Training Methods for Sport Resistance Training. Topics Resistance training and terms. Defining...

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  • Slide 1
  • Training Methods for Sport Resistance Training
  • Slide 2
  • Topics Resistance training and terms. Defining strength Systems and Exercise. Programme Prescription
  • Slide 3
  • Where Exercise Meets Science Resistance training is not an exact science There is no best programme or best trainer People in the industry have very diverse backgrounds The same programme may affect two people very differently A testimonial is worth nothing unless it is from someone you know and trust
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  • Resistance Training Resistance training is also known as strength or weight training. For resistance training certain types of machined equipment have been designed to describe particular exercises that requires the bodys musculature to move through a determined angle against a given force. Fleck and Kraemer (1997)
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  • The following terms identify specific muscle functions: 1. Isometric 2. Isotonic
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  • Isometric the word isometric comes from the greek words isos and metron which together means equal measure or length. A muscle is said to contract isometrically when there is no visible change in length or in angle of the joint that it crosses. Eg. Wall sit (Lombardi,1989)
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  • Isotonic comes from the Greek words isos and tonus, meaning equal tone. The word dynamic might be more descriptive of this type of contraction. A muscle contracts isotonically when it overcomes a resistance and its length and corresponding joint angles visibly change. This dynamic type of contraction is in complete opposite to a static or isometric contraction. Eg. Bicep curl This is when hydraulic pressurised weight training machines became very popular in the 80s
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  • Isometric contraction Type of muscle contraction in which muscle there is no visible joint movement, static contraction Isotonic contraction Type of muscle contraction producing visible joint movement; dynamic contraction A= isotonic B= isometric
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  • There are two phases of isotonic muscle contractions: 1. Concentric: = when the muscle shortens eg. Lifting bar during bicep curl 2. Eccentric: = when the muscle lengthens eg. Lowering bar during bicep curl
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  • Isotonic equipment and exercises are the most popular for weight training. There are four categories: constant resistance- cable variable resistance- free weight Plyometric training- body resistance speed resistance training equipment based
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  • Muscular Strength Strength is the maximal amount of force a muscle or muscle group can generate in a specified movement pattern at a specified velocity of movement. (Fleck and Kraemer, 1997)
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  • Types of Muscular Strength Absolute strength: The ability of an athlete to exert maximum force regardless of body weight. Relative strength: Represents the ratio between an athletes absolute strength and his or her body weight. (Bompa, 1997)
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  • Outcomes Resistance training programmes are designed to promote the following physiological changes: Strength Power Hypertrophy Local muscular endurance Metabolic changes
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  • When you create a programme specifically for 1 outcome you get some of the other outcomes as well The programme variables will determine in which area the majority of the benefits will occur
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  • Women hypertrophy as much as men? Healthy women who do not take steroids do not experience great muscle size increase
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  • Absolute strength the maximum amount of strength or force (i.e. 1RM) generated in a movement or exercise Women average 55% of a mans upper body strength And 72% of a mans lower body strength (Fleck & Kraemer, 2004)
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  • Relative strength absolute strength divided by or expressed relative to total body weight or fat free mass Women's relative lower body strength is equal or higher than males. Women's relative upper body strength is lower than mans Skeletal muscle mass distribution is different between the genders (Fleck & Kraemer, 2004)
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  • Muscle turns to fat? Muscle and fat different in chemical composition Impossible!! Two distinct phases: muscle atrophies and due to inactivity fat is deposited
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  • Strength Power Hypertrophy Muscle endurance Word association test Intensity Volume Load Speed Strength = Load Power = Speed Hypertrophy = Intensity
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  • Words used in a Training System Design 1.Repetitions (Reps) = number of times a body limb(s) lifts, pushes or pulls a weight. E.g. 10 bicep curls. 2.Sets = restarting the number of reps after a predetermined rest. E.g. 3 sets of 10 bicep curls.
