Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES · 312A Chapter 10 Resources Timesaving Tools •...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    03-Dec-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    275
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES · 312A Chapter 10 Resources Timesaving Tools •...

  • 312A

    Chapter 10 ResourcesTimesaving Tools

    Interactive Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition andyour classroom resources with a few easy clicks.

    Interactive Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize yourweek, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to maketeaching creative, timely, and relevant.

    Use GlencoesPresentation Plus!multimedia teacher tool to easily present

    dynamic lessons that visually excite your stu-dents. Using Microsoft PowerPoint you can customize the presentations to create your ownpersonalized lessons.

    The following videotape program is available from Glencoe as a supplement to Chapter 10:

    Scourge of the Black Death(ISBN 0767005341)

    To order, call Glencoe at 18003347344. To findclassroom resources to accompany this video,check the following home pages:A&E Television: www.aande.comThe History Channel: www.historychannel.com

    R

    R

    TEACHING TRANSPARENCIESTEACHING TRANSPARENCIESChapter Transparency 10 L2

    Graphic Organizer StudentActivity 10 Transparency L2

    CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 10

    Europe in the Middle Ages (10001500)

    Map OverlayTransparency 10 L2

    Spread of the Black Death

    Seville

    Avignon Genoa Florence

    Siena

    RomeNaples

    VeniceBordeaux

    CarpathianMts.

    Danube

    R.

    Po R.

    Ebro R.

    NorthSea

    Black Sea

    Mediterranean Sea

    Atlant icOcean

    Baltic

    Sea

    Hamburg

    London

    ParisAngers

    Calais

    Dublin

    Bristol

    Leicester

    YorkLancaster

    Durham

    Norwich

    Valencia

    Barcelona

    MontpellierPyrenees Mts.

    Marseilles

    MajorcaMinorca

    CorsicaPisa

    Alps

    Mts.

    Nuremberg

    CologneErfurt

    Liege

    Zrich

    Strasbourg

    Wrzburg

    Dubrovnik

    Messina

    Sardinia

    Sicily

    Constantinople

    Taurus Mts.

    CyprusCrete

    0 250 500 Miles

    0 250 500 750 Kilometers

    Map Overlay Transparency 10

    Enrichment Activity 10 L3

    Copyright

    by The M

    cGraw

    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Name Date Class

    Section 1 describes the lives of the feudallords and vassals and the living and work-ing conditions of the peasants. One of theimportant roles at this time was the man-

    Enrichment Activity 10

    agement of the household, a task often per-formed by a noblewoman. The descriptionbelow gives an account of what that taskcould involve.

    The Noble Household

    DIRECTIONS: Complete the activities below.

    1. Imagine that you are the noblewoman of a castle with a household of 50 people. Use theinformation above and from the textbook to imagine the tasks you have to complete inone day. Fill in the tasks on the following roster.

    4:30 A.M. Daybreak and church5:00 A.M. _______________________________________________________________________7:00 A.M. _______________________________________________________________________9:00 A.M. _______________________________________________________________________11:00 A.M. ______________________________________________________________________1:00 P.M. ________________________________________________________________________3:00 P.M. ________________________________________________________________________4:30 P.M. Sundown and church5:00 P.M. ________________________________________________________________________7:00 P.M. Bed

    2. Imagine that you must provide dinner for your guests and your immediate householdabout 15 people. Make a list of items you may need to collect. Think of all the places youmay need to travel on your own estate and elsewhere to acquire these things. Make anote about where to get each item. The list is begun for you. Use an extra sheet of paperto continue your list.

    Items for DinnerItem Location

    4 loaves of bread mill

    small jug of cooking oil market in town

    A feudal household could be quite large. Important nobles could have a household of as many as200 people. This meant a lot of management. Some of the work had to be delegated to variouspeople, such as those in charge of the preparation and serving of food and wine or the manufactureand maintenance of clothing and linens. These people, in turn, made sure that the work was done. Inaddition, enormous quantities of food had to be gathered and purchased. Guests had to be enter-tained by musicians and performers. Horses and livestock had to be overseen, and farm work carriedout and supervised. Children needed to be cared for and educated. Rooms had to be cleaned andwarmed. Often, a chapel operated as a church and was attended at least once a day. Letters to lordsand vassals had to be written. Rents had to be collected.

    Primary Source Reading 10 L2

    Name Date Class

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    An Italian Writer Describes the Black Death

    Giovanni Boccaccio was a thirteenth century Italian writer who wroteDecameron, the story of a group of men and women who survive theBlack Death by fleeing their city. Read this excerpt from the introduc-tion of his book to learn more about what it was like during the time of thisterrible epidemic.

    Guided Reading In this selection, read to understand some of the effects of an epidemic plague on people in theMiddle Ages.

    The symptoms were not the same as in theEast, where a gush of blood from the nose wasthe plain sign of inevitable death; but it beganboth in men and women with certain swellingsin the groin or under the armpit. They grew tothe size of a small apple or an egg, more or less,and were vulgarly called tumours. In a shortspace of time these tumours spread from the twoparts named all over the body. Soon after thisthe symptoms changed and black or purplespots appeared on the arms or thighs or anyother part of the body, sometimes a few largeones, sometimes many little ones. These spotswere a certain sign of death, just as the originaltumour had been and still remained.

    No doctors advice, no medicine could over-come or alleviate this disease, An enormousnumber of ignorant men and women set up asdoctors in addition to those who were trained.Either the disease was such that no treatmentwas possible or the doctors were so ignorant thatthey did not know what caused it, and conse-quently could not administer the proper remedy.In any case very few recovered; most peopledied within about three days of the appearanceof the tumours described above, most of themwithout any fever or other symptoms.

    The violence of this disease was such thatthe sick communicated it to the healthy whocame near them, just as a fire catches anythingdry or oily near it. And it even went further. Tospeak to or go near the sick brought infectionand a common death to the living; and to touchthe clothes or anything else the sick had touchedor worn gave the disease to the person touching.

    ...Such fear and fanciful notions took posses-sion of the living that almost all of them adoptedthe same cruel policy, which was entirely to

    avoid the sick and everything belonging tothem. By so doing, each one thought he wouldsecure his own safety.

    Some thought that moderate living and theavoidance of all superfluity [non-essentials]would preserve them from the epidemic. Theyformed small communities, living entirely sepa-rate from everybody else. They shut themselvesup in houses where there were no sick, eatingthe finest food and drinking the best wine verytemperately, avoiding all excess, allowing nonews or discussion of death and sickness, andpassing the time in music and suchlike plea-sures. Others thought just the opposite. Theythought the sure cure for the plague was todrink and be merry, to go about singing andamusing themselves, satisfying every appetitethey could, laughing and jesting at what hap-pened. They put their words into practice, spentday and night going from tavern to tavern,drinking immoderately, or went into other peo-ples houses, doing only those things whichpleased them. This they could easily do becauseeveryone felt doomed and had abandoned hisproperty, so that most houses became commonproperty and any stranger who went in madeuse of them as if he had owned them. And withall this bestial [animal] behaviour, they avoidedthe sick as much as possible.

    In this suffering and misery of our city, theauthority of human and divine laws almost dis-appeared, for, like other men, the ministers andthe executors of the laws were all dead or sick orshut up with their families, so that no dutieswere carried out. Every man was therefore ableto do as he pleased.

    Many others adopted a course of life mid-way between the two just described. They did

    P R I M A R Y S O U R C E R E A D I N G 10

    APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENTAPPLICATION AND ENRICHMENTHistory SimulationActivity 10 L1

    Name Date Class

    Copyright

    by The M

    cGraw

    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    HANDOUT MATERIAL

    Meet the MedievalsWorksheet

    1. Which people seem to have the most power?

    Which seem to have the least power?

    2. Assumptions we can make about the quality of these peoples lives:

    3. The political situation here is subject to change. How is this related to the interdependency of vari-ous groups of people?

    4. At this point, the character we would like to be is because .

    Lord Godwin of AmsburyI am Lord Godwin, in the service of King Jeffrey,now the ruler of this region of England. I am theowner of a large estate, granted me by the king inturn for my loyalty and my legions of knights. I amsworn to protect my kinga duty I hold as dear asmy own life. But I am ambitious and have sent myknights to battle John of Lamprey, lord to KingRichard, a possible usurper of the Crown.

    Lady ElizabethI am wife to Lord Godwin and the mother of hisseven children (two of which have died of theplague). I am mistress of the estate, which is nosmall task, for there are 100 servants, cooks, arti-sans, and peasants who need my attention. I alsokeep an herb garden for the medicines my house-hold might need.

    Sir StephenI am the son of Lord Godwin and will soonbecome a knight. I have spent several years as apage and squire to a neighboring lord, whommy father trusts. If I can prove myself at tour-ney, I will earn the right to bear arms for KingJeffrey. Someday he may grant me a fief for mybravery.

    Mary, prioress of Saint AgathaI am the daughter of Lord and Lady Godwin. Iwould not marry the man my father ordered me tomarry, so I have taken refuge in the Convent ofSaint Agatha. I will serve God and the good peas-ants of the nearby village with my skills in medicinethat I learned from my mother.

