TOPICS (Environment Issues-I)notes.? Mangroves in India – Mangroves under threats...

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Transcript of TOPICS (Environment Issues-I)notes.? Mangroves in India – Mangroves under threats...

  • This booklet consist of the following topics:

    Chapter 1: Biodiversity

    Types of Biodiversity

    Genetic Diversity

    Species Diversity

    Ecosystem Diversity

    Functional Diversity

    Value of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

    Direct and Indirect Use

    Example of Direct & Indirect Use Benefits

    Non-Use Benefits

    Example of Non-Use Benefits

    Biodiversity and Food Production

    Health

    Medicines From Nature

    Recreation and aesthetics

    Issues in Valuing Biodiversity

    Threats to Biodiversity

    Habitat fragmentation, degradation and loss, and shrinking genetic diversity

    Introduction of Exotic Species

    Climate Change and Desertification

    Impact of development projects

    Biodiversity Conservation

    Legislation for conservation of biodiversity in India

    In-situ methods of conservation of biodiversity

    Protected area

    Biosphere reserves

    National parks

    TOPICS(Environment Issues-I)

    www.iasscore.in

  • Wildlife sanctuaries

    Sacred forests and sacred lakes

    Ex-situ methods of conservation of biodiversity

    Botanic Gardens

    Translocations

    Artificial Insemination

    Somatic Cell Cloning

    Seed bank

    Reintroduction

    Species based programmes for conservation of biodiversity

    Project Tiger

    Project Elephant

    Gir Lion Project

    Crocodile Breeding Project

    Project Snow Leopard in India

    Role of Indigenous Knowledge in conserving biodiversity

    Role of Supreme Court in conservation of biodiversity

    Role of public participation in conservation of biodiversity

    Role of research & technology for biodiversity conservation

    Role of international Conventions in Biodiversity Conservation

    Lacunas in Implementation of Policies

    Chapter 2: Extinction of Species

    Characteristics of Threatened/Endangered Species

    Reasons for Extinction

    About IUCN red list

    Consequences of extinction of species

    Conservation strategies

    Chapter 3: Sand Mining And Its Impact

    Sand Mining and Impact on Environment

    Steps taken by GOI

  • Guidelines to control degradation given by Geographical survey of India

    Chapter 4: Disposal of Untreated Sewage

    Impact of disposal of untreated sewage

    Impact on Health

    Impact on freshwater ecosystem

    Impact on coastal waters

    Impact on groundwater resources

    Sewage generation in India

    Process of sewage treatment

    Primary treatment

    Secondary treatment

    Factors that hinder wastewater treatment in India

    Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

    Chapter 5: Land Filling

    Concerns related to land filling process

    Leaching of toxins

    Primary Leaching

    Biodegradation of Complex Organic Molecules

    Chemical Reduction

    Washed out Fines and Colloids

    Atmospheric Effects

    Ground Water Pollution

    Impact on human health

    Chapter 6: Groundwater Depletion

    Why is there Groundwater?

    Groundwater has some important characteristics in India

    Groundwater depletion in India

    Other Potential Threats to Groundwater

    Groundwater Governance Framework in India

  • Steps need to be taken

    Chapter 7: Degradation of Water Resource in Urban Areas

    Brief data on water resources of India

    Threats to urban bodies

    Urban areas and Groundwater depletion

    Urban lakes and wetlands depletion

    River depletion

    Steps need to be taken

    Rainwater harvesting

    Conclusion

    Chapter 8: Marine Pollution

    Consequences of Marine Pollution

    Present status of pollution in coastal waters in India

    Shipping-Related Threats to the Marine Environment

    Aquaculture activities related pollution in India

    Marine Environment Protection and Preservation

    Decrease flow of wastewater in oceans

    Steps for Coastal regulation in India

    Marine Pollution monitoring in India

    Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction Systems (COMAPS) Programme

    Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM)

    Role of National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) in marine pollution monitoring