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  • Words used in a Training System Design 3.Volume = total amount of reps, sets and weight that has been completed in a session or a series of sessions. 4.Repetition Maximum (RM) = maximum weight successfully lifted, pushed or pull for 1 repetition. 5.Rest = The recovery period between reps, sets and sessions. = Discontinuous training
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  • What is it all For? ADAPTING! A proper system of Physical training is beneficial only as long as it forces the body to adapt above the stress of the previous effort. Insufficient stress ? No adaptation occurs Too much stress ? Overtraining may result
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  • StrengthHypertrophyPowerEndurance Reps1-78-121-1010+ Sets2-63-63-52-3 Rests (mins) LongShortLongShort Velocity(speed)SlowMod-slowFastMod VARIABLES NSCA pg 419
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  • What are the Benefits? Increased strength Increased muscle size Improved sport performance And decreased body fat. fl-sport
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  • Recommended Training Systems for Programme Design. SYSTEMSETSREPSRESTDAYS/WEEKSPEEDWEIGHT % OF RM General2-310-202minMinimum of two days Medium50% Starting strength 3-46- 102-3min3-4Medium75-85% Strength2-61-6RM3-5min3-6Slow/mediumMax Hypertrophy3-56-20RM1-2min3-6Slow/Medium50-70% Muscular endurance 2-315+Minimal3-4Medium30-60% Power3-64-103-5min3-4Fast or slow E or fast C 30-100% Speed2-41-15RM3-5min2-4fast50% to control
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  • Programme Prescription 1.The Set System This programme usually consists of a single set of one exercise with brief rests between each exercise The number of repetitions in the set will be determined by the desired outcome of the training. This prograrmme can be continued until the individual can achieve the last rep of the set. It is then time to find a new 1RM for that exercise. IE, AFTER ONE HAS ADAPTED TO THE WORKLOAD, IT MUST BE INCREASED.This program is great start for the elderly.
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  • 2. Compound Setting Three or four different exercises are used for a single body part so that the muscle is worked from different angles. One set of each of the exercises is usually sufficient. 3.Supersetting Anatognistic muscle groups are selected. A superset consists of a set of repetitions for one muscle group, immediately followed by a set for the opposite. No rest is taken until three sets have been performed on both muscle groups.
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  • 4. The Pyramid System As suggested in the title repetitions decrease in three successive sets from the base of the pyramid to the tip, as the weight increases. The descent of the other side of the pyramid gradually increases the number of repetitions, as the weight decreases. 1 1 Hence, 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, for example. 2 2 3 3 5. Circuit Training Is a series of exercises carefully arranged in a circuit to produce a desired effect. The training effects can be many and varied with creativity and innovation.
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  • Programme Design: 1.Single Set System One set of each prescribed exercise Usually taken close to muscular failure Very time effective programme Has shown good results in untrained subjects for first 1-2 months. Ideal for the elderly. Needs to be progressed to ensure continued gains
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  • Single Set Example Machine bench press, rest Lat pull-down, rest Shoulder press, rest Leg press, rest
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  • Example 1. The Set System SQUATS CALF RAISE BENCH PRESS PULL DOWN AB CURL TRICEP EXTENSION BICEP CURL 1 Set of 10 Repetitions- great for the elderly
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  • Example 2.COMPOUND SETTING - muscle groups targeted LEGS Squats Leg Extensions Leg Curls Calf Raises BACK Barbell Row Pull Ups Single Arm Row Back Raise CHEST Dumbbell Bench Press Incline Press Dumbbell fly Pec Dec SHOULDERS Side Lateral Raise Bent Over Row Shoulder Press Upright Row ARMS Bicep Curl Screw Curl Triceps Extension Triceps Pushdown
  • Slide 34
  • Example 3.SUPERSETTING - antagonist groups used S1 Leg Extensions Leg Curls S2 Bench Press Bent Over Rows S3 Pull down Shoulder Press S4 AB Curl Back Raise S5 Bicep Curl Triceps Extension
  • Slide 35
  • Example 4. PYRAMID SYSTEM 6 6 8 8 10 STRENGTH 15 15 25 25 30 ENDURANCE Work your way up one side of the pyramid