Tourism Supply Chains: A Conceptual Framework Final

download Tourism Supply Chains: A Conceptual Framework Final

of 11

  • date post

    28-Apr-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    83
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

tourism supply chain collaboration paper at the conference

Transcript of Tourism Supply Chains: A Conceptual Framework Final

TOURISMSUPPLYCHAINS:ACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK PairachPiboonrungroj1andStephenM.Disney2 LogisticsSystemsDynamicsGroup, CardiffBusinessSchool, AberconwayBuilding, ColumDrive, Cardiff,UK, CF103EU Abstract The literature on tourism supply chain management (TSCM) is reviewed. We explore current TSCM research in academic databases, namely Scopus, ABI/INFORM Global (Proquest), ScienceDirect and EBSCO as well as Google Scholar. Accordingly, a systematic literature evaluation is conducted to obtain an overview of the current state of research on TSCM. We foundthatthereislimitedamountofresearchonTSCM.Furthermore,thefindingshowsthat the existing research frameworks for TSCM do not yet provide a holistic view of TSCM. Moreover, we found that the current issues in TSCM are concerned with applying SCM to tourism management. Thus, we propose a new framework for research on TSCM. Then potentialresearchquestionsarediscussedandsuitableresearchmethodsareidentified. Keywords: tourismmanagement,servicesupplychainmanagement,literaturereview.

1. BackgroundNomatterwhattheeconomicclimate,tourismhasasignificantimpactonglobalandlocal economies(UNWTO2009,Antunes2000).Duringeconomicbooms,thetourism(especially international tourism) sector absorbs wealth from people on trips away from their homes (Kim et al. 2006; Lee and Change 2008). On the other hand, during an economics crisis, domestic tourism is one of the key mechanisms for restoring the economy. This could be becausemanygovernmentsseethattourismcanalsocreatenewjobs(Seckelmann2002; Page 2009). Tourism has been recognised as a complex system (Jafari 1974; McKercher 1999;Smith1994;VronneauandRoy2009).Businessmanagementinthetourismindustry critically needs to consider supply chain perspectives not only to increase their efficiency and profitability (Zhang et al. 2009; Vronneau and Roy 2009) but also to ensure sustainability(Schwartzetal.2008). Furthermore, Tourism Supply Chain Management (TSCM) is currently emerging as a new research agenda (Zhang et al., 2009). One of the reasons for this is that supply chain management (SCM) has already become a critical source of an organisations competitive advantage(Christopher2005).ThereforeSCMisconsideredtobeavitalpartofanykindof business. However, research on TSCM is still rather immature and very limited at the moment (Zhang et al., 2009). Consequently, the objective of this study is to provide a research framework for TSCM research. The potential research topics in TSCM are also identified.

1

2

PhDcandidateandcorrespondingauthor(Email:PiboonrungrojP@cardiff.ac.uk) SeniorLecturerinLogisticsandOperationsManagement,CardiffBusinessSchool

PhDNetworkingConference ExploringTourismIII:IssueinPhDresearch

PiboonrungrojandDisney

2. LiteraturereviewTo obtain the current state and evolution of TSCM research, we conducted a systematic literature search of the academic databases; Scopus, ABI/INFORM Global (Proquest), ScienceDirectandEBSCO3aswellasGoogleScholarusingthekeywordsof,tourismsupply chain, travel supply chain, and hospitality supply chain. Then we found that TSCM researchiscurrentlyverylimited.Therewereonly44studiesfoundinthesedatabases. MostofTSCMliteraturehasbeenpublishedin2008and2009(29papersor66%).Figure1 highlightsthequantityofTSCMresearchovertime.Wefoundthattherearetwostagesof TSCM research. The first stage is the era before 2007 where there are only conceptual framework papers and no empirical studies conducted. Secondly, in another stage since 2007,thenumberofTSCMresearchhasrapidlyincreased.Moreover,inthisstageofTSCM research,moreempiricalstudiesarepublishedthanconceptualframeworkpapers.

Figure1:Trendinresearchontourismsupplychainmanagement Furthermore, we employed a content analysis to identify the main focus of each paper. Methodology and the geographical focus of the research will be classified if the study is empiricalresearch.ThefindingsshowthatahalfofempiricalstudieswerefoundinEurope whereas approximately onethird of empirical studies were in Asia. Surprisingly, there are only 12% of empirical studies were found in the Americas, all in Canada. Within Europe, most empirical studies were conducted in the UK, Spain and Finland (4, 2, and 2 studies respectively). On the other hand empirical studies on TSCM in Asia are only in China and Thailand(4and2studiesrespectively).ItcouldbearguedthatempiricalresearchonTSCM tendstobeconductedonlyonthemostfamoustouristdestinations. Considering the research methodology, a case study approach is a dominant choice (14 studies). There are only three works using quantitatively approaches. Moreover, the resultshowsthatallstudiesconductedinEuropeemployedthecasestudyapproach.This significantroleofcasestudyapproachinTSCMresearchcouldbeduetotheadvantageof thecasestudythatcangaindepthandinsightsfromthecomplexphenomenon.Detailsof thepreviousliteratureonTSCMcanbefoundinAppendixA.3

Thesedatabasesincludeover14,000scholarlyjournalsinbusiness,management,andsocialscience aswellastradepublications.

