Toxins Unit

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Toxins Unit. Investigation I: Dissolving Toxins. Lesson 1: Lethal Dose. Lesson 2: Bearly Alive. Lesson 3: Mixing It Up!. Lesson 4: Weighing In. Lesson 5: Finding Solutions. Lesson 6: Holey Moley. Lesson 7: Is It Toxic?. Toxins Unit – Investigation I. Lesson 1: Lethal Dose. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Toxins UnitInvestigation I: Dissolving ToxinsLesson 1: Lethal DoseLesson 2: Bearly AliveLesson 3: Mixing It Up!Lesson 4: Weighing InLesson 5: Finding SolutionsLesson 6: Holey MoleyLesson 7: Is It Toxic?

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

  • Toxins Unit Investigation ILesson 1:Lethal Dose

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    ChemCatalyst Which substance do you think is most toxic to you alcohol (ethanol, C2H6O), aspirin (salicylic acid, C7H6O3), or arsenic (As)? Explain your thinking.How do you think toxicity is determined?

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    The Big QuestionHow is the toxicity of a substance measured and described?

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    You will be able to:Calculate the toxicity of substances based on the lethal dose.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Lethal dose (LD50) is the amount of an ingested substance that kills 50 percent of a test sample. It is expressed in mg/kg, or milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight.Notes

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    ActivityPurpose: In this activity you will compare the toxicity of various substances.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Making SenseHow is dosage related to toxicity?

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    Check-InMethadone is a medication used as a painkiller and as a treatment for those recovering from heroin addiction. The LD50 for methadone is 95 mg/kg. Would you consider methadone to be more or less toxic than acetaminophen (LD50 = 2404 mg/kg) or aspirin (LD50 = 200 mg/kg)?Explain how you would calculate the amount of this substance that would be lethal to a 120-pound human.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Wrap-UpToxicity is relative to dosage: The toxicity (or therapeutic effect) of a substance depends on the dose in which it is received.The lethal dose (or therapeutic dose) of a substance is often expressed as a ratio between a certain mass of the substance and one kilogram of the body weight of an organism exposed to the substance.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

  • Toxins Unit Investigation ILesson 2:Bearly Alive

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    ChemCatalyst Drinking water in our homes contains low concentrations of dissolved chlorine, a highly toxic substance. Why can we drink the water?What do you think concentration means?

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    The Big QuestionWhat are the components of solutions, and how are the concentrations of solutions described?

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    You will be able to:Identify the components of solutions and explain their relationship to the concept of solution concentration.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    A solution is a mixture of two or more substances that is uniform throughout. The substance in the greatest amount is called the solvent. The solute is dissolved in the solvent.Concentration is the amount of solute for a specified amount of solvent. A common measure of concentration is moles per L, moles/L, which is referred to as molarity, M.Notes

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    ActivityPurpose: This activity introduces you to solution chemistry and allows you to examine solutions of differing concentrations. (cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    SolutionSoluteObservationsRank the bear size from 1-8Water0.1 M sugarC12H22O111.0 M sugarC12H22O112.0 M sugarC12H22O11Corn syrup C12H22O110.1 M saltNaCl0.5 M saltNaCl1.0 M saltNaCl

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Making SenseWhat do you think is happening in this activity? Write a paragraph explaining your ideas. Include your answers to the following questions:What causes the size of the gummy bears to change?Why are the gummy bears in the sugar solutions ranked the way they are? (cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Why are the gummy bears in the salt solutions different sizes than the gummy bears in the sugar solutions of the same concentration?(cont.)(cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    The movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called diffusion.(cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Check-InWhat would happen if you placed a gummy bear in a 1.5 M sugar solution overnight? Use your data table to help you determine the outcome. Draw a picture showing which molecules are moving. Explain your answer in terms of diffusion of water into or out of the bear.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Wrap-UpA solution is a mixture that is uniform throughout. The substance in the greatest amount is the solvent. The substance that is dissolved is the solute. Molarity tells us how many particles or molecules are in solution. Molarity is a measure of the concentration of a solution.(cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Diffusion is defined as the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration of that molecule to an area of lower concentration of that molecule. Salts dissolve in water to give two (or more) ions. Molecular substances do not dissociate; they remain intact as individual molecules.(cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

  • Toxins Unit Investigation ILesson 3:Mixing It Up!

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    ChemCatalyst List three things that dissolve in water.List three things that do not dissolve in water.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    The Big QuestionWhat is solubility, and how is it determined?

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    You will be able to:Explain the concept of solubility and determine the solubility of a substance.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Homogeneous: A mixture in which the substances are distributed uniformly. All solutions are homogeneous by definition.Heterogeneous: A mixture that is not uniform throughout.Notes

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    ActivityPurpose: In this activity you will examine the solubility of five solutes in water. (cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Test tubeSoluteafter Step 1after Step 2#1ethanol C2H6O (l)#2butanol C4H10O (l)#3oil C20H42 (l)#4copper sulfate CuSO4 (s)#5carbon dioxide CO2 (g)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    (cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Making SenseExplain how you can tell when a substance is soluble or insoluble in water.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    A solute is a gas, liquid, or solid that dissolves when mixed with another substance.A solvent is the substance present in the greatest quantity in a solution. Solvents are usually liquids.Notes(cont.)

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    Soluble substances are solutes that dissolve completely.Insoluble substances are those that do not dissolve at all.Partially soluble substances are those for which only a certain amount will dissolve. Many substances are partially soluble.(cont.)

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Check-InThere is solid sugar at the bottom of your tea. Why do the last sips taste sweeter? All of the sugar in your tea is dissolved. The last sips taste the same as the first. Use a molecular view of sugar dissolved in water to explain why.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    Wrap-UpGases, liquids, and solids can dissolve in water. However, some substances are not soluble.Partially soluble means that when two substances are mixed, a solution forms but one substance is leftover. Solutions are homogeneous. The molecules or ions of the solute are distributed uniformly between the solvent molecules.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

  • Toxins Unit Investigation ILesson 4:Weighing In

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

    2004 Key Curriculum Press.

    ChemCatalyst Which do you think is more toxicone mole of arsenic, As, or ten grams of arsenic? Explain your reasoning.

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    The Big QuestionHow is the mole concept used to connect the mass of a sample to the number of particles it contains?

    Unit IV Investigation I-X

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    You will be able to:Use the molar mass of a substance to find the number of molecules in a sample.

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    ActivityPurpose: The purpose of today's lesson is to explore the relationship between mass and moles. (cont.)

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    (cont.)(cont.)

    RiceLentilsVolume of eachMass of the baggieMass of ten piecesMass of one piece (calculated)# of pieces (calculated)# of pieces (counted)

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    (cont.)

    substance# of particles# of molesmeasured massHe (g)6.02 10231 moleHe (g)1.204 10242 moles8.0 gAl (s)1 mole27.0 gCu (s)6.02 10231 moleAs (s)6.02 10231 moleNaCl (s)6.02 102