    Jack BuilderI am called Jack Builder because I am a mason, askilled artisan. I have served many an importantlord and clergyman. I was an apprentice to themaster builder of King Jeffreys castle, and I wasmaster builder of the cathedral that serves HolyCross in the Woods. The cathedral is the mostimportant building in town.

    AgnesI am a serf who lives on the estate of Lord Godwin.I work on the estate with my husband and ourthree children. I pull a plow and sow seeds. In deepwinter, I am invited to the great house to help withthe needlework and mending. Godwin will alwaysbe my lord, unless Richard seizes the throne fromKing Jeffrey. Then this estate will be granted toJohn of Lamprey, and he will be our new lord.

    10H I S T O R YS I M U L A T I O NAC T I V I T Y

    Historical SignificanceActivity 10 L2

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Name Date Class

    In the twelfth to fourteenth centuries,towns began to expand and so did the middle class. The middle class gained itsincome from buying and selling goods.

    Today, in many countries the middle classmakes up most of the population. Read thistwelfth-century description of medievalLondoners and an early take-out restaurant.

    Historical Significance Activity 10

    The Beginnings of the Middle Class

    !

    DIRECTIONS: Fill in the chart to compare and contrast the description of medieval take-outto take-out today.

    Restaurant Take-out: Then and NowMiddle Ages Today

    Location

    Foods

    Customers

    Reasons forPurchasing

    Those engaged in the several kinds of business, sellers of several things, contrac-tors for several kinds of work, are distributed every morning into their severallocalities and shops. Besides, there is in London on the river bank, among the winesin ships and cellars sold by the vintners, a public cook shop; there eatables are to befound every day, according to the season, dishes of meat, roast, fried and boiled,great and small fish, coarser meats for the poor, more delicate for the rich, of game,fowls, and small birds. If there should come suddenly to any of the citizens friends,weary from a journey and too hungry to like waiting till fresh food is bought andcooked . . . there is all that can be wanted. However great the multitude of soldiersor travellers entering the city, or preparing to go out of it, at any hour of the day ornight,that these may not fast too long and those may not go supperless,they turnhither, if they please, where every man can refresh himself in his own way. . . .

    From The Medieval Reader edited by Norman F. Cantor

    Cooperative LearningActivity 10 L1/ELL

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Name Date Class

    A Day in the Life: Europe in the Middle Ages

    Cooperative Learning Activity 10

    BACKGROUNDEuropean society during the medieval period was characterized by rigidly stratifiedclasses. The class divisions were derived from the feudal system and were com-prised of king and queen, clergy, noble lords and ladies, rural peasants or serfs, andthe few merchant or craftsman freemen and their families. By working as a groupto create a five-minute play that illustrates life in the Middle Ages, you will learnmore about medieval life and society.

    GROUP DIRECTIONS1. As a group, review the roles and classes that made up medieval society in the

    High Middle Ages from about A.D. 1000 and 1300. Use your textbook chapters 9and 10 as a quick reference.

    2. Brainstorm ideas for a short dramatic presentation that would illustrate rolesand interactions among classes. Be specific about scene, plot, and characters.Describe how the characters would interact and what they would say.

    3. Create a script and assign all group members roles in the play. You might wantto assign a group leader role to one member to act as director and to another asscript or dialogue coach to help individual actors write and deliver their linesand rehearse their roles. Possible roles include the following.rural peasant priestmerchant or craftsman monklord/noble lady/nobleknight king or queenbishop nun

    Your plot and dialog should showcase the different, yet interdependent classesthat existed in medieval society. The more interaction among the characters and classes that you can build into your drama or comedy, the better your playwill be.

    4. Present your play to the class. Use props or costume enhancements where possible.

    ORGANIZING THE GROUP1. Group Work/Decision Making As a group, appoint a director to oversee the

    development of the script and the details of the short play. Brainstorm possiblescenarios in which medieval roles and characters might interact. Decide on abasic setting and plot for the play. Create a list of characters, with names, to fitinto your scene and setting. Assign roles to individuals and let them improviseand spontaneously play act some possible dialogue and plot ideas. The charac-ters might want to use jot notes to record their lines. Create a final version ofthe script from which all the actors will rehearse.

    Cause Effect/Cause Effect

    Graphic Organizer 13:

    CauseEffect Chart

    0312A-0312D C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:31 AM Page 312

    http://www.aande.comhttp://www.historychannel.com

  • 312B

    Chapter 10 Resources

    ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

    INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIESINTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIES

    REVIEW AND REINFORCEMENTREVIEW AND REINFORCEMENT

    Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROMInteractive Tutor Self-AssessmentCD-ROMExamView Pro Testmaker CD-ROMAudio ProgramWorld History Primary SourceDocument Library CD-ROM

    MindJogger VideoquizPresentation Plus! CD-ROMTeacherWorks CD-ROMInteractive Student Edition CD-ROMThe World History Video Program

    MULTIMEDIAMULTIMEDIAThe following Spanish language materialsare available:

    Spanish Guided Reading Activities Spanish Reteaching Activities Spanish Quizzes and Tests Spanish Vocabulary Activities Spanish Summaries Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide

    SPANISH RESOURCESSPANISH RESOURCES

    Linking Past and PresentActivity 10 L2

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Name ____________________________________ Date ________________ Class __________

    Linking Past and Present Activity 10

    Old and New Solutions for the Problem of Poverty

    Critical Thinking

    Directions: Answer the following questionson a separate sheet of paper.1. Making comparisons: Compare the

    sources of money for poor relief in theMiddle Ages with those in modern times.

    2. Making inferences: Why do you thinkhelping the poor is important to the wellbeing of a community or state?

    3. Synthesizing information: Why did theleaders of medieval towns take stepsagainst paupers? Do research in the libraryand on the Internet to discover which legalmeasuresbesides banishmentweretaken against petty criminals and vagrants.Write a brief report of your findings andexplain how harsh punishment might havecontributed to a rise in the crime rate.

    Then In the late Middle Ages, when townsand cities began to develop around local mar-ket centers, a variety of charitable institutionsbegan to spring up. Hospitals and almshouseswere the most prevalent of these institutions.Originally, hospitals served any person whowas in need of either health care or shelter.Almshouses provided food, clothing, and shelter.

    Lay people, as well as religious leaders,founded, supported, and served in these insti-tutions. Some lay people joined the clergy incharitable organizations called confraternities.Guilds established almshouses for impover-ished members and made loans to thosetemporarily out of work. Guilds also set asidefunds to support the widows and orphans ofdeceased members. City governments ranoffices that were dedicated to the relief ofpoverty. Cities also contributed money to thecharitable organizations run by individualsand trade organizations. Wealthy people oftenwilled small annual donations to the poor intheir parish.

    As urban populations increased, an ever-growing number of poor people furtherstrained the resources of the different supportgroups. In order to make the distribution ofrelief to the poor more efficient and effective,city governments began to take on a greaterrole in distributing aid than did private organi-zations.

    Some civic leaders began to view paupersas potential revolutionaries and/or criminals.To reduce the threat of social unrest, civic lead-ers designed work programs for beggars andbanished them from the city if they refused towork.

    Now Providing for the poor in modern societyhas become a highly centralized function.Although private and religious organizationsstill play a significant role in fighting poverty,the governments of nations have taken overmost of the job. In the United States, individualstates make the welfare laws; the federal gov-ernment provides the funds necessary to enactthe different welfare programs.

    Most of the Western democracies help theircitizens through illness, unemployment, oldage, and other periods of financial insecurity.In some countries, the government provides itscitizens with medical care. All democratic gov-ernments offer a free education through atleast secondary school.

    Citizens pay taxes to support the benefitsthey enjoy. Lately, an influx of immigrants todeveloped nations has placed a heavy burdenon these nations welfare systems. Since manyimmigrants are unable to secure employmentthat pays a living wage, they depend uponpublic assistance. Some people consider this tobe unfair, arguing that newcomers to a countryshould not automatically be supported by thatcountry. Yet others believe that public assis-tance should be available to all people wholive in a country. Most immigrants however,regardless of their income level, still pay theirshare of taxes.

    Lately, government officials have begun toreconsider many welfare policies. Politicalleaders in the United States have pointed outthat issuing welfare checks has created a cul-ture of dependent people. Consequently, theyhave enacted work programs designed to takepeople off welfare. In countries with moderatesocialist governmentssuch as Swedensome citizens have become willing to give uptheir benefits in exchange for lower taxes.

    Time Line Activity 10 L2

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Name Date Class

    Time Line Activity 10

    Europe in the Middle AgesDIRECTIONS: Medieval Europe in the years A.D. 10501500 underwent dramatic conflicts,innovation, and cultural diffusions. Some events of that time are shown on the time linebelow. Read the time line, then answer the questions that follow.

