioning to a Zero or Near-Zero...

  • Transitioning to a Zero or Near-Zero Emission Line-Haul Freight Rail System in California: Operational and Economic Considerations

    Final Report

    Prepared for:

    State of California Air Resources Board

    By

    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) 1245 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, MC-250

    205 North Mathews Avenue Urbana, IL 61801

    Spring 2016

  • Transitioning to a Zero or Near-Zero Emission Line-Haul Freight Rail System in California: Operational and Economic Considerations

    ii RailTEC

    The statements and conclusions in this report are those of the contractor and not necessarily those of the California Air Resources Board. The mention of commercial products, their source, or their use in connection with material reported herein is not to be construed as actual or implied endorsement of such products.

    .

  • Transitioning to a Zero or Near-Zero Emission Line-Haul Freight Rail System in California: Operational and Economic Considerations

    iii RailTEC

    Table of Contents Summary ................................................................................................................................ xi 

    Locomotive Technology ...................................................................................................... xi 

    Line-Haul Freight Interoperability ....................................................................................... xii 

    Line-Haul Freight Operations ............................................................................................. xiii 

    Emissions Benefits ............................................................................................................ xiii 

    Locomotive Costs .............................................................................................................. xv 

    Exchange Point Operations and Capital Costs .................................................................. xv 

    Exchange Point Delay and Mode Shift ............................................................................. xvi 

    Fuel and Energy Supply Cost Reductions ........................................................................ xvii 

    Total Costs ........................................................................................................................ xvii 

    Overall Findings of the Captive Fleet Scenarios ............................................................... xix 

    North American Deployment Scenarios ............................................................................ xix 

    Conclusions ....................................................................................................................... xx 

    1  Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1 

    1.1  Background ............................................................................................................... 1 

    1.2  Objective ................................................................................................................... 1 

    1.3  Scope ........................................................................................................................ 2 

    1.4  Organization ............................................................................................................. 3 

    2  Zero and Near-Zero Locomotive Technology ................................................................... 4 

    2.1  Considerations for New Technologies ...................................................................... 4 

    2.2  Tier 4 Diesel-Electric with After-Treatment ............................................................... 8 

    2.3  Liquefied Natural Gas ............................................................................................. 10 

    2.4  Battery Tenders ...................................................................................................... 14 

    2.5  Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell .............................................................................................. 18 

    2.6  Electrification .......................................................................................................... 19 

    2.7  Linear Synchronous Motor ...................................................................................... 21 

    2.8  Summary ................................................................................................................ 22 

    3  Line-Haul Freight Rail Operations, Interoperability and Safety ...................................... 24 

    3.1  California Line-Haul Rail Network ........................................................................... 24 

    3.2  Line-Haul Rail Network in Southern California ....................................................... 26 

    3.3  Network Interoperability .......................................................................................... 28 

    3.4  Safety ...................................................................................................................... 33 

  • Transitioning to a Zero or Near-Zero Emission Line-Haul Freight Rail System in California: Operational and Economic Considerations

    iv RailTEC

    4  Line-Haul Freight Rail Traffic and Energy Requirements ............................................... 34 

    4.1  Statewide Rail Traffic Data ..................................................................................... 34 

    4.2  South Coast Basin Rail Traffic Data ....................................................................... 37 

    4.3  South Coast Train Traffic from Waybill Data .......................................................... 39 

    4.4  Locomotive Requirements ...................................................................................... 44 

    4.5  Baseline Energy Requirements .............................................................................. 47 

    4.6  Summary ................................................................................................................ 48 

    5  Emissions Benefits in South Coast Basin....................................................................... 49 

    5.1  Energy and Fuel Consumption of Alternative Technologies ................................... 49 

    5.2  Local Emissions Factors ......................................................................................... 50 

    5.3  Annual Emissions Benefits in the South Coast Basin ............................................ 51 

    6  Locomotive Capital, Energy Supply Infrastructure and Maintenance Costs ................... 54 

    6.1  Locomotive Fleet Size with Locomotive Exchange................................................. 54 

    6.2  Equipment Capital Cost .......................................................................................... 58 

    6.3  Energy Supply and Delivery Infrastructure ............................................................. 59 

    6.4  Heavy Locomotive Repair and Central Maintenance Shop .................................... 61 

    6.5  Annual Locomotive Maintenance Expense ............................................................ 61 

    6.6  Summary ................................................................................................................ 63 

    7  Exchange Point Process, Infrastructure and Costs ........................................................ 64 

    7.1  Exchange Point Process and Time Requirements ................................................. 64 

    7.2  Design Train Flow Rates ........................................................................................ 69 

    7.3  Conceptual Design ................................................................................................. 72 

    7.4  Locomotive Exchange Point Yard Capital Cost ...................................................... 75 

    7.5  Exchange Point Servicing Infrastructure Capital Cost ............................................ 88 

    7.6  Exchange Point Operating Cost ............................................................................. 88 

    7.7  Summary ................................................................................................................ 88 

    8  Exchange Point Delay Cost and Modal Shift .................................................................. 90 

    8.1  Methodology ........................................................................................................... 90 

    8.2  Cost of Train Delay at Exchange Points ................................................................. 94 

    8.3  Mode Shift and Lost Revenue ................................................................................ 96 

    8.4  Emissions Considerations of Mode Shift ................................................................ 98 

    8.5  Summary .............................................................................................................. 103 

    9  Benefits of Improved Efficiency and Alternative Sources on Energy Supply Costs ..... 104 

    9.1  Energy and Fuel Consumption of Alternative Technologies ....................