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Transcript of Transactional Analysis
Module I: Transactional Analysis TA and Self-Awareness, Concept of Script, Life Positions, Transactions Module II: Structural Analysis Winners and Losers, Structural Analysis
Module III: Games and Scripts Games and Strokes, Life Scripts Module IV: Application of TA TA Applications in Motivation, Leadership and Teamwork Module V: TA for Change TA in Counseling. Contracting for Change.
Text & References Text: Steiner M. Claude, Transactional Analysis of Life scripts, Addison Wesley References: Berne M.D. Eric, Games people play, Addison Wesley Indries Shah, Learning How to Learn James Muriel, Its never too late to be happy, Addison Wesley Khandwalla, Social Development, Sage Publishers. Thirwall, Growth and Development, Mac Millan Press
Evaluation Scheme Project ---10 Marks Role Play---5 marks Mid Term ---10 marks Total-----25 marks (internal) Attendance-----5 marks End Term Examination ----70 marks
It all begins with AWARENESSAwareness is the first step in the creation process. As you grow in the self awareness process, you will better understand why you feel what you feel, and why you behave as you behave.This understanding then gives you the opportunity and freedom to change those things you would like to change about yourself and create the life you want. Without knowing yourself, self acceptance and change becomes impossible.
Who is the expert? When we want good, solid information we turn to the experts. So who are you going to turn to for information about yourself. Who is the expert? Friend/ Doctor/ Therapist/ Philosopher/ Minister/ hero/ Guide/ Spouse/ Parent.
Know more about you? No the expert is YOU.
You live in your own skin, mind and soul.
24 hours a day 7 days a week 52 weeks a year Day in and day outNo one is closer to you than you. The answers are within. We need to do the soul searching. Perhaps all youve needed to solve your riddles is a useful question, to probe deep within.
SELF AWARENESS Being aware of oneself would mean exploring and understanding oneself in the following areas. The way we behave and react in different situations and with different sets of people. The likes, interests, desires and needs that motive us towards our goals. The attitudes, mind-sets, beliefs and values that influence our thoughts and behaviour The feelings and emotions which arise from the primary experiences of our lives and have powerful influences.
The way we view ourselves in terms of our opinion of our self and the way others view us.The way we perceive and experience ourselves, people around us and the larger world.
WAYS OF DEFINING THE SELFA collection of behaviours, reflexes, habits and actions. An intellect which gives rise to thoughts, attitudes, mental sets and tendencies. A constellation of needs, desires and drives. A set of psychological processes and functioning comprising of striving, deciding, judging, perception, learning, feeling and thinking. All the above and in the inner core a knowing self. Self is the sum of all these parts, but is an integrated and existential entity larger than the sum of the parts. It is dynamic and ever evolving.
Self-awareness : Emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, self-confidence
Self-regulation: Self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, innovation.Motivation: Achievement drive, commitment, initiative, and optimism. Empathy: Understanding others, developing others, service orientation, leveraging diversity, political awareness. Social Skills: Influence, communication, conflict management, leadership, change catalyst, building bonds, collaboration, and co-operation
Self-awareness: includes ones ability to recognize and understand ones own moods, emotions, and drives, and to accept ones own self with ones strengths and weakness. Self-management: includes ones ability to redirect and control ones disruptive impulses and moods, judge how others might feel, before taking any action, and postpone gratification of immediate needs for long term goals. Internality and optimism: include the orientation of taking charge of the situation, seeing failures as temporary and high hope and intense involvement (flow) as in contest with brooding over miseries (rumination)
CONT. Motivation: involves the passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status resilience, that is, the ability to bounce back from disappointments and pursue goals with energy and persistence. Empathy: is the ability to understand the emotional make-up of other people. It also involves the skill to deal with people according to their emotional reaction. At the very least, empathy requires being able to read anothers emotions, at a higher level it entails sensing and responding to a persons unspoken concerns or feelings. At the highest level, empathy is understanding the issues or concerns that lie behind anothers feelings. (Goleman,199,p.160) Social skills: refers to proficiency in managing relationships and building net works. It is reflected in building and leading teams.