    1. What important institutions began in the mid-twelfth century?

    2. For how many years was the papal court out of Rome?

    3. During which war was Joan of Arc alive?

    4. How old was Joan of Arc when she died?

    5. What were two important battles of the Hundred Years War?

    6. During which century did the church first seek to increase its control over heretics?

    7. What war between the English royal houses began in the 1400s?

    1431 Joan of Arc burnedat the stake.

    A.D.1000 A.D.1200 A.D.1400 A.D.1600

    1232 Iquisition is created tobattle heresy.

    1435 War of theRoses begins.

    1099 Crusaders captureJerusalem.

    c . 1150 Beginnings of universities

    1309 Pope Clement in Avignon

    1377 Pope Gregory XI returnsto Rome.

    1415 Battle of Agincourt;Jan Hus martyred.

    1412 Joan of Arc is born.

    1337 Hundred Years War begins

    1346 Battle of Crcy

    Reteaching Activity 10 L1

    Copyright

    by The M

    cGraw

    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Europe in the Middle Ages

    In the years a.d. 10001500, medieval Europe went through major changes and upheavalsthat affected all segments of society.

    DIRECTIONS: The diagram below shows the five main aspects of medieval Europe at itsheight. Complete the diagram by listing examples of the most important events, people,countries, and dates under the appropriate heading. A few entries have been done for you.

    Reteaching Activity 10

    Name Date Class

    Economics

    improved farming techniques

    Religion

    Interdiction

    Education

    scholasticism

    Arts

    Gothic cathedrals

    Military

    the Hundred Yearswar

    Medieval Europe atIts Height

    Vocabulary Activity 10 L1

    Copyright

    by The M

    cGraw

    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Name Date Class

    Europe in the Middle Ages: 10001500DIRECTIONS: Fill in the terms across and down on the puzzle that match each numbereddefinition.

    Vocabulary Activity 10f

    Across

    1. direct royal taxation on land or property

    8. document guaranteeing the rights of townspeople

    9. paid apprentice

    10. learning that emphasized reason andfaith

    12. object of religious veneration; a piece ofthe body or personal item of a saint

    13. artisan who owned his own shop

    Down

    2. Christian rite

    3. unpaid employee learning a trade

    4. economic system that replaced barter (two words)

    5. language of everyday speech

    6. a traveling poet-musician

    7. landed estate run by lord

    11. to forbid

    2

    1

    8

    5 6

    3 4

    7

    1110

    12

    13

    9

    Chapter 10 TestForm A L2

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

    Column A

    1. a tenth of ones produce

    2. artisans and merchants living in walled cities

    3. members of the wealthiest and most powerful families

    4. practice by which secular rulers chose nominees for churchoffices and gave them the symbols of their office

    5. forbids priests from giving the sacraments to a certain groupof people

    6. composer and important contributor to Gregorian chant

    7. court created by the Church to find and try heretics

    8. attempted to reconcile Aristotles teachings with thedoctrines of Christianity

    9. defeated the French at the Battle of Agincourt

    10. an annual direct tax, usually on land or property

    DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

    11. In order to encourage trade between Flanders and Italy, the counts ofChampagneA. built a road between the two, upon which their town was a major stopping point.B. offered free wine to traders traveling through their fiefdom.C. initiated a series of trade fairs in the chief towns of the territory.D. agreed not to tax the merchants of these two countries.

    12. A was a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare.A. dozer C. dirkB. carruca D. cabochon

    13. Serfs were different from peasants in that serfsA. did not have to provide military service to the lord.B. could live anywhere they chose except land that was part of a lords estate.C. were legally bound to the land upon which they worked and lived.D. lived in the cities and were not farmers like the peasants.

    Name Date Class

    Score ScoreChapter 10 Test, Form A

    Column B

    A. Saint ThomasAquinas

    B. bourgeoisie

    C. Inquisition

    D. patricians

    E. interdict

    F. tithe

    G. taille

    H. Hildegard ofBingen

    I. lay investiture

    J. Henry V

    Chapter 10 TestForm B L2

    Performance AssessmentActivity 10 L1/ELL

    Name Date Class

    Copyright

    by The M

    cGraw

    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Performance Assessment Activity 10

    Use with Chapter 10.

    Europe in the Middle Ages

    BACKGROUNDBeginning in the Middle Ages, students were encouraged to go to universities.

    Often located in towns and cities, the universities offered students an education and anew way of life.

    TASKA medieval university has hired you as a recruitment official to promote its

    services to prospective students. You have been asked to create a bulletin board toshow the advantages of a higher education and the attractions of the university. Youwill need to research to find pictures of universities and university life. You also willneed descriptions of the studies and activities at the university.

    AUDIENCEYour audience is medieval students who may be thinking of going on to a

    university.

    PURPOSEThe purpose of the bulletin board is to attract students to the university. You may

    want to promote one particular medieval university.

    PROCEDURES

    1. Form a team with two other students. Research to find descriptions of medieval universities and university life, the features of medieval towns, and pictures of uni-versities, professors, and students.

    2. Working together, decide which information will be the most effective as promo-tional material and how you will display it.

    3. Create an attractive promotional title.

    4. Revise your plan with all members of the group suggesting alternative contentsand designs for the bulletin board.

    5. Create a final bulletin-board display, title, and captions to go with your illustrations.

    ExamView ProTestmaker CD-ROM

    Mapping History Activity 10 L2

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Name Date Class

    France in A.D. 1400sThe Hundred Years War between France and England lasted for 116 years.During this time, England had the advantage for the first 92 years, until the timeof Joan of Arc. Having inspired the troops, Joan of Arc began driving the Englishback to the north of France. When the war ended in A.D. 1453, her efforts hadhelped push the English back to the port of Calais.

    DIRECTIONS: The map below shows France in the A.D. 1400s. Use the map tocomplete the activities that follow.

    Mapping History Activity 10

    1. Which areas of France were occupied by English forces?

    2. Which areas of France were occupied by French forces?

    3. Name three cities that were strategic battle sites in the Hundred Years War.

    4. Under Joan of Arcs leadership, the French battled from Orlans to Reims.Reims is approximately 80 miles (120 kilometers) northeast of Paris. MarkReims on the map. Gradually, the French made their way to Calais. Trace theFrench forces route from Orlans to Calais.

    ENGLANDLondon

    Paris

    Avignon

    Agincourt

    Orlans

    Calais

    Crcy

    Flanders

    LowCount

    ries

    Champagne

    Bu

    rgundy

    Mediterranean Sea

    HOLYROMANEMPIRE

    ATLANTICOCEAN

    English

    Channel

    Loire River

    Seine River

    Garonne River

    Rhn

    eRi

    ver

    4W 0 4E 8E

    50N

    45N

    Lambert Conic Conformal Projection

    0 50 100 miles

    50 100 kilometers0

    Burgundian landsEnglish possessionsFrench landsBattle sites

    N

    S

    EW

    France in the A.D. 1400s

    World Art and MusicActivity 10 L2

    Name Date Class

    (continued)

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Troubadour music was composed by and for theupper classes. Knights possessed vast wealthand leisure time, both of which they liked to display.In addition to giving lavish banquets, they pursuedthe arts in order to gain a reputation for being cul-tured. Around this time, upper-class women beganto be revered and referred to as ladies.

    The words in a troubadours song were of foremostimportance. The music was simple so that it would not

    interfere with the poetry. The poems tended to beabout courtly and chivalrous love, in which a lady wasworshiped from afar with great respect and dignity.The object of the troubadours affection was depictedas so perfect that she was unobtainable. These werenot despondent poems, howeverthe troubadourwas content never to possess his beloved. Often thetroubadour would imply that he would be dis-appointed or disillusioned if she accepted his offers.

    TroubadoursSometime during the mid1000s, poet-musicians called troubadours began

    to appear in southern France. Most were male members of the nobility. Somewrote songs, some sang, and some both wrote and sang. Occasionally, trouba-dours accompanied themselves on stringed instruments. Their songswhichwere written in the everyday language of the peoplewere at first taught orallyand memorized. It was not until much later that these songs were written.What this meant was that a troubadour could easily change the words of asong to suit his circumstances. Amazingly, more than 2,500 songs survive.

    DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below about these travelling musicians. Thenanswer the questions in the space provided.

    WoWorld Art andMusic Activity 10

    Bas relief scene of medieval troubadours

    History and GeographyActivity 10 L2

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Name Date Class

    HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ACTIVITY 10

    Whether lifting our eyes to the soaringnave vaults, or peering into the depths ofthe aisles, the whole atmosphere is one ofreligious mystery. . . . [One] cannot butexperience a little of that unearthly joy sokeenly felt by the devotees of our cathe-dral. What impression do these words byEtienne Houvet, curator of Chartres, giveof this French cathedral?

    Reflecting the central role of the Churchin peoples lives during the Middle Ages,cathedrals were built for the glory of God.During the A.D. 1100s, a new system ofconstruction that originated in France

    Gothic Cathedrals

    Romanesque

    Gothic

    Gothic design broke free of the thick central walls and heavy, rounded arches that characterized Romanesque cathedrals.

    Ribbed vaults brought new height to cathedral ceilings with support from pointed arches. The arches were formed by narrow stone ribs that extended from tall pillars.

