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417 CHAPTER 15 Mediati ng T echnologie s and Second Language Learning STEVEN L. THORNE Across the variegated history of human social organization, information and communication technologies have proven to have complex effects on the processes they mediate. Some technologies have scaled up familiar activi- ties in the areas of impact, breadth, or speed, while others have given rise to genuinely unique informational, communicative, and social practices (see Marvin, 1990) . In the current era, global networks enable memes ( in the sense of Dawkins, 1976) of art, music, i mage, and of course language to propagate, cross-pollinate, mutate, and refract across media and communicative modali- ties. Massive sociological analyses have documented that the Internet has qualitativ ely transformed everyda y communication and i nformation practices in commercial, nancial, professi onal, educational, recreational, and interper- sonal realms (e.g., Castells, 1996, 1997 , 1998, 2004). All of these is sues raise questions as to how educators and researchers should orient themselves to the changing contexts and conditions of addi tional language learning. While Internet acce ss remains unequally distributed across social classes and geopolitical regions (see Van Dijk, 2005; Warschauer, 2003), user populations continue to expand around the world as life becomes increasingly mediated by established and emerging genres of Internet-mediated communicative activ- ity, many of which vary substantially from predigital epistolary conventions (e.g., Crystal, 2001; Herring, 1996; Thorne & Payne, 2005; Werry, 1996). Of course, at this point in history, more than a decade beyond the widespread ER56528_C015.indd 417 6/6/07 11:19:06 AM

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417

CHAPTER 15Mediating Technologies and

Second Language Learning

STEVEN L THORNE

983124983144983141 983120983141983150983150983155983161983148983158983137983150983145983137 983123983156983137983156983141 983125983150983145983158983141983154983155983145983156983161

Across the variegated history of human social organization information

and communication technologies have proven to have complex effects on theprocesses they mediate Some technologies have scaled up familiar activi-ties in the areas of impact breadth or speed while others have given riseto genuinely unique informational communicative and social practices (seeMarvin 1990) In the current era global networks enable memes (in the senseof Dawkins 1976) of art music image and of course language to propagatecross-pollinate mutate and refract across media and communicative modali-ties Massive sociological analyses have documented that the Internet hasqualitatively transformed everyday communication and information practicesin commercial financial professional educational recreational and interper-

sonal realms (eg Castells 1996 1997 1998 2004) All of these issues raisequestions as to how educators and researchers should orient themselves to thechanging contexts and conditions of additional language learning

While Internet access remains unequally distributed across social classes andgeopolitical regions (see Van Dijk 2005 Warschauer 2003) user populationscontinue to expand around the world as life becomes increasingly mediated byestablished and emerging genres of Internet-mediated communicative activ-ity many of which vary substantially from predigital epistolary conventions(eg Crystal 2001 Herring 1996 Thorne amp Payne 2005 Werry 1996) Ofcourse at this point in history more than a decade beyond the widespread

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diffusion of the World Wide Web (in the mid-1990s) it has become clicheacute toengage hyperbole when attempting to describe the magnitude of the Internetrsquostransformative effects on local and global communicative practices yet recent

demographic trends empirically substantiate hyperbolic phenomena Specifi-cally as of December 31 2005 there are estimated to be over one billionInternet users globally Among world regions it is not surprising that NorthAmerica retains the greatest percentage of Internet penetration (681 of thetotal population) followed by OceanaAustralia (529) and Europe (359)Of greater surprise may be that the largest absolute number of Internet userscurrently reside in Asia (364270713 from Internet Use Stats wwwinternet-worldstatscomstatshtm) Against this backdrop of global Internet growthto paraphrase Internet pioneer Tim Berners-Lee (1998) the Internet is less atechnological fact than a social fact and one that is mediated in large part by

textual language use These many issues suggest the need for a new alchemywithin second-language education one in which linguistic precision and dis-course competence continue to play roles but in the service of cultivating thecapacity to make collectively relevant meanings in the inherently interculturalcontexts of everyday life

This review chapter will discuss a number of contexts and uses of technolo-gies generally Internet communication technologies as they have been and arebeing used in second-language education environments Three primary areasof research and pedagogical innovation will be addressed (a) the use of syn-chronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) generally in intraclass

configurations (b) Internet-mediated intercultural second language (L2) edu-cation where learners engage with one another across language communitiesand often across nation state borders and (c) additional language learning asa function of participation in Internet-supported communities such as onlineforums fan sites fan fiction sites and online gaming These topics will befollowed by a discussion of recent and emerging technologies and a presenta-tion of challenges to technology-mediated language learning Throughout thechapter the iterative theme will be the implications and potentialities of teach-ing and learning additional languages through activities mediated by Internetcommunication and information environments The discussion begins how-

ever with a retrospective visit to the unrestrained optimism characterizingearly reports on technology use in education

Preamble Early Perspectives on Technology Use in Education

Within the academy at large early pedagogical rationales for uses of computer-mediated communication (CMC) often involved bringing studentsrsquo thinkingand writing into the classroom as legitimate knowledge (Bruce Peyton ampBatson 1993) The ldquoelectronic writing spacerdquo (Bolter 1991) provided by com-puters in composition courses and later networked writing environments

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 419

were eagerly greeted as convention and genre-shattering tools that wouldtransform the nature of communication and the production of and audi-ence for student-produced texts As an example of the early enthusiasm for

a computer-mediated paradigm for learning Landow argued that ldquowe mustabandon the conceptual systems founded upon ideas of center margin hierar-chy and linearity and replace them with ones of multilinearity nodes linksand networksrdquo (1992 p 2) In a similar vein Lanham predicted ldquoSooneror laterhellipelectronic texts will redefine the writing reading and professing ofliteraturerdquo (Lanham 1993 p 1) and later suggested ldquoElectronic technologyis full of promising avenues for language instruction it will be lunacy if we donot construct a sophisticated comparative-literature pedagogy upon itrdquo (1993p 23) Both Landow and Lanham emphasized the substantive aesthetic andmaterial shifts that digital and networked technologies seemed capable of pro-

ducing such as the polyvalent structure of ldquotextsrdquo as they are produced andconsumed in digital and hypertext environments and a reduction of the timeand space constraints that characterized predigital and pre-Internet communi-cation and information practices These resources were widely acknowledgedto catalyze a potential new age of community building through communica-tion (eg Reingold 1993) and to support committed radical reform to educa-tional practice (Lankshear Peters amp Knobel 1996)

Throughout the 1990s direct personal experience with network technolo-gies initiated a viscerally motivated pedagogical shift that moved many lan-guage educators from cognitivist assumptions about knowledge and learning

as brain-local phenomena to contextual collaborative and social-interactionalapproaches to language development and activity (eg Cummins amp Sayers1995 Hawisher 1994 Hilz amp Turoff 1993 Noblitt 1995 Warschauer ampKern 2000) Particularly in the context of synchronous CMC or real-timeldquochat-stylerdquo communication the novelty and defamiliarization of communi-cation within these spaces was provocative An illustration of this occurