Tingkat Organisasi Tubuh Sistem Organ

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PendahuluanDepartemen Fisiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sumatera Utara

Specific Learning Objectives1. Mengidentifikasi level organisasi dalam organisme. 2. Mengidentifikasi sistem organ dalam tubuh manusia dan komponen utama tiap sistem.

Levels of Organization: CHEMICAL LEVEL - includes all chemicalsubstances necessary for life; together form the next higher level

CELLULAR LEVEL - cells are the basic structuraland functional units of the human body & there are many different types of cells (e.g., muscle, nerve, blood, and so on)

TISSUE LEVEL - a tissue is a group of cells thatperform a specific function and the basic types of tissues in the human body include epithelial, muscle, nervous, and connective tissues

ORGAN LEVEL - an organ consists of 2 or moretissues that perform a particular function (e.g., heart, liver, stomach, and so on)

SYSTEM LEVEL - an association of organs that have acommon function; the major systems in the human body include digestive, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive.

Fertilised ovum Cell Division Differentiation Tissues OrgansHeart, Lungs, Kidneys, Liver, Brain, Pancreas etc...

Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, Nervous

60,000,000,000,000 cells

200 cell types

Levels of Organization:1

Levels of Organization:2

Organs are classified into systems based on their function.Organ systems are composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function.

There are 10

major organ systemsin the human body, they are the:

Skeletal System:

Nervous System:

Urinary System:

Muscular System:

Circulatory System:

Endocrine System:

Respiratory System:

Digestive System:

Reproductive System: Lymphatic/Immune System:

Skeletal System:Major Role:The main role of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body, to protect delicate internal organs and to provide attachment sites for the organs

Major Organs:Bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments

Muscular System:Major Role: The main role of the muscular system is to provide movement. Muscles work in pairs to move limbs and provide the organism with mobility. Muscles also control the movement of materials through some organs, such as the stomach and intestine, and the heart and circulatory system.Major Organs: Skeletal muscles and smooth muscles throughout the body.

Cardiovascular System:Establishing the factors responsible for the heart beat How the heart pumps the blood around the circulation How it is distributed to perfuse the tissues according to their needs

Respiratory System: How is the air moved in & out of the lungsHow is the volume of air breathed adjusted to meet the requirements of the body What limits the rate of O2 uptake in the lungs

Digestive System: How is food ingested (broken down & ingested) How are the individual nutrients absorbed How is the food moved through the gut How are the indigestible remains eliminated from the body.

Kidney & Urinary System: How do the kidney regulate the ... Of the blood How do they eliminate toxic waste How do they respond to stresses such as dehydration What mechanisms allow the storage & elimination of the urine

Reproductive System: How are the sperm & egg produced What is the mechanism of fertilizationFemale:

How does the embryo grow & developeHow is it delivered & nourished until it can tend for it self

Lymphatic/Immune System:

Major Role: The main role of the immune system is to destroy and remove invading microbes and viruses from the body. The lymphatic system also removes fat and excess fluids from the blood. Major Organs: Lymph, lymph nodes and vessels, white blood cells, T- and B- cells.

Nervous System:Major Role: The main role of the nervous system is to relay electrical signals through the body. The nervous system directs behaviour and movement and, along with the endocrine system, controls physiological processes such as digestion, circulation, etc.

Major Organs:Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves

Endocrine System:Major Role: The main role of the endocrine system is to relay chemical messages through the body. In conjunction with the nervous system, these chemical messages help control physiological processes such as nutrient absorption, growth, etc. Major Organs: Many glands exist in the body that secrete endocrine hormones. Among these are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas and adrenal glands.

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