    Ribbed Vaults

    Flying buttresses helped open up the interior space. These stone beams supported the main walls which could then enclose stained-glass windows.

    Flying Buttresses

    RIBBEDVAULTS

    NARROWSTONERIBS

    TALLPILLARS

    signaled a change in architectural stylefrom Roman to Gothic. The Gothic style ofarchitecture would allow people to achievenew heights in honoring God.

    A fine example of Gothic architecture, OurLady of Chartres was rebuilt following a firein A.D. 1194. The new structure, with a vaultthat reaches 11 stories into the sky, attests tothe success of medieval builders in devisingnew ways to distribute the weight of cathe-dral walls. Ribbed vaults, pointed arches,and flying buttresses allowed stained-glasswindows to fill the interior with light andthe walls to stretch to the heavens.

    People in World History Activity 10 L2

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Name Date Class

    She was beautiful and just, imposing and modest, hum-ble and elegant . . . who surpassed almost all the queensof the world.

    nuns of Fontevrault in their obituary of Eleanor of Aquitaine

    Eleanor of Aquitaine had many impres-sive titles in her life, including queenofboth France and England. Her remarkableaccomplishments and turbulent life contin-ue to intrigue people even today, 800 yearsafter her death.

    Eleanor was born to a royal family andgrew up in an atmosphere of poetry, litera-ture, and music. Singers and poets wereoften in her home. Her education was notconfined to needlework, as often happenedwith young women at the time. In fact, shelearned to read and write both Latin andProvenal, the local French dialect. By allaccounts, she was beautiful, industrious,and intelligent.

    Upon the sudden death of her father,Eleanor became engaged to Louis VII, theonly surviving son of the king of France.They were married in 1137, when Eleanorwas just 15 and Louis was 16. One weekafter the wedding, Louiss father died, andEleanor found herself married to the newking of France. Masterful and energetic,Eleanor exercised much control over herhusbandand thereby over France. WhenEleanor accompanied Louis on the SecondCrusade to Antioch, a disagreement grewbetween them on strategic policy, whichwas fueled by his intense jealousy. Theirmarriage ended in annulment in 1152.

    Less than twomonths later, 29-year-old Eleanor marriedthe 18-year-oldgrandson of KingHenry I of England.Two years later, herhusband became KingHenry II, and Eleanorwas now queen ofEngland. Eleanor was more than 10 yearsolder than her husband, but their marriagewas reasonably happy for 15 years, withEleanor bearing 5 sons and 3 daughters.

    Eleanor separated from Henry andmoved back to France in 1168, when shediscovered Henry had a mistress. Legend,which is not substantiated by historians,states that she ruled at Poitiers over a socie-ty of troubadours, knights, and fair ladieswho participated in courts of love. Morelikely she spent time undermining the loy-alty of two of her sons to their father. In1173, these two sons attempted to seize hisFrench lands, sparking an uprising againstHenry in England. Henry squelched therebellion, captured Eleanor, and put her inprison for her role in the affair. Over time,her confinement was relaxed, and Eleanorlived a life of semifreedom.

    Eleanor lived to see her sons Richard Iand John crowned kings of England and tosee her granddaughter marry the futureLouis VIII of France. She died at the age of82 and was buried between her estrangedhusband Henry II and her son Richard I.

    Eleanor of Aquitaine (11221204)

    People in WoWorld History: Activity 10 Profile 1

    REVIEWING THE PROFILE

    Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.1. Eleanor of Aquitaine served as queen of which two countries?

    Critical Thinking SkillsActivity 10 L2

    Copyright

    by The M

    cGraw

    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Name Date Class

    Critical Thinking Skills Activity 10 Evaluating Information

    Evaluating information means analyzingwhat you read and then drawing conclu-sions about it. It may also involve recogniz-

    There was a monk; a nonpareil was he, Who rode, as steward of his monastery,The country round; a lover of good sport,A manly man, and fit to be an abbot.Hed plenty of good horses in his stable,And when he went out riding, you could hearHis bridle jingle in the wind, as clearAnd loud as the monastery chapel-bell.Inasmuch as he was keeper of the cell,The rule of St. Maurus or St. BenedictBeing out of date, and also somewhat strict,This monk I speak of let old precepts slide,And took the modern practice as his guide.He didnt give so much as a plucked henFor the maxim, Hunters are not pious men,Or A monk whos heedless of his regimenIs much the same as a fish out of water,

    In other words, a monk out of his cloister.But thats a text he thought not worth an oyster;And I remarked his opinion was sound.What use to study, why go round the bendWith poring over some book in a cloister,Or drudging with his hands, to toil and labourAs Augustine bids? How shall the world go on?You can go keep your labour, Augustine!So he rode hardno question about thatKept greyhounds swifter than a bird in flight.Hard riding, and the hunting of the hare,Were what he loved, and opened his purse for.I noticed that his sleeves were edged and trimmedWith squirrel fur, the finest in the land.For fastening his hood beneath his chin,He wore an elaborate golden pin,Twined with a love-knot at the larger end.

    DIRECTIONS: The following passage from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Talesdescribes a medieval monk. After you have read the excerpt, evaluate the informa-tion given in the poem.

    ing whether the author is biased in anyway, even in descriptions.

    1. What does this monk like more than anything else?

    2. What does this monk think of the rules of his order?

    3. What does this monk look like? What is he wearing and what animals does he have?

    4. Look at Section 4 on the reasons why there were calls for reform. Evaluate the descrip-tion of the monk in terms of the corruption of the Church. Why might a reformer objectto the monks appearance and behavior?

    Standardized Test PracticeWorkbook Activity 10 L2

    Copyright

    by The M

    cGraw

    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Standardized Test Practice

    Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________

    Social Studies Objective: The student will interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infergeographic relationships, and analyze geographic change.

    Cartographers draw maps to scale. On each map, a measured distance will represent a fixeddistance on the earth. For example, one inch on a map may represent 100 miles; however, onanother map, one inch might represent 1,000 miles. This relationship, or scale of distance, often isshown on a map scalea line with numbers specifying the unit of measurement and the numberof miles or kilometers this unit represents. On some maps, the scale appears as a fraction.

    Practicing the SkillDIRECTIONS: Study the map on this page andcomplete the activity.

    Learning to Use a Map ScaleTo measure distances on a map, use the following guidelines.

    Find the map scale or scale fraction. Identify the unit of measurement and the

    distance that unit represents. Using this unit of measurement, measure the

    distance between two points on the map. Multiply that number by the number of

    miles or kilometers represented by each unit.

    ACTIVITY 10Reading a Map Scale

    There are as many different kinds of maps asthere are uses for them. Being able to read a mapbegins with learning about its parts. The map keyunlocks the information presented on the map.On this map of Germany, for example, dots markcities and towns.

    On a road map, the key tells what map linesstand for paved roads, dirt roads, and interstatehighways. A pine tree symbol may represent a park,while an airplane is often the symbol for an airport.

    The compass rose is a direction marker. Amap has a symbol that tells you where thecardinal directionsnorth, south, east, andwestare positioned. An intermediate direction,such as southeast, may also be on the compassrose. Intermediate directions fall between thecardinal directions.

    EASTERNEUROPE

    WESTERNEUROPE

    Berlin

    NorthSea

    N

    E

    S

    W

    0 mi.

    0 km

    10050

    10050

    0 mi.

    0 km

    10050

    10050

    Munich

    Frankfurt

    Cologne

    GERMANY

    Bonn

    HamburgRostock

    Bremen

    Dresden

    Stuttgart

    Nuremberg

    National boundaryNational capitalOther city

    Lambert ConformalConic projection

    Baltic Sea

    Germany: Political

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

    Column A

    1. encouraged trade between Flanders and Italy

    2. heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare

    3. an agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants

    4. the struggle between Henry IV and Gregory VII

    5. abandoned all worldly goods to live and preach in poverty

    6. wanted to defend the Church from heresy

    7. chief task was to harmonize Christian teachings with theworks of Greek philosophers

    8. the language of everyday speech in a particular region

    9. accused of heresy by the Council of Constance and burnedat the stake

    10. brought the Hundred Years War to a decisive turning pointby inspiring the French armies

    DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

    11. Peasants were required to pay their local village church a tithe, which wasA. a yearly amount of money based on C. a weekly amount of money

    the number on people in their family. determined by the lord of the manor.B. ten percent of their produce. D. one-third of their produce.

    12. Merchants and artisans living in walled cities came to be calledA. burghers or bourgeoisie, from the German word burg, meaning a walled

    enclosure.B. patricians, members of the wealthiest and most powerful families.C. nouveau riche, from the French term for new wealth.D. journeymen, since they were so often traveling to other cities to trade.

    13. Elections for city council in medieval cities were often A. just a front to appease the citizens, since the council was really chosen by the

    local lord.B. open to everyone, no matter what their economic status.C. carefully rigged to make sure that only patricians were elected.D. a way for qualified men to move up in society.

