Top10 Energy Efficiency Measures to Lower Energy Costs at Commercial, Industrial and Non-Profit...

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    06-May-2015
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Here are what I, working through my company EnergyMan LLC, deem as the 10 best energy efficiency measures to lower utility costs for commercial, industrial and non-profit facilities. Actual pictures from energy audits are used to show actual examples of the measures.

Transcript of Top10 Energy Efficiency Measures to Lower Energy Costs at Commercial, Industrial and Non-Profit...

  • 1.Top10WaystoLowerEnergyCostsfor Commercial,Industrial,Government, SchoolsandotherNon-ProtFaciliFes

2. Theseac(onitemsarenotinorderbecause everyfacilityisuniqueandnotallac(on itemsapplytoeveryorganiza(on. Suppor(ngpicturesandillustra(onsarefrom actualenergyauditsandresearchperformed byEnergyManLLC 3. 1. Reducetheopera/ngschedule Lunchbreaks Mo/onsensoroccupancycontrols Seasonalopera/ons(schools,resorts,factories,etc.) Useaseasonalshutdownchecklist Examples:waterheaters,kitchenpilotlights,combinewalk- incoolers/freezers,boilers Usesmartschedulingforcleaning,maintenanceetc. MinimizeimpactonHVAC Spaceop/miza/on Ex.Oldercloseddoorocestructureshouldbeinves/gatedtosee ifaneweropenoorplancouldwork.Thiscouldreducethe squarefootageperemployeemorethan50% 4. Whydoesequipmentnotgetturnedo?Lackofcontrolofbuildingduringohours,especiallyinbuildingswithmul/pleusers Systemwassetupthatwayfromthebeginning Ithasalwaysbeenthatwaysonooneno/ces. Wetriedthatoncebut. Youcantturnthato.Itmaynotturnbackon(mypersonalfavorite).This is not limited to smaller facilities. Here are some sizable loads at a large facility.Chiller and associated equipmentChillerPrimaryand Secondarypumps CoolingTower Pumps CoolingTowers 5. AnnualElectricCostsforElectricMotorsCost per Year Motor Size 8 cents / kWh 11 cents / kWh 1 kW $611 $964 10 kW $7,008 $9,636 25 kW $17,520 $24,090 50 kW $35,040 $48,180 1 Hp $680 $934 10 Hp $6,796 $9,344 25 Hp $16,989 $23,360 50 Hp $33,978 $46,720 Ini/almotorcostisonlyabout5%ofthetotal lifecyclecost,soalwaysbuyanecientmotor! 6. InbuildingswithoutanEnergyManagementSystem(EMS),ataminimum installaprogrammablethermostat:thesemanualthermostatsoperate 24/7.WirelesstechnologynowmakesanEMSviableforsmallerfacili/es. 7. SeasonalShutdownPossibili/esTheseexamplesareinapublicschoolkitcheninthesummer Kitchenicemakersshouldbe shutdownduringthesummer months.Whenitreachestheend oflife,aunitwithaseparate condensershouldbeconsidered. Thiswouldallowtheheattobe ejectedoutside,insteadofinto thekitchen,whereithastobe removedbytheHVACsystem Assume1,250BTUsforcommercialpilot. Thisisatwo-foldsavings:naturalgasor propanetofuelthepilotandthe electricitysavedbynothavingtoremove theheatwiththeHVACsystem.A4 burnerstove(theyareusuallylarger) wouldrequire10tonsofcoolingto removetheheatfromthepilots! 8. SpecialNoteforscheduling:Minimizeheatpumpauxiliaryheat (stripheat)opera/onbyu/lizingtherightschedulingstrategy (rampingrecovery) Controlsorthermostatsmustuseproperramp.IfnotdesignedforheatpumpoperaAons,an improperthermostatcancauseenergyusetobehigherthaniftheheatpumpwasnever turnedo. Muchlessenergyisusedtoruninheatpumpmode,evenifthe unitmustbestartedupmuchearliertomeetsetpointin/me, thanu/lizingtheelectricstripheat. Electricstripheatcanuse3ormore/mestheenergythattheheatpump doesforthesameBtuoutput Canhavesignicantimpactondemandchargesifallunitsarestar/ngup closetothesame/meinthemorning. Justa2FdeltaTbetweensetpointandactualcancausesomeunitstoturn ontheauxiliaryheat 9. Thegoalissimple; Minimizeopera/on oftheauxiliary heatersasmuchas possiblebyusing OAlockoutand recoveryramp control 10. 