Transactional Analysis

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TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSISDeveloped by Eric Berne a Psychotherapist in 1950

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TA, a model for personality and dynamics of self and its relationship to others that makes possible a clear and meaningful discussion of behavior. TA refers to a method of analyzing and understanding interpersonal behavior. The study of transactions between people is called Transactional Analysis.

Ego Stateso o

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PARENT EGO: Parent ego include being overprotective, isolated, strict, crucial and honest. Physical and verbal clues that someone interacting with the parent ego include the wave backwards and forwards finger to show displeasure, reference to laws and rules, and trust on ways that were successful in the past. Two types of parent ego states nurturing and critical. Nurturing parent ego states reflects caring behavior towards children and other people in interaction. Controlling parent ego state reflects serious behavior in interaction with others.

Ego States

ADULT EGO: o Person interacting with adult ego views people as equal, worthy and reasonable human beings. o Adult is characterized by logical thinking and reasoning. o The ego state can be identified by verbal and physical signs which include thoughtful concentration and factual discussion. He keeps and controls emotional expressions appropriately.

Ego StatesCHILD EGO: o Characteristics of child ego include creativity, depression, anxiety, dependence, fear and hate. o Physical and verbal clues are silent, attention seeking, giggling and nervousness. o Three parts of child ego: natural, adaptive, rebellious o Natural child is friendly, reckless, luxurious and does what comes naturally. o Adaptive child is the trained one and he is likely to do what parents insist on, and sometimes learns to feel non-OK. o Rebellious child experiences anger, fear and frustration.

Ego StatesCONTROLLING PARENT NURTURING PARENT

ADULT

ADAPTIVE CHILD

NATURAL CHILD

REBELLIOUS CHILD

LIFE POSITIONS

Psychological positions

YOU ARE O.K. IAM O.K. YOU ARE O.K. IAM O.K. IAM O.K. YOU ARE NOT O.K. IAM NOT O.K. YOU ARE NOT O.K. IAM NOT O.K. YOU ARE O.K.

IAM NOT O.K

YOU ARE NOT O.K.

Iam O.K., You are O.K.o

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People with this position about themselves and others can solve their problems constructively. They accept the significance of other people and feel that life is worth living. Managers from this position, likely to express more consistent pattern of confidence and competence. They are able to express freely what they feel good about others. They delegate authority and feel comfortable with a spread of authority.

Iam O.K., You are not O.K.o o

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They blame others for their unhappiness. This is the case of aggrieved persons with an attitude that whatever they feelings. Managers operate with parent ego. Managers tend to point out the error, the bad things rarely giving any hot, genuinely carrying feelings. Managers lack trust or confidence. They do not believe in delegation of authority.

Iam not O.K., You are O.K.o o

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Managers operating from this position tend to give and receive bad feelings. Managers often use their bad feelings as an excuse to act out against others. When they feel guilty for their acts and turn their bad feelings against themselves. They tend to think twice in their behavior and are often changeable.

Iam not O.K., You are not O.K.o o

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This position is taken by those people who lose interest in living. Manager do not make decisions in time, make stupid mistakes. They lack personal strength.

TRANSACTIONSComplementary Transactions: Adult Adult transaction S = Stimulus, R = Response

P A CS R

P A C

TRANSACTIONSComplementary Transactions: Parent Child transaction S = Stimulus, R = Response

P A CS R

P A C

TRANSACTIONSNon-Complementary Transactions: Crossed transaction S = Stimulus, R = Response

PS

PR

A C

A C

TRANSACTIONS

Ulterior Transactions: Blocked transactions Communications has a clear adult message, whereas it carries a hidden message on the psychological level. This transaction is undesirable.

BENEFITS OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSISo o o o

Developing Positive Thinking Interpersonal Effectiveness Motivation Organizational Development

SELF DEVELOPMENT

Johari window: Model of awareness in interpersonal relations.KNOWN TO SELF UNKNOWN TO SELF KNOWN TO OTHERS PUBLIC AREA I BLIND AREA II

UNKNOWN TO OTHERS

HIDDEN AREA III

UNKNOWN AREA IV

Public Area - Quadrant Io

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Quadrant I is the area of free activity or public area. Information, behavior, attitudes, feelings, desires, ideas and motivation know to self as well as to others.

Blind Area - Quadrant IIo

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Quadrant II is the area where others can see things in ourselves. Things may be qualities, thoughts and feelings.

Hidden Area - Quadrant IIIo

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Quadrant III represents things we know but do not reveal to others. This area includes all our deepest and wellkept secrets about ourselves.

Unknown Area - Quadrant IVo

Quadrant IV represents which neither the individual nor others are aware of certain behaviors or motives.

SELF DEVELOPMENT

Johari window: Model of awareness in interpersonal relations.KNOWN TO SELF UNKNOWN TO SELF KNOWN TO OTHERS PUBLIC AREA I BLIND AREA II

UNKNOWN TO OTHERS

HIDDEN AREA III

UNKNOWN AREA IV

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A change in one of the Quadrant brings about changes in other quadrants. AS one of the quadrants grows larger the other quadrants become smaller.