    Name Date Class

    Score ScoreChapter 10 Test, Form B

    Column B

    A. Saint Francis of Assisi

    B. Joan of Arc

    C. carruca

    D. Dominic deGuzmn

    E. scholasticism

    F. manor

    G. John Hus

    H. trade fairs

    I. InvestitureControversy

    J. vernacular

    0312A-0312D C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:32 AM Page 313

  • 312C

    Blackline Master

    Poster

    DVD

    Videocassette

    Transparency

    Music Program

    CD-ROM

    Audio Program

    *Also Available in Spanish

    Daily Objectives Reproducible Resources Multimedia Resources

    SECTION RESOURCES

    SECTION 1Peasants, Trade, and Cities1. Discuss the new farming practices,

    the growth of trade, and the rise ofcities that created a flourishingEuropean society.

    2. Explain how the revival of trade andthe development of a money econ-omy offered new opportunities forpeople.

    Reproducible Lesson Plan 101Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 101Guided Reading Activity 101*Section Quiz 101*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 101*

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 101Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

    SECTION 3The Culture of the High Middle Ages1. Discuss how an intellectual revival

    led to the formation of universities.2. Explain how, in the High Middle

    Ages, new technical innovationsmade it possible to build Gothiccathedrals, which are one of thegreat artistic triumphs of this age.

    Reproducible Lesson Plan 103Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 103Guided Reading Activity 103*Section Quiz 103*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 103*

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 103Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

    SECTION 4The Late Middle Ages1. Identify the overwhelming number

    of disastrous forces that challengedEurope in the fourteenth century.

    2. Explain how European rulersreestablished the centralized powerof monarchical governments.

    Reproducible Lesson Plan 104Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 104Guided Reading Activity 104*Section Quiz 104*Reteaching Activity 10*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 104*

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 104Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

    SECTION 2Christianity and Medieval Civilization1. Summarize the dominant role of the

    Catholic Church in the lives of peo-ple during the High Middle Ages.

    2. Describe the strong leadership of thepopes, which made the CatholicChurch a forceful presence inmedieval society.

    Reproducible Lesson Plan 102Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 102Guided Reading Activity 102*Section Quiz 102*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 102*

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 102Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

    Assign the Chapter 10 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.

    Chapter 10 Resources

    0312A-0312D C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:33 AM Page 314

  • 312D

    Chapter 10 Resources

    Teachers Corner

    The following articles relate to this chapter:

    Retracing the First Crusade, by Tim Severin, September1989.

    A Castle Under the Louvre, by Peter Miller, July 1989. The Gothic Revolution, by James L. Stanfield and Victor R.

    Boswell, Jr., July 1989.

    INDEX TONATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

    NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY PRODUCTS

    To order the following, call National Geographic at 1-800-368-2728:

    PictureShow: The Middle Ages (CD-ROM) PicturePack: The Middle Ages (Transparencies, Poster Set)

    Access National Geographics new dynamic MapMachineWeb site and other geography resources at:www.nationalgeographic.comwww.nationalgeographic.com/maps

    KEY TO ABILITY LEVELS

    Teaching strategies have been coded.

    L1 BASIC activities for all studentsL2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average

    studentsL3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students

    ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER activitiesELL

    Hank Poehling Central High SchoolLa Crosse, Wisconsin

    Compare and ContrastThe purpose of this project is to acquaint students

    with the historical impact of the Black Death onmedieval European society. In comparing the BlackDeath to AIDS, students will understand the rele-vance of history as they also examine a contemporaryproblem. In addition, they receive beneficial AIDSeducation.

    Have students produce a project comparing andcontrasting the Black Death (bubonic plague) withAIDS, working either individually or in groups of up to four. The type of project can be left up to eachindividual or groupa display, a video newscast, areenactment, or a news-style magazine. Tell studentsthat the following areas must be addressed in theproject: causes of both diseases symptoms of both diseases how both diseases are spread any known or possible cures for both diseases the effects of each disease on the individual the effects of each disease on society

    Allow about two weeks for the projects. On thedue date, have all groups and individuals make a for-mal presentation of their projects to the class.

    From the Classroom of

    WORLD HISTORY

    Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content iscovered in the Student Edition.

    You and your students can visit , theWeb site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovativeintegration of electronic and print media offers your students awealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to theWeb site for the following options:

    Chapter Overviews Self-Check Quizzes

    Student Web Activities Textbook Updates

    Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in theWeb Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources andInteractive Tutor Puzzles are also available.

    www.wh.glencoe.com

    MEETING SPECIAL NEEDSMEETING SPECIAL NEEDSIn addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found ineach section, the following resources are also suitable foryour special needs students:

    ExamView Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers totailor tests by reducing answer choices.

    The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of thestudent edition so that less-proficient readers can listen tothe words as they read them.

    The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides thesame content as the student edition but is written twograde levels below the textbook.

    Guided Reading Activities give less-proficient readerspoint-by-point instructions to increase comprehension asthey read each textbook section.

    0312A-0312D C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:33 AM Page 315

    http://wh.glencoe.comhttp://www.nationalgeographic.comhttp://www.nationalgeographic.com/maps

  • 312

    The Impact TodayHave students explain the purpose andresponsibilities of modern labor unions.Ask them to list products and servicesthey use that are made or provided byunion members. L1

    312

    Europe in theMiddle Ages

    10001500

    Key EventsAs you read, look for the key events in the history of medieval Europe.

    The revival of trade led to the growth of cities and towns, which became important centers for manufacturing.

    The Catholic Church was an important part of peoples lives during the Middle Ages. During the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, Europeans experienced many problems including the Black Death, the Hundred Years War, and the decline of

    the Church.

    The Impact TodayThe events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.

    The revival of trade brought with it a money economy and the emergence of capitalism, which is widespread in the world today.

    Modern universities had their origins in medieval Europe. The medieval history of Europe can be seen today in Europes great cathedrals.

    World History Video The Chapter 10 video, Chaucers England,chronicles the development of civilization in medieval Europe.

    1150 1200 1250 1300

    c. 1158First Europeanuniversity appears

    1163Work begins on Notre DameCathedral

    c. 1210Francis of Assisifounds theFranciscan order

    1233The Inquisitionbegins

    Saint Francis of Assisi

    Notre Dame CathedralParis, France

    IntroducingCHAPTER 10

    IntroducingCHAPTER 10

    Refer to Activity 10 in thePerformance AssessmentActivities and Rubrics booklet.

    PerformanceAssessment

    The World HistoryVideo ProgramTo learn more about Europe in theMiddle Ages, students can view the Chapter 10 video, Chaucers England, from The World HistoryVideo Program.

    MindJogger VideoquizUse the MindJogger Videoquiz topreview Chapter 10 content.

    Available in VHS.

    STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

    PURPOSE FOR READING

    Pre-and Post-Responses This tool utilizes students background knowledge and engages theirattention. Have students write down the main ideas in each section on a piece of paper. They mayuse ideas such as farming, Christianity, universities, and Black Death. Students should then brain-storm a list of four or five ideas for each topic and discuss what they wrote with a partner. Finally,discuss the ideas with the entire class. They can add or modify their responses as they study. L1

    Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

    0312-0343 C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:43 AM Page 312

  • 313

    The cathedral at Chartres, about 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Paris, is but one of the many great Gothic cathedrals built in Europe during the Middle Ages.

    HISTORY

    Chapter OverviewVisit the Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at

    and click on Chapter 10ChapterOverview to preview chapter information.

    wh.glencoe.com1350 1400 1450 1500

    1347The Black Deathbegins todevastate Europe

    1431Joan of Arcis burned atthe stake

    1453HundredYears Warends

    1461King Louis XIrules France

    1485Tudor dynastyis establishedin England

    Medieval depictionof Death

    Louis XI

    313

    IntroducingCHAPTER 10

    IntroducingCHAPTER 10

    Chartres Cathedral The cathedral at Chartres was designed by an unknown architect and builtbetween 1194 and 1220. It is one of the most famous cathedrals in France. Built of limestone,Chartres is 112 feet (34 m) high and 427 feet (130 m) long. Various architectural innovations atChartres set the standard for thirteenth-century architecture. Chartres is particularly renowned forits beautiful stained glass windowsover 150 of them, covering nearly 21,500 sq ft (2,000 sq m).Most are original, dating from about 1210 to about 1260. During both World Wars, they were takendown piece by piece for protection. More than 2,000 sculpted figures decorate the cathedral.Chartres reflects the medieval view that churches should inspire people and lead them to God.

    MORE ABOUT THE ART

    Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, stu-dents should be able to:1. describe advances in farming

    and industry, the manorialsystem, and the rise of cities;

    2. explain the dominant roleplayed by the medievalChurch;

    3. list the high points of cultureduring the High Middle Ages;

    4. describe the various misfor-tunes that challenged Europein the fourteenth century.

    Time Line Activity

    As students read the chapter, havethem review the time line on thesetwo pages. Ask students to list impor-tant events between the beginning ofthe plague in 1347 and the end of theHundred Years War in 1453, afterwhich Europe began to recover. L1

    HISTORY

    Chapter OverviewIntroduce students to chaptercontent and key terms by havingthem access Chapter Overview10 at .wh.glencoe.com

    Dinah Zikes Foldables are three-dimensional, interactive graphicorganizers that help students practice basic writing skills, reviewkey vocabulary terms, and identifymain ideas. Have students completethe foldable activity in the DinahZikes Reading and Study Skills Foldables booklet.