2.U/lizeVariableFrequencyDriveswhereverPossibleIfowismechanicallyrestricted onacentrifugalpumporblower (valves,dampers,etc.),usually thatisagoodindica/onthata VFDinstalla/oncouldbevery costeec/ve. 11. HVACsystemsaregenerallybuiltforthe10hoIestand10coolestdaysoftheyear. ThereisgenerallyovercapacityforallothercondiAons.VFDsoertheabilityto matchthesystemtotheload,oeringtremendousenergysavingsandextending equipmentlife.A 50% reduction in flow actually reduces horsepower requirements by 87.5% 12. 3.UseASHRAEtemperatureband(standard55) 68F-74Finwinter 73F78Finsummer Humidity 1000 ppm. 16. 5.Op/mizeligh/ng Reducehallwayligh/ng Typicallyhavethesamexturesasoces/classroomsbuthallwaysneedonlya frac/onoftheligh/ngthataoce/classroomdoes EliminateT12andincandescentligh/ng(includingexitsigns) Replacewithhigheciencyuorescent,CFLorLED Reducescheduleonopera/onofhallwayandcafeterialights(schools) UpgradeHIDligh/ngwithhigheciencyuorescentorLED(aspricesimprove) Addedvalueofreducedopera/ng/mebecausethelightsdonothavetobelenonall daybecauseoftheslowstart-up/me Usemo/onsensorsand/orscheduleswheretheymakethemostsense VacancySensorsarepreferredsincetheyrequiremanualturnonandlimit excessiveon/ocyclesNote:UAlityrebatescanbeverylucraAveforlighAng,especiallywithLED. 17. Hallwaysareonenover-illuminated(thesewereover50fc).Rarelyshoulda4bulb xturebeusedinahallway.TheIllumina/ngEngineeringSocietyofNorthAmerica (IESNA)maintainsthat10-20fcisadequateforhallwaysandaisles. 18. Theselightsshouldbereduced to2bulbsinthestorageareas. Roompurposeprobably changedlongago.TheseHIDhighbay lightsshouldbe replacedwith uorescentorLEDT12 Ligh/ng shouldbe replaced withhigh eciency T8orLED. Reduce bulbcount where possible These1000waqHPS xturescouldbe replacedwithT5 uorescentorLED 19. Theselights,whicharemostlyincandescent,werelenon whentheclassroomswereempty. 20. CafeteriaLightsshouldonlybeonwhenoccupied.Thesolu/onistonotturn thelightsonun/ljustbeforethemealandturnthemojustanerthemeal (anercleanup).Avacancysensorcouldworkhere.Theselightsshouldnotbe onallday.TheseareT12lightsandshouldbeupgradedtoT8. 21. Existing..Fixtures Quantity T1234 T1232 T834 400.watt. MHWattageTotal.kWhOperating.Cost190 5 42192 96 11385,363 1,123 11,070$10,244 $135 $1,2181646413,363$1,791110,920Total$13,387Proposed.new.fixtures Quantity T832 T832 T832 T836T832 T836Wattage190 5 42 1656 56 56 221kWh 66,358 7,004Dollars $7,631 $939SavingsTotal 73,362 $8,070 Combined.Payback.(in.years)Total.kWhRebate.per.fixture Net.Cost.Each25,040 655 5,504 6,359$33.92 $10.00 $14.16 $60.80Initial. InvestmentPayback.(years) 0.25 2.80$1,916 $2,627$4,5440.56Thisspreadsheetisaveryhandytoolinobtainingbuy- inforligh/ngprojects.Besuretoresearchany availablerebates:theycanbeverylucra/ve.$4.08 $28.00 $23.84 $164.20 22. 6.Domes/chotwater Considerbestfuelsource;NaturalGas(NG)isalmostalwaysthe mostcosteec/ve,followedbyPropane.Heatpumpwater heatersshouldalsobeinves/gated,astheirpriceiscon/nuingto fall. Scheduleopera/onofwaterheatersandcircula/onpumps. Runninghotwater(HW)circula/onpumps24/7signicantlyincreases lossesfromradiatoreect ConsiderNG(orPropane)tanklesswhereitmakessense Opera/ngatradi/onaltanksystem168hoursaweek(24/7)forarestroom thatonlyoperates40. Cannowbeusedforhighertemperatureapplica/ons 140Fforsani/zingsinksandfeedwaterfordishwasher 180Fforthenalrinseofthedishwasher 23. ElectricalResistanceWaterHeatersshouldbescheduledduringnormal opera/ons(nights,weekends,etc.)andshutdownduringoseasons. 