To the Student Comprehension Skills ... Wooden coasters are not as fast as steel roller coasters....

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Transcript of To the Student Comprehension Skills ... Wooden coasters are not as fast as steel roller coasters....

  • Contents

    UN

    UNIT

    To the Student ............................................................................................5

    Comprehension Skills

    Recognizing the Main Idea ............................................................7

    Recalling Details ...........................................................................8

    Determining the Sequence of Events ................................................9

    Identifying Cause-and-Effect Relationships ......................................10

    Comparing and Contrasting .........................................................11

    Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions .................................12

    Telling Fact from Opinion ............................................................13

    Predicting...................................................................................14

    Lesson 1: The Art of Animating ..................................................16 Focus on a Skill: Determining the Sequence of Events

    Lesson 2: Voice Actors at Work ................................................23 Focus on a Skill: Recognizing the Main Idea

    Lesson 3: The Magic of Movie Sound Effects ..............................30 Focus on a Skill: Identifying Cause-and-Effect Relationships

    Lesson 4: The Man Behind the Mouse ........................................37 Focus on a Skill: Recalling Details

    Lesson 5: The Basics of Bar Codes..............................................45 Focus on a Skill: Determining the Sequence of Events

    Lesson 6: A Major Math Mistake ................................................52 Focus on a Skill: Identifying Cause-and-Effect Relationships

    Lesson 7: Keeping Foods Delicious and Safe ..............................59 Focus on a Skill: Recalling Details

    Lesson 8: The Ride of Your Life ..................................................66 Focus on a Skill: Recognizing the Main Idea

    The World of Animation

    Real-Life Math

    FM 8(H) 6/18/07 8:33 AM Page 3

  • UN

    Lesson 9: The Science of Weather Forecasting ............................74 Focus on a Skill: Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions

    Lesson 10: The Ultimate Movie Experience ....................................81 Focus on a Skill: Comparing and Contrasting

    Lesson 11: Testing the Waters......................................................88 Focus on a Skill: Predicting

    Lesson 12: Entertainment at Your Fingertips ..................................95 Focus on a Skill: Telling Fact from Opinion

    Changing Technology

    Lesson 13: The Father of Television ............................................103 Focus on a Skill: Predicting

    Lesson 14: Making Ice Cream More Meaningful ..........................110 Focus on a Skill: Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions

    Lesson 15: Wiggling His Way to the Top ....................................117 Focus on a Skill: Telling Fact from Opinion

    Lesson 16: The Queen of Quick Food ........................................124 Focus on a Skill: Comparing and Contrasting

    Innovators Past and Present

    Glossary ............................................................................131

    My Glossary ......................................................................135

    FM 8(H) 6/18/07 8:33 AM Page 4

  • 8 The Ride of Your Life Lesson

    66 Journey into Reading © The Continental Press, Inc. Do not duplicate.

    The fastest steel roller coaster, the Kingda Ka, reaches a speed of 128 miles per hour. It is 456 feet high and has a drop of 418 feet. How do designers create roller coasters that deliver maximum thrills with a minimal risk? It’s simple. They do the math.

    Recognizing the Main Idea

    Authors of nonfiction texts frequently organize their texts by main ideas and details. They state a general idea and then support it with more specific information. Main ideas are often stated at the beginning or end of a paragraph. When they are unstated, you will need to think about what the details have in common to determine the main idea.

    Read the paragraph below. The graphic shows the unstated main idea and the details that support it.

    Wooden roller coasters are not as fast as steel roller coasters. They are generally nonlooping, and they are neither as tall nor as long as steel roller coasters. They do offer one thrill that steel roller coasters do not—a swaying frame.

    To find the main idea of the whole article, you should identify the individual main ideas and think about what these ideas have in common.

    Wooden coasters are not as fast as steel roller coasters.

    Wooden roller coasters are nonlooping.

    Wooden coasters aren’t as tall or as long.

    There are many differences between wooden roller coasters

    and steel roller coasters.

    Wooden roller coasters have swaying frames.

    U2 8(H) 6/18/07 8:56 AM Page 66

  • VOCABULARY

    © The Continental Press, Inc. Do not duplicate. Journey into Reading 67

    You are about to read an article about roller coasters and the people who design them. Below is a word web about roller coasters. Look at the words in the web and notice how they relate to one another .

    Read each of these definitions. Write the best word for the definition in the blank space. Use the underlined words from the web above.

    ______________________ n. the amount of money that can be spent

    ______________________ n. problem solving involving numbers or quantities

    ______________________ n. a group of related businesses

    ______________________ n. detailed requirements

    ______________________ adj. dependable in achievement

    ______________________ n. the maximum amount that can be contained

    ______________________ v. modeled

    must meet strict safety specifications

    capacity determines how many

    people can enjoy the ride at one time

    roller coasters are simulated on a computer

    to make sure they are reliable

    the amusement industry

    always seeks new ways to thrill its customers

    budget determines how elaborate coasters can be

    careful calculations determine

    how fast and steep roller coasters can be

    U2 8(H) 6/18/07 8:56 AM Page 67

  • 68 Journey into Reading © The Continental Press, Inc. Do not duplicate.

    TIME TO READ

    The Arithmetic of Roller Coasters With their hairpin turns, breakneck speeds, and thrilling

    peaks and drops, roller coasters seem to put their riders in real danger. However, riding a roller coaster is safer than crossing the street. Roller coaster designers use precise calculations and the laws of physics to create rides that are both heart-stopping and safe.

    From Rider to Designer As a child, Kent Seko loved riding roller coasters.

    However, he never dreamed he would one day be responsible for designing some of the highest, fastest, and most intricate roller coasters in the world. Seko originally planned to be an architect, but a friend convinced him to apply for a job with one of the amusement industry’ s leading roller coaster design firms. Seko accepted a

    position in the drafting department. From there, he worked his way up to the position of designer.

    Thrilling Arithmetic The safety and design of a roller coaster depend heavily

    on mathematics. Seko explains, “My job requires me to use math every day. Designing the highest roller coasters, best loops, and fastest drops requires lots of precise calculations.”

    One of the first determinations a roller coaster designer has to make is the speed and height of the coaster . To decide how fast the ride will go, the designer must calculate the height of the roller coaster. The amount of energy a coaster has to complete its journey around the track depends on the height of the hill at the beginning. The higher the hill and the steeper the slope, the more energy the roller coaster has.

    Designers also must consider the capacity of the roller coaster. The park owners see this as how many people can ride the coaster at one time. A designer sees this as a question of how many cars to build and how much weight to account for.

    intricate

    adj. having many ent angled

    or interrelated parts

    Kent Seko helped design the Pepsi Max Big One

    roller coaster in England.

    U2 8(H) 6/18/07 8:56 AM Page 68

  • TIME TO READ

    Gravity is the third major design element that roller coaster designers must consider. The thrill riders experience on a steep drop is the result of a force called a G-force. At a speed of 50 miles per hour, riders will experience a G-force of four. This means the force is four times the force of gravity .

    From Design to Reality The goal of any coaster designer is to combine these

    elements into the most exciting ride possible. However, the ride must also be safe and meet client specifications, such as budget. Designers then have to consider the surrounding landscape of the ride, whether or not there will be a theme, and how long or short the ride will be.

    Once the design is approved, the engineering department takes over. The engineering designers build the track, the structure, the stations, and the controls. Then the designs get sent to the manufacturing department, which builds the machines.

    Roller coasters are simulated and tested on a computer before they are built. This makes the designs safer and more reliable. Then the built coasters are tested repeatedly bef