    0312-0343 C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:45 AM Page 313

    http://wh.glencoe.comhttp://wh.glencoe.com

  • 314

    314

    Life in Londonn the twelfth century, William Fitz-Stephen spoke of Lon-don as one of the noblest cities of the world: It is happy

    in the healthiness of its air, in the Christian religion, in thestrength of its defences, the nature of its site, the honor of itscitizens, the modesty of its women; pleasant in sports; fruit-ful of noble men.

    To Fitz-Stephen, London offered a number of opportunitiesand pleasures: Practically anything that man may need isbrought daily not only into special places but even into theopen squares, and all that can be sold is loudly advertised forsale. Any man, according to Fitz-Stephen, if he is not agood-for-nothing, may earn his living expenses and esteemaccording to his station.

    Sporting events and leisure activities were available inevery season of the year: In Easter holidays they fight battleson water. In summer, the youths are exercised in leaping,dancing, shooting, wrestling, casting the stone; the maidensdance as long as they can well see. In winter, when thegreat fen, or moor, which waters the walls of the city on thenorth side, is frozen, many young men play upon the ice;some, striding as wide as they may, do slide swiftly.

    To Fitz-Stephen, every convenience for human pleasure isknown to be at hand in London.

    I

    This medieval manuscript pageshows a London scene.

    Somersaulting was done for entertainment and leisure in medieval London.

    Why It MattersOne would hardly know from Fitz-Stephens cheerful description thatmedieval cities faced overcrowdedconditions, terrible smells from rot-ting garbage, and the constant threatof epidemics and fires. The rise ofcities was one aspect of the newburst of energy and growth thatcharacterized European civilizationin the High Middle Ages, the periodfrom about 1000 to 1300. Newfarming practices, the growth oftrade, and a growing population created a vigorous European society.

    History and You Research cur-rent conditions in the city of London.Compare the city today with the wayit was described by Fitz-Stephen.Write an essay in which you explainhow London has changed and howit has remained the same. Why docertain problems persist? Documentyour argument with evidence andinclude a bibliography.

    IntroducingA Story That MattersDepending on the ability levelsof your students, select from thefollowing questions and activi-ties to reinforce the reading of A Story That Matters. What qualities make London

    such a happy place toWilliam Fitz-Stephen? (healthyfresh air, Christianity, strongdefenses, its site on the river, the activities and honor of itscitizens)

    Why do you think Fitz-Stephen fails to mention Lon-dons foul air, overcrowding,epidemics, and fires?(Answers will vary.)

    Have students write a briefparaphrase of this descriptionof London to describe theirown city or town. How accu-rate are their descriptions? L1

    About the ArtThe illustration on this pageshows the Tower of London atthe time Henry VIII reigned.What features can students findin the illustration showing thatLondon was a growing, bustlingcity? (crowded streets, many build-ings) L1 ELL

    HISTORY AND YOUMedieval cities played an essential role in Europes economy. Like ancient and modern cities, medieval cities werethe places where people gathered to share similar interests and values, economic opportunities, social mobility,education, and the pursuit of personal freedoms. Guide students in a discussion of the reasons why people tendto gravitate toward cities. What are the advantages and disadvantages of urban life in the Middle Ages and today?Would students prefer to live in large cities, small towns, or rural areas? Ask them to justify their answers. L1STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

    1

    0312-0343 C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:47 AM Page 314

  • 315

    c. 800Serfdom grows inwestern Europe

    c. 1050New cities and townsarise in Europe

    1000sCraftspeople organize into guilds

    c. 1200sEuropean population increases

    Peasants, Trade, and Cities

    Preview of Events

    CHAPTER 10 Europe in the Middle Ages 315

    800 900 1000 1100 1200

    Cause Effects

    Growth ofTowns

    Guide to Reading

    One monk reported in the twelfth century how his monastery used a local streamto grind grain and make cloth:

    Entering the Abbey under the boundary wall, the stream first hurls itself at the millwhere in a flurry of movement it strains itself, first to crush the wheat beneath theweight of the millstones, then to shake the fine sieve which separates flour frombran. . . . The stream is not yet discharged. The fullers [people who finished the manu-facture of woolen cloth] located near the mill beckon to it. One by one it lifts anddrops the heavy pestles, the fullers great wooden hammers. How many horses wouldbe worn out, how many men would be weary if this graceful river, to whom we oweour clothes and food, did not labor for us.

    The Medieval Machine, Jean Gimpel, 1976

    Gradually, the growth of trade and manufacturing and the rise of towns laid thefoundations for the transformation of Europe from a rural, agricultural society to amore urban, industrial one.

    The New AgricultureIn the early Middle Ages, Europe had a relatively small population. In the High

    Middle Ages, however, population increased dramatically. The number of peoplealmost doubled between 1000 and 1300, from 38 million to 74 million people.

    Voices from the Past

    Main Ideas New farming practices, the growth of

    trade, and the rise of cities created aflourishing European society.

    The revival of trade and the develop-ment of a money economy offered newopportunities for people.

    Key Termsmanor, serf, money economy, commer-cial capitalism, guild, masterpiece

    People to Identifybourgeoisie, patricians

    Places to LocateVenice, Flanders

    Preview Questions1. What changes during the High Middle

    Ages enabled peasants to grow morefood?

    2. What were the major features of themanorial system?

    Reading StrategyCause and Effect Use a chart like the onebelow to show the effects of urban growthon medieval Europe.

    CHAPTER 10Section 1, 315322CHAPTER 10Section 1, 315322

    Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.

    DAILY FOCUS SKILLSTRANSPARENCY 10-1

    Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. 450 2. 600 3. three-field 4. to avoid wearing outthe soil

    Peasants, Trade, and Cities

    1 How many acres wereplanted each yearunder the two-fieldsystem?

    How many acres wereplanted under thethree-field system?

    Which system wouldyield more food?

    Why is it a good ideato leave a field fallowfor a year?

    2 3 4

    UNIT

    2Chapter 10

    Two-Field System on a 900-Acre Farm

    Three-Field System on a 900-Acre Farm

    Fallow

    300

    Acres

    Planted

    300

    Acres

    Planted

    300

    Acres

    Fallow

    450

    Acres

    Planted

    450

    Acres

    A Small ChangeA Big Reward

    B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 101

    SECTION RESOURCESSECTION RESOURCES

    Reproducible Masters Reproducible Lesson Plan 101 Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 101 Guided Reading Activity 101 Section Quiz 101 Reading Essentials and Study Guide 101

    Transparencies Daily Focus Skills Transparency 101

    MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

    1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section describes changes inmedieval agriculture, trade,cities, and the lives of commonpeople.

    STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

    21

    Guide to Reading

    Answers to Graphic: Effects: mer-chants and artisans settled in cities,townspeople given basic liberties, city governments developed, guildsestablished

    Preteaching VocabularyDiscuss the difference between a freepeasant and a serf. Why do studentsthink so many of Englands peasantsbecame serfs? (land, protection) L1

    0312-0343 C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:48 AM Page 315

  • DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONReading Support Draw a spider diagram (word web) with the word farming in the middle. Askstudents to name factors that are necessary to farm successfully. Responses include availability ofland and equipment, type of climate, workers, political stability. Then have students reread the sec-tion called The New Agriculture on pages 315 to 317 and draw another spider diagram withNew Agriculture in the center. Ask students to supply factors that made the agricultural explosionof the Middle Ages possible. Discuss differences between agriculture then and now. Have studentscopy both diagrams for study purposes. L1

    Refer to the Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies andActivities in the TCR.

    ELL

    316

    2 TEACH

    of labor-saving devices. For example, the people of theMiddle Ages harnessed the power of water and windto do jobs once done by human or animal power.

    Many of these new devices were made from iron,which was mined in various areas of Europe. Iron wasused to make scythes, axes, and hoes for use on farms,as well as saws, hammers, and nails for building. Ironwas crucial in making the carruca, a heavy, wheeledplow with an iron plowshare. Unlike earlier plows,this plow could easily turn over heavy clay soils.

    Because of the weight of the carruca, six or eightoxen were needed to pull it. However, oxen wereslow. Two new inventions for the horse made it possi-ble to plow faster. A new horse collar spread theweight around the shoulders and chest rather than

    What caused this huge increase in population? Forone thing, conditions in Europe were more settledand peaceful after the invasions of the early MiddleAges had stopped. This increased peace and stabilityalso led to a dramatic expansion in food productionafter 1000.

    In part, food production increased because achange in climate during the High Middle Agesimproved growing conditions. In addition, moreland was cultivated as peasants of the eleventh andtwelfth centuries cut down trees and drainedswamps. By 1200, Europeans had more land forfarming than they do today.