24. Domes/chotwaterrecircula/onpumpsshouldbescheduledorcontrolledalso. Runningunnecessarilyincreasesthelossesfromradiatoreect(thepipingactsas alargeradiator,con/nuallyremovingheatfromthesystem.Theenergylossfrom thiscanbefarlargerthanthepowerconsumedbythepump. 25. Inaddi/ontousingtanklesswaterheaters(NGor Propane)fortypicaldomes/chotwaterloads,now theyareabletomeetthe140Fand180Frequirements ofsani/zingsinksanddishwashers(thisiseasilyone ofthelargestloadsacommercialkitchen). 26. 7.BuildingEnvelope Climatezonehasmuchtodowiththeapproachtobuildingenvelope.Paybacks forinsula/onwillbemuchhigherincolderareas,sincethedeltaTbetweenthe buildingandOAcanexceed70F.Inwarmerclimates,thedeltaTcanbemuch lessbuthumiditycanbealargerissue.Airinltra/onoersamuchquicker paybackthaninsula/on,especiallyinthesouth. Belowisanexampleofalargeexhaustductthatwasalwaysopentotheoutside.Backdran dampersareimportantforallexhaustfansthatarenoton24/7. OpenExhaustDuctBackdranDamperInstalla/ons 27. Air infiltration repair (Overhead doors)Before Before(sunlightleakingin) Aner Curtainfor frequentlyuseddoor Brushseal BrushSeal 28. Building Envelope and Leaky ductwork examplesFaultyDuctInsulation Open Roof AccessNo floor insulation in crawl spaceMissingInsulationOA damper stuck open Ductwork insulation in bad shape 29. Negative Pressure from Bathroom Exhaust Fans BathroomExhaustfanswereon24/7.WhenHVACequipmentwasshutdown,thesefans exhausted2000cfmandpulledairinfromoutsidecausinghumiditytoriseatnight. Fanswitcheswerehidden andalwayslenon Sensorswereinstalledtoautomatethebathroomexhaustfansso theywouldrunfor15minuteswhenthebathroombecame unoccupiedandthenshuto. 30. 8.Op/mizetheControlSystem AcontrolsystemshouldbeusedformuchmorethanadigitalAmeclock! ThesestrategiesarefareasiertoimplementwithanEnergyManagementSystem (EMS)whichalsoaddsthebenetofremotemonitoring/control. Rarelyshouldanysetpointorparameterbeheldconstant,sincesetpointsare generallyveryconservaAvetoaccommodateworstcasescenarios.Ex.180F boilerwatermaynotbeneededunlessitisextremelycoldoutside.Examples HotWater(HW),ChilledWater(CHW)andCondenserWater(CW) temperaturereset SupplyAir(SA)(some/mescalledDischargeAir(DA)temperaturereset DuctSta/cPressurereset CHW,HWandCWpumpandBlowerFanvariableowAddi/onalcontrolstrategiesthatcanboosteciencyandsavemoney Op/mumStart/Stop Economizing 31. Thegoalhereisonlytoexpendonlythatamount ofenergythatisnecessarytomeetthebuilding load.Thesestrategieshelpeliminateorminimize energyhogsofthepastsuchas: Reheat(simultaneoushea/ngandcooling) 3wayvalves mixingvalves Constantvolumewaterand/orairow Hardschedules(startthebuildingupatthesame/menomaqer whatthecondi/onsare) Opera/nghea/ngequipmentwithhighOAtemperatures Opera/ngcoolingequipmentwithlowOAtemperature 32. U/lizeop/mumStart/Stop Op/mumstart/stophelpsminimizethewastefromstar/ng thesystemtooearlyorlatebylearningthebuilding characteris/csandperformingcalcula/onsthatlookatroom temperature(andcanalsolookatOA) Allowsformoreaggressivenon-occupiedsetpoints Typicallybuildingsstartupmuchearlierthannecessarytoavoid complaints.Thestartup/mesaresetforaworstcase scenariotocoverforthemostextremeweatheroftheyear. Op/mumStopusesthethermaliner/aofthesystemtoallow thesystemtoshutdownbeforetheoccupiedrun/meisover Leavingthefanonhelpsmakeop/mumstopasuccessbecause someassumethesystemisbrokenifthenormalfannoise subsides 33. Op/mumStart/StopAreasintheyellowcircledar