Self-Awareness : To see ourselves as others see us
Force = helps to DEVELOP and IMPROVE by inculcating important skills SELF-AWARENESS PERSONALL- Capabilities - Limitations - Decisions INTERPERSONALLY - Relationship with other people- Views held by others
SELF-AWARENESS DEVELOPED BYOthers views: Conscious, systematic - Observation - Assumption - Own interpretation
analysis of self
Transactional Analysis Eric Berne was born in 1910 in Montreal, Canada. His father was a doctor & his mother was an editor. His father died at age 38, when Eric was 9 Earned an MD in 1935 from McGill Univ Became a US citizen and served in Utah during WWII, practicing group therapy
Transactional Analysis Was denied membership in the Psychoanalytic Institute in 1956 This brought about his rejection of psychoanalysis and was a turning point in his life Wrote the book Games People Play Died of a heart attack in 1970 at the age of 60
Transactional AnalysisFour methods of understanding & predicting human behavior Structural analysis within the person Transactional analysis 2 or more people Game analysis understanding transactions that lead to bad feelings Script analysis understand a persons life plan
Transactional AnalysisStructural analysis Natural child spontaneous, impulsive, feeling oriented, self-centered & pleasure loving Adaptive child compliant, conforms to the wishes & demands of parental figures
Transactional Analysis After a difficulty is expected after a certain event Open-ended one does not know what to do after a given time Mini-scripts: Hurry up! Try harder! Be perfect! Be strong! Please someone! These drivers allow for temporary escape from life scripts
Transactional Analysis Four basic life scripts: Im OK, youre OK ideal Im OK, youre not OK get away from me Im not OK, youre OK Ill never get anywhere Im not OK, youre not OK get rid of each other
Transactional AnalysisOther techniques TX contract agreed upon responsibilities Interrogation speaking to the adult ego state until an adult response is given Specification identification of the ego state that started the transaction Confrontation pointing out inconsistencies in behavior & speech
Transactional Analysis Explanation teaching about TA Illustration elaborates a point Confirmation points out a recurrence of a previously modified behavior Interpretation explains to the child ego state the reasons for a clients behavior Crystallization final step, the client gives up playing games
Transactional analysis is a comprehensive conceptual framework to gain an understanding of personality styles and human behaviour
A transaction is the act of communication or interaction between two people.A transaction starts with a stimulus and ends with a response to the stimulus.
Transactional Analysis A model for explaining why and how: People think like they do People act like they do People interact/communicate with others
Based on published psychological work such as: Games People Play (Dr. Eric Berne) Im OK - - Youre OK (Dr. Tom Harris) Born to Win (Dr. Dorothy Jongeward)
TA Is Concerned With Four Kinds Of Analysis:Structure analysis analysis of the individual personality
Transactional analysis proper what people do and say to one anotherLie-position analysis suggesting the four position individuals adopt in their transaction with the outside world. Games analysis discussing ulterior transactions leading to a pay-off. Script analysis detailing of specific life dramas that people compulsively play out.
Our Brain (according to Berne) Determines what we think and how we act Acts like a tape recorder while recording 1) Events 2) Associated feelings Has 3 distinct parts or ego states 1) Parent 2) Adult 3) Child
Parent Ego State Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on messages or lessons learned from parents and other parental or authoritarian sources Shoulds and should nots; oughts and ought nots; always and never Nurturing views (sympathetic, caring views) Critical views (fault finding, judgmental, condescending views)
Adult Ego State Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on objective analysis of information (data, facts) Make decisions based on logic, computations, probabilities, etc. (not emotion)
Child Ego State Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on child-like emotions, impulses, feelings we have experienced Child-like examplesImpulsive Self-centered Angry Fearful Happy Pleasure seeking Rebellious Happy Curious Eager to please
Ego Portraits People have favorite, preferred ego state, depicte