    Changes in technology also aided the developmentof farming. The Middle Ages witnessed an explosion

    316 CHAPTER 10 Europe in the Middle Ages

    Watermill on Certovka River in Prague, Czech Republic

    Workings of a basic windmill

    Harnessing the Power of Water and Wind

    Watermills use the power of running water to do work.The watermill was invented as early as the second cen-tury B.C. It was not used much in the Roman Empire becausethe Romans had many slaves and had no need to mechanize.In the High Middle Ages, watermills became easier to build asthe use of metals became more common. In 1086, the surveyof English land known as the Domesday Book listed about six thousand watermills in England.

    Located along streams, mills powered by water were at first used togrind grains for flour. Gradually, mill operators were able to mechanizeentire industries. Waterpower was used in mills for making cloth and insawmills for cutting wood and stone, as well as in the working of metals.

    Rivers, however, were not always available. Where this was the case,Europeans developed windmills to harness the power of the wind. Histori-ans are unsure whether windmills were imported into Europe (they wereinvented in Persia) or designed independently by Europeans. Like thewatermill, the windmill was first used for grinding grains. Later, however,windmills were used for pumping water and even cutting wood. However,they did not offer as great a range of possible uses as watermills.

    The watermill and windmill were the most important devices for har-nessing power before the invention of the steam engine in the eighteenthcentury. Their spread had revolutionary consequences, enabling Europeansto produce more food and to more easily manufacture a wide array of prod-ucts.

    Comparing How are water and wind power used today?

    Sail

    Breakwheel

    Greatspurwheel

    Grindstone

    Wind shaft

    CHAPTER 10Section 1, 315322CHAPTER 10Section 1, 315322

    Answer: Dams harness water forhydroelectric power, and windmillsare used to produce electricity.

    Critical ThinkingAsk students to give examples ofmajor scientific discoveries andtechnological innovations thatoccurred during the MiddleAges and to describe the changesproduced by these discoveriesand innovations. L1

    Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 101

    I. The New Agriculture (pages 315317)

    A. The number of people almost doubled in Europe between 1000 and 1300, from 38 to 74million people. One reason is that increased stability and peace enabled food produc-tion to rise dramatically.

    B. Food production increased also because a climate change improved growing condi-tions, and more land was cleared for cultivation. Europe had more farmland in 1200than it does today.

    C. Technological changes also aided farming. Water and wind power began to do jobsonce done by humans or animals. Also, iron was used to make scythes, axes, hoes,saws, hammers, and nails. Most importantly it was used to make the carruca, a heavy,wheeled plow with an iron plowshare pulled by animal teams. A new horse collar thatdistributed the weight throughout the horses shoulders and the horseshoe allowedhorses to replace the slow oxen to pull the extremely heavy carruca.

    D. Using this heavy-wheeled plow led to the growth of farming villages. The plow wasso expensive that communities bought one plow. People also shared animals. The shiftfrom a two-field to a three-field system of crop rotation also increased food produc-tion. Earlier, peasants had one part of their field lie fallow and the other wascultivated. Now, one part of the field was planted in the fall with grains for a summerharvest, a second part was planted in spring with different grains for a fall harvest,and the third would lie fallow. Only one-third of the land now was not being used,and the rotation kept the soil from being exhausted so quickly.

    Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

    Chapter 10, Section 1

    Did You Know? A serf required the permission of his lord tochange his occupation or dispose of his property. A serf couldbecome a freedman only through formal emancipation or escape.

    Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

    SS.A.2.4.7

    SS.B.2.4.5

    STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

    213

    0312-0343 C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:49 AM Page 316

  • 317

    Answer: Peaceful conditions inEurope and dramatic expansion infood production led to an increase inpopulation.

    and be subject to the lords control. By 800, probably 60percent of the people of western Europe were serfs.

    A serfs labor services included working the lordsland. The lords land made up one-third to one-halfof the cultivated land scattered throughout themanor. The rest of the estate's land was used by thepeasants to grow food for themselves. Such tasks asbuilding barns and digging ditches were also part ofthe labor services. Serfs usually worked about threedays a week for their lords.

    The serfs paid rents by giving the lords a share ofevery product they raised. Serfs also paid the lordsfor the use of the manors common pasturelands,streams, ponds, and surrounding woodlands. If aserf fished in the pond or stream on a manor, heturned over part of the catch to his lord. Peasantswere also obliged to pay a tithe (a tenth of their pro-duce) to their local village churches.

    In the feudal contract, lords and vassals were tiedtogether through mutual obligations to each other.On individual estates, lords had a variety of legalrights over their serfs. Serfs could not leave themanor without the lords permission and could notmarry anyone outside the manor without the lordsapproval. Lords often had political authority on theirlands, which gave them the right to try peasants intheir own courts. Peasants were required to pay lordsfor certain services, such as having their grainground into flour in the lords mills.

    Even with these restrictions, however, serfs werenot slaves. The land assigned to serfs to supportthemselves usually could not be taken away, and

    317CHAPTER 10 Europe in the Middle Ages

    Robin Hood In 1261, a resident of Yorkshire, England,William De Fevre, was named an outlaw bythe Sheriff of Nottingham. De Fevre laterescaped to Sherwood Forest, where he joineda band of outlawed citizens and gained fameby robbing from rich figures of authority andgiving to the poor. Robin Hood, as he becameknown, was noted for treating the poor withgreat kindness and courtesy, in contrast to thecruelty that was often part of medieval life.

    the throat. Now a series of horses could be hitched up,enabling them to pull the new, heavy plow faster andturn over more land. The use of the horseshoe, an ironshoe nailed to the horses hooves, made it easier forhorses to pull the heavy plow through the rocky andheavy clay soil of northern Europe.

    The use of the heavy-wheeled plow also led to thegrowth of farming villages, where people had towork together. Because iron was expensive, a heavy-wheeled plow had to be bought by the entire com-munity. Likewise, one family could not afford a teamof animals, so villagers shared their beasts. The sizeand weight of the plow made it necessary to plow theland in long strips to minimize the amount of turningthat would have to be done.

    The shift from a two-field to a three-field system ofcrop rotation added to the increase in food produc-tion. In the early Middle Ages, peasants divided theirland into two fields of equal size. One field wasplanted, while the other was allowed to lie fallow, orremain unplanted, to regain its fertility. Now, how-ever, lands were divided into three parts. One fieldwas planted in the fall with grains (such as rye andwheat) that were harvested in summer. The secondfield was planted in the spring with grains (oats andbarley) and vegetables (peas and beans) that wereharvested in the fall. The third field was allowed tolie fallow.

    The three-field system meant that only one-third,rather than one-half, of the land lay fallow at anytime. The rotation of crops also kept the soil frombeing exhausted so quickly, which allowed morecrops to be grown.

    Analyzing What were the mostimportant factors leading to the dramatic increase in population during the High Middle Ages?

    The Manorial SystemYou will remember from reading Chapter 9 that

    feudalism created alliances between nobles (lordsand vassals). The landholding nobles were a militaryelite whose ability to be warriors depended on theirhaving the leisure time to pursue the arts of war.Landed estates, located on the fiefs given to a vassalby his lord, and worked by peasants, provided theeconomic support that made this way of life possible.

    A manor was an agricultural estate run by a lordand worked by peasants. Although free peasants con-tinued to exist, increasing numbers of free peasants became serfs, or peasants legally bound tothe land. Serfs had to provide labor services, pay rents,

    Reading Check

    CHAPTER 10Section 1, 315322CHAPTER 10Section 1, 315322

    EXTENDING THE CONTENTCreating a Contract Guide students in a discussion of the specific factors that might have led freefarmers to attach themselves to a manor. Have them examine the advantages and disadvantagesof the manorial system to the farmer. Then divide the class into small groups or pairs and havethem write a contract between a serf and lord. Contracts should give specific details of the amountof labor that will be exchanged for particular services. All the labor to be provided by the serf andhis family should be listed, as should all the nobles responsibilities to his serfs. Conclude by com-paring the various contracts students devised. L1

    For grading this activity, refer to the Performance Assessment Activities booklet.

    COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITYCOOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY

    Connecting Across TimeTodays citizens do not pay theirrents or taxes to a lord, but tolocal and federal governments.Have students compare and con-trast the services received fortaxes with those received bypeasants and serfs for their rents.L1

    Charting ActivityHave students create a chartdescribing the major characteris-tics of the economic system ofmanorialism. Students shoulddescribe the economic obliga-tions and benefits of serfs, peas-ants, and lords. Display charts inthe classroom. L2

    Guided Reading Activity 101

    53

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    by

    The

    McG

    raw

    -Hill

    Com

    pani

    es, I

    nc.

    Name Date Class

    Peasants, Trade, and Cities

    DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.

