Transactional Analysis- Anugrha
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Transactional Analysis- Anugrha
TRANACTIONAL ANALYSIS People can change. We all have a right to be in the world and to be accepted.
In 1951 Dr Wilder Penfield's experiments concluded that 1. The human brain acts like a tape recorder, and whilst we may 'forget' experiences, the brain still has them recorded. 2. Along with events the brain also records the associated feelings, and both feelings and events stay locked together. 3. It is possible for a person to exist in two states simultaneously (because patients replaying hidden events and feelings could talk about them objectively at the same time). 4. Hidden experiences when replayed are vivid, and affect how we feel at the time of replaying. 5. There is a certain connection between mind and body, i.e. the link between the biological and the psychological, eg a psychological fear of spiders and a biological feeling of nauseaTransactional Analysis/NNR 3
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPOTHERSKNOW DO NOT KNOW
IDO NOT KNOW
BLIND AREATransactional Analysis/NNR
Transactional Analysis A model for explaining why and how: People think like they do People act like they do People interact/ communicate with others
Who am I? Why do I act the way I do? How did I get this way?
EGO STATES Penfield study revealed the recording capacity of the Brain. These recordings distinctly occur in 3 distinct parts. Eric Berne termed them as ego states 1)Parent 2)Adult 3)ChildTransactional Analysis/NNR 8
PARENT Ego state is our ingrained voice of authority, absorbed conditioning, learning and attitudes from when we were young.
We were conditioned by our real parents, teachers, older people, next door neighbors, aunts and uncles and Religious leaders.Our Parent is made up of a huge number of hidden and overt recorded playbacks. Typically embodied by phrases and attitudes starting with 'how to', 'under no circumstances', 'always' and 'never forget', 'don't lie, cheat, steal', etc, etc.Transactional Analysis/NNR 9
Parent Ego State PortraitsNurturing Parent
Controlling ParentNurturing (Positive) (sympathetic, caring)
Nurturing ParentSpoiling (Negative) (Pampering) Structuring (Positive) (Norms building)
Controlling ParentCritical (Negative) (fault finding, judgmental)
Parent Ego State Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on messages or lessons learned from parents and other parental or authoritarian sources Shoulds and should nots; oughts and ought nots; always and never Prejudicial views (not based on logic or facts) on things such as: religion dress salespeople traditions work products money raising children companiesTransactional Analysis/NNR 11
PARENT EGO STATE CAN BE IDENTIFIED IF WE OBSERVE
Physical - angry or impatient bodylanguage and expressions, finger-pointing, patronizing gesturesVerbal - always, never, for once and for all, judgmental words, critical words, patronizing languageTransactional Analysis/NNR 12
Only 7% of meaning is in the words spoken.38% of meaning is paralinguistic (the way that the words are said). 55% is in facial expression.
Adult Ego State Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on objective analysis of information (data, facts) Make decisions based on logic, computations, probabilities, etc. (not emotion)
Our 'Adult' is our ability to think and determine action for ourselves, based on received data. The adult in us begins to form at around ten months old, and is the means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control. If we are to change our Parent or Child we must do so through our adult.
ADULT can be understood if one observesPhysical - attentive, interested, straightforward, tilted head, non-threatening and nonthreatened.
Verbal - why, what, how, who, where and when, how much, in what way, comparative expressions, reasoned statements, true, false, probably, possibly, I think, I realize, I see, I believe, in my opinion.Transactional Analysis/NNR 16
Child Ego State Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on child-like emotions, impulses, feelings we have experienced during childhood Child-like examplesImpulsive Self-centered Angry Fearful Happy Pleasure seeking Rebellious Curious Eager to pleaseTransactional Analysis/NNR 17
Our internal reaction and feelings to external events form the 'Child'. This is the seeing, hearing, feeling, and emotional body of data within each of us. When anger or despair dominates reason, the Child is in control. Like our Parent we can change it, but it is no easier.
Child Ego PortraitsNatural ChildImmature (Negative) Spontaneous (Positive)
Adapted ChildCooperative (Positive) Rebellious (Negative)
CHILD ego states can be understood if one observes Physical - emotionally sad expressions, despair, temper tantrums, whining voice, rolling eyes, shrugging shoulders, teasing, delight, laughter, speaking behind hand, raising hand to speak, squirming and giggling. Verbal - baby talk, I wish, I dont Know, I want, I don't care, oh no, not again, things never go right for me, worst day of my life, bigger, biggest, best, many superlatives, words to impressTransactional Analysis/NNR 21
Ego Portraits People have favorite, preferred ego state, depicted by larger circle in a diagramPARENTPAC
CHILDP A C
Simply Ego states can be said asParent is our 'Taught' concept of life Adult is our 'Thought' concept of life Child is our 'Felt' concept of life
A college student discussing her roommate says: " She's a foolish, irresponsible, silly girl [CP], who needs me to smooth the way for her, so I go out of my way to help her [NP]. Sometimes I wonder if that's a good idea [A], but I want to be a helpful person like mother taught me to be [AC] even though I feel like telling her to leave me alone [FC]."
An egogram is an analysis of ego states. This was created by John M. DusayEgogram is a diagram drawn intuitively and based on our perception (or that of an outside person) of how we function from our different egostates or parts of our personality.Transactional Analysis/NNR 27
Human Interaction Analysis A transaction = any interaction or communication between 2 people People send and receive messages out of and into their different ego states How people say something (what others hear?) just as important as what is said
Intonations: Its the Way You Say It!Placement of the emphasis What it means
Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? I was going to take someone else. Instead of the guy you were going Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? with. Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Im trying to find a reason why I shouldnt take you. Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Do you have a problem with me? Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of going on your own. Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of lunch tomorrow. Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Not tomorrow night.
Types of communication, interactionsERIC BERNE divided communication into three1)Complementary 2) Crossed 3) UlteriorTransactional Analysis/NNR 32
Complementary Transactions Interactions, responses, actions regarded as appropriate and expected from another person. Parallel communication arrows, communication continues.
Example 1: #1 What time do you have? #2 Ive got 11:15.
Complementary Transactions contd
ExampleYoure late again! Im sorry. It wont happen again. #2
CTransactional Analysis/NNR 34
Crossed Transactions Interactions, responses, actions NOT regarded as appropriate or expected from another person. Crossed communication arrows, communication breakdown. Example 1 #1 #2 What time do you have? Theres a clock on the wall, why dont you figure it out yourself?
ACTransactional Analysis/NNR 35
Crossed Transactions contdExample 2#1 You must come in time #2 I know, you need not tell.
P A C
CTransactional Analysis/NNR 36
Ulterior Transactions Interactions, responses, actions which are different from those explicitly stated
P A C
#1 How about coming up to my room and listening to some music?
Ulterior Transactions contdCar salesman says to his customer, "This is our finest sports car, but it may be too racy for you," he is sending a message that can be heard by either the customers Adult or Child ego state
P A C