Page2of11

PhDNetworkingConference ExploringTourismIII:IssueinPhDresearch

PiboonrungrojandDisney

3. Whatarethetourismsupplychains?Thisstudyoffersafourstepapproachtodefinethetourismsupplychains.

(1) Definingtourismindustry The confusion of the terminologies between tourism, travel and hospitality could mislead researchers(Pizam2009).Therefore,itiscriticaltoclarifythedefinitionoftourism.Firstly, services provided by the hospitality and travel industry are partly for tourism purpose. Moreover, there are also nontourist customers in both the hospitality industry and the travel industry. Precisely, we can identify distinct activities in the tourism industry by consideringwhethertheyservetourists(Figure2).

Traveltrade Clubs Institutional foodservice Assisted livingfacility Lodging Restaurants Timeshare Events Attractions Destination marketing Tourism planning& development Trains Ferries Airlines Bus&coach Carrental CommutersLocaltravellers

Migrants Students

HospitalityIndustry

TourismIndustry

TravelIndustry

Figure2:Therelationshipbetweenthetourism,hospitalityandtravelindustries. Source:AdaptedfromPizam(2009).

(2) Specifyingspecialcharacteristicsoftourism Therearetwomaindistinctivecharacteristicsofthetourismindustry.Firstly,onthesupply side,tourismisnotapuremanufacturingorapureserviceindustry(Jafari1974;Page2009; ZhangandMurphy2009).Itisamixtureofproductscombiningservicesandgoods.Tourism isaverycomplexindustry.Tourismsupplychains(TSCs)consistsofvariouspartiesthatare highlyconnected(MarchandWilkinson2009;Zhangetal.2009).ThuscoordinationinTSCs ishighlyintensive.Secondly,onthedemandside,tourismdemandhasbeenrecognisedas acomplication(Sigala2008,LaffertyandvanFossen2001)).Highvolatilityandsensitivity tothedisturbancesoftourismdemandrequiresaninsightfulknowledgetomanageit.

Page3of11

PhDNetworkingConference ExploringTourismIII:IssueinPhDresearch

PiboonrungrojandDisney

(3) Identifyingtourismsupplychaincomponents A generic supply chain usually comprises of raw material providers, suppliers, manufacturers,distributors,wholesalers,andretailers.However,itisnotsuitabletousethis approach to describe the TSCs because it is a complex system that consists of various supplychains.Therefore,itcouldbemoremeaningfultouseacorrelationmatrixapproach (Figure3)thatisderivedfromthetourismsupplychainlinks(TapperandFont2004,p.4). Tourismsupplychaincomponents 1. Transportsto&from destinations 2.Groundtransport 3.Groundoperations 4.Excursions&attractions 5.Cultural,socialandsportevents 6.Furnitureandcrafts 7. Infrastructures,service& resourcesofdestinations 8.Energyandwatersupplies 9.Wasterecycling&disposal 10.Foodsproduction 11.Laundry 12.Caterings,foodsandbeverages 13.Accommodations 14.Touroperating 15.Marketing&sales 16.Customers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Figure3: Correlationsmatrixofcomponentsinthetourismsupplychains Source: ExtendedfromTapperandFont(2004)Note: Supplychainlink(TapperandFont2004,p.4) CriticalcorrelationbetweenTSCcomponents(theauthors) ModeratecorrelationbetweenTSCcomponents(theauthors)

Accordingtothefigure3,wefoundthatTSCsconsistofvariouscomponentslinkingtoeach other.However,wemayclassifycomponentsinTSCsbytheirfunctionsasfollowings. a) Inputproviders(sources) Asthesecondtiersupplier,inputprovidershavearoleofsupplyingresourcesandmaterials forserviceoperationsinthefirsttier(Smith1994;Zhangetal.2009).Wecanclassifyinput providersintodifferenttypesbymaterialstheysupply.However,oneoftheimportantinput providersisthefoodsuppliersorthefoodsupplychain(Fontetal.2008).Webster(2001) discussedthescopeandstructureoffoodsupplychainfromthesourcesofprimaryinputs (resources). They are agriculture sector, wholesalers, retailers, and final customers (Smith 1994). b) Serviceproviders(serviceproducers) Serviceproviders(1sttiersupplier)areconsideredtobethecorefacetsofTSCs(Zhangetal. 2009; Tapper and Font 2004). Firms in the first tier suppliers directly contact with the customerseventhoughtouragenciesortouroperatorsmaymanagethecombinationand linkages between each of the service providers (Vronneau and Roy 2009). Therefore, satisfactionofthetouristsislargelybasedontheperformanceofserviceproviders(Yilmaz andBititci2005). Page4of11

PhDNetworkingConference ExploringTourismIII:IssueinPhDresearch

PiboonrungrojandDisney

c) Intermediaries:touragenciesandtouroperators(productassemblers) TouroperatorsandtouragencieshaveamassiveinfluenceonTSCs(Schwartzetal.2008, Fontetal.2008).Thecriticalroleofthetouroperatorsiscontrollingtheflowoftouristsand partlymanaging