    1. What happened to the European population in the High Middle Ages?

    2. List two reasons for the change in population during this time.

    3. What two inventions for the horse made it possible to plow faster?

    4. Define the term manor.

    5. What three ways did serfs pay rent to their lords?

    6. Name the three great events celebrated by feasts within the Christian faith.

    7. What two features changed the economic foundation of Europe?

    8. For what two reasons did merchants build a settlement near castle?

    9. By 1100, what four rights were townspeople getting from local lords?

    10. Describe the environment of medieval cities.

    11. What three steps did a person complete to become a master in a guild?

    Guided Reading Activity 10-1

    SS.A.2.4.7

    L1/ELL

    STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

    21

    0312-0343 C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:50 AM Page 317

  • 318

    SUM

    MER

    SPRIN

    G

    WIN

    TER

    AUTUMN

    July

    Augu

    st

    September October

    NovemberDecem

    berJanuary

    February

    MarchApril

    Ma

    y

    June

    Plow

    ing;

    sowi

    ng w

    heat

    an

    d ry

    e; b

    reed

    ing

    shee

    p

    Slaug

    hterin

    g pigs

    ;

    colle

    cting f

    irewo

    od

    Indoor tasks

    (spinning, cra

    fts)

    Clearing ditches;cutting woodPruning trees; lambs

    and calves born

    Plowing; sow

    ing

    barley and oats

    Planting peas, beans, flax, and hem

    pPlanting vegetables;

    making repairs

    Mowing hay;

    shearing sheep

    Weeding; har

    vesting flax,

    wheat, hemp

    , and rye

    Harve

    sting

    barle

    y and

    oats

    Harv

    estin

    g pe

    as a

    nd

    bean

    s; br

    eedi

    ng ca

    ttle

    Peasants Wheel of Life

    a main room for cooking, eating, and other activitiesand another room for sleeping. There was little pri-vacy in a medieval household.

    A hearth in the main room was used for heatingand cooking. Because there were few or no windowsand no chimney, the smoke created by fires in thehearth went out through cracks in the walls or, morelikely, through the thatched roof.

    Cycle of Labor The seasons of the year largelydetermined peasant activities. Each season brought anew round of tasks. Harvest time in August and Sep-tember was especially hectic. A good harvest ofgrains for making bread was crucial to survival in thewinter months.

    A new cycle of labor began in October, whenpeasants worked the ground for the planting of win-ter crops. In November came the slaughter of excesslivestock, because there was usually not enough foodto keep the animals alive all winter. The meat wouldbe salted to preserve it for winter use. In February

    and March, the land was plowed for the planting ofspring cropsoats, barley, peas, and beans. Earlysummer was a fairly relaxed time, although therewas still weeding and sheepshearing to be done.

    In every season, of course, the serfs workednot only their own land but also the lordslands. They also tended the small gardensnext to their dwellings, where they grew thevegetables that made up part of their diet.

    Peasants did not face a life of constant labor,thanks to the feast days, or holidays, of theCatholic Church. These feast days celebrated

    the great events of the Christian faith, or thelives of Christian saints or holy persons. The

    three great feasts of the Catholic Church wereChristmas (celebrating the birth of Christ), Easter

    (celebrating the resurrection of Christ), and Pentecost(celebrating the descent of the Holy Spirit on Christsdisciples 50 days after his resurrection). Other feastsdedicated to saints or the Virgin Mary, the mother ofJesus, were also celebrated. A total of more than 50days were essentially holidays.

    Religious feast days, Sunday mass, baptisms, mar-riages, and funerals all brought peasants into contactwith the village church, a crucial part of manorial life.The village priest taught the peasants the basic ideasof Christianity so that they would gain the Christiansfinal goalsalvation. However, village priests wereoften peasants themselves; most were not able to read.It is difficult to know how much church teaching thepeasants actually understood. Very likely, they saw

    318 CHAPTER 10 Europe in the Middle Ages

    their responsibilities to the lord remained fairly fixed.It was also the lords duty to protect his serfs, givingthem the safety they needed to grow crops.

    Summarizing What legal rights didthe lords have over the serfs?

    Daily Life of the PeasantryThe life of peasants in Europe was simple. Their

    cottages had wood frames surrounded by sticks,with the spaces between sticks filled with straw andrubble and then plastered over with clay. Roofs weresimply thatched.

    The houses of poorer peasants consisted of a sin-gle room. Others, however, had at least two rooms

    Reading Check

    Peasants worked year-round for the lord of themanor. A few days each week were devoted to theirown gardens.

    1. Understanding Cause and Effect Explain howthe peasants activities in one month affectedtheir activities in later months.

    2. Making Inferences Based on your knowledgeof current agricultural technology, how do youthink a medieval peasants yearly routine com-pares to that of a contemporary farmer?

    CHAPTER 10Section 1, 315322CHAPTER 10Section 1, 315322

    Answers:

    1. Answers may include: planting inApril and May meant harvestingin August and September; thebirth of lambs in February meantJune sheepshearing; etc.

    2. Answers may include the factthat modern agriculture is morespecialized, so farmers may pro-duce only one crop or raise onlyone type of livestock; many farm-ers have other jobs during theslow season and dont spendwinter months doing spinningand crafts; etc.

    Answer: Lords had the right to con-trol marriage, to resolve legal issues,to demand payment for services, andto levy taxes.

    EXTENDING THE CONTENTRole-Playing Have students work in groups to write and present a brief play showing daily life in a medieval town. Assign small groups to research the daily work, clothing, food, and homes oftownspeople. Assign each student a specific task, such as selecting an event and characters, outlin-ing and writing parts of the script, and obtaining or making props. Students may choose to portraysuch characters as apprentices, journeymen, masters of various guilds, university students, clergy,moneychangers, or troubadours. When students have completed their research, writing, costumes,and set, have them present the play. If possible, videotape the play for viewing by students in otherclasses. L2 ELL

    COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITYCOOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY

    EnrichIn a class discussion ask studentsto distinguish between feudal-ism and manorialism. Help stu-dents to consider economic,political, social, and military fac-tors. Develop a Venn diagram onthe board or overhead with stu-dent responses. Have studentscopy the diagram to use as astudy tool. L2

    Connecting Across TimeHave students compare life inmedieval cities with life inAmerican colonial cities such asBoston or Philadelphia in theearly 1800s. What problemsexisted in both time periods?(overcrowding, pollution, firedanger) L2

    SS.A.2.4.7

    SS.B.2.4.1

    STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

    1

    0312-0343 C10 TE-Nat/FL05 3/12/04 7:50 AM Page 318

  • 319

    Answer: Women worked in fields,took care of children, and managedtheir households.

    God as an all-powerful force who needed to beappeased by prayer to bring good harvests.

    The position of peasant women in manorial soci-ety was both important and difficult. They wereexpected to work in the fields and at the same timebear children. Their ability to manage the householdmight determine whether a peasant family wouldstarve or survive in difficult times.

    Food and Drink Though simple, a peasants dailydiet was adequate when food was available. Thebasic staple of the peasant diet, and of the medievaldiet in general, was bread. Women made the doughfor the bread. The loaves were usually baked in com-munity ovens, which were owned by the lord of themanor. Peasant bread was highly nutritious becauseit contained not only wheat and rye but also barley,millet, and oats. These ingredients gave the bread adark appearance and very heavy, hard texture.

    Numerous other foods added to the peasants diet:vegetables from the household gardens; cheese fromcows or goats milk; nuts and berries from wood-lands; and fruits, such as apples, pears, and cherries.Chickens provided eggs and sometimes meat. Peas-ants usually ate meat only on the great feast days,such as Christmas and Easter.

    Grains were important not only for bread but alsofor making ale. In the Middle Ages, it was not easy toobtain pure sources of water to drink. Consequently,while wine became the choice of drink for membersof the upper classes, ale was the most common drinkof the poor. If records are accurate, enormous quanti-ties of ale were consumed. A monastery in the twelfthcentury records a daily allotment to the monks ofthree gallons of ale a day. Peasants in the field proba-bly consumed even more.

    Explaining What role did peasantwomen play in manorial society?

    The Revival of TradeMedieval Europe was basically an agricultural

    society in which most people lived in small villages.In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, however, newelements changed the economic foundation of Euro-pean civilization. The new features included a revivalof trade and an associated growth of towns and cities.

    The revival of trade in Europe was gradual. Dur-ing the chaotic times of the early Middle Ages, large-scale trade had declined. By the end of the tenthcentury, however, people were emerging with boththe skills and products for trade.

    Reading Check Cities in Italy took the lead. Venice, for example,had emerged by the end of the eighth century as atown with close trading ties to the Byzantine Empire.Venice developed a mercantile fleet (a fleet of tradingships) and by the end of the tenth century hadbecome a major trading center.

    While Venice and other northern Italian cities werebusy trading in the Mediterranean, the towns ofFlanders were doing the same in northern Europe.Flanders, the area along the coast of present-day Belgium and northern France, was known for itsmuch desired, high-quality woolen cloth.

    The location of Flanders made it an ideal center forthe traders of northern Europe. Merchants from Eng-land, Scandinavia, France, and Germany met there totrade their goods for woolen cloth. Flanders prospered

    319CHAPTER 10 Europe in the Middle Ages

    This illustration is from the famous manuscript TrsRiches Heures, an example of a medieval Book ofHours. Books of Hours were personal prayer booksthat often contained calendars noting importantdates of the year. Using the Wheel of Life on theopposite page, can you tell which month andseason are represented in