    Programme for Monitoring Marine Pollution

    International Convention on Marine Pollution

    Steps taken and Achievements related to marine conservation in India

    Conclusion

    Chapter 9: Coral Bleaching

    Types of Reefs

    Coral Reef Products

    Causes of Coral Bleaching

  • Consequences of Coral Bleaching

    Conservation of Coral Reef

    Conclusion

    Chapter 10: E-Waste Management And Handling

    Environment Concerns and Health Hazards

    Management of E-waste in Indian Context

    E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2011

    Conclusion

    Chapter 11: GM Food and Regulatory Mechanism In India

    Benefits of GM Foods

    Issues of Concern

    Social and Ethical Concerns about GM Crops

    Regulatory Mechanism for GM crops in India

    Procedure for approval of GMOs

    Case study of GM crop trial in India

    Flaws in Indian regulatory framework

    Recommendations of Standing Committee on Agriculture

    Chapter 12: Rejuvenation of Ganga

    Brief Introduction

    Benefits of River Ganga

    Facts about Ganga River pollution and its impact

    Steps taken to rejuvenate river

    Issues faced by GAP

    Limitations in Design

    Limitations in Implementation

    Limitations in operations

    Limitations in Monitoring, Evaluation and Regulation

    Nanami Ganga project and its analysis

  • This booklet consist of the following topics:

    Chapter 1: Pollution

    Sources of Pollution

    Types of Pollution

    Atmospheric pollution

    Water Pollution

    Soil Pollution

    Noise Pollution

    Biological Pollution

    Radioactive Pollution

    Heavy Metal Pollution

    Chapter 2: Waste Management

    Solid Waste

    Hazardous Waste

    E-Waste

    Bio Medical Waste

    Plastic Waste

    Methods for Waste Management

    Effects of Poor Waste Disposal

    Chapter 3: Land Degradation

    Causes of Land Degradation

    Impact of Land Degradation

    Steps taken by GOI

    Sustainable Land Management

    TOPICS(Environmental Issues-II)

    www.iasscore.in

  • Chapter 4: Wetlands and Coastal Ecosystem Management

    Wetlands

    Wetlands in India

    Importance of wetlands

    Threats to wetland ecosystems

    Conservation of Wetlands

    Coastal Ecosystem

    Mangroves

    Salient features of Mangroves:

    Importance of Mangroves

    Mangroves in India

    Mangroves under threats

    Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection

    Estuaries

    Importance of estuaries

    Threats to estuaries

    Coral Reefs

    Geographical Conditions Required

    Uses of coral reefs

    Conservation of coral reef

    Steps for Coastal Ecosystem Management

    Chapter 5: Deforestation

    Causes of Deforestation

    Implications of Deforestation for Climate Change

    Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India

    Impact of Deforestation on Indian Monsoon

    Impact of Deforestation on People

    Deforestation Leads to Water and Soil Resources Loss and Flooding

    Economical Impacts

    Strategies for Reducing Deforestation

  • Government Programmes for Conservation of Forests

    Legislations for Conservation of Forests using People Participation

    Steps for Improving People Participation in Forest Resource Management

    Use of Local Traditional Methods

    Recent Steps Taken by the Government

    Conclusion

    Chapter 6: Mining and Its Impact on Environment

    Mining and Environment

    Sensitivity of Select Ecosystems to Mining

    Impact of Mining

    Indirect Impact of Mining

    International Laws on Mining

    Main Act or Statue to regulate the impact of Indian Mining Sector

    Sustainable mining

    Chapter 7: Impact of Agriculture on Environment

    Introduction

    Agriculture increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Monoculture practice impacts biodiversity

    Pollution due to use of chemical fertilizers

    Soil-related effects

    Fertilizer's Effect on the Environment

    Impact of livestock on environment

    Impact of use of Pesticides on environment

    Impact of GM crop on environment

    Emission of Methane from agricultural practices

    Case Study

    Sustainable Agriculture

    Sustainable Agriculture Techniques

    Chapter 8: Climate Change

    Causes for Climatic Change

  • Impact of Climate Change

    Steps Taken by India to Mitigate the Climate Change

    International Collaboration for Mitigating Climate Change

    Climate Change Finance

    Climate Change Debate Between Developed and Developing Nations

    Conclusion

    Chapter 9: Environment Impact Assessment

    Brief History of EIA in India

    EIA Process in India

    Environmental Appraisal Process

    Drawbacks in EIA process in India

    Recommendations for improvement

    Chapter 10: Ecologically Sensitive Area

    Why has concept of ESA Generated?

    Criteria for demarcating ESAs

    Threats faced by ESAs

    MOEF Guidelines for Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) around Protected Areas

    Some examples of proposed ESAs in India:

    Chapter 11: Environmental Governance in India & Issues Related To It

    Constitutional Provisions Related to Environment

    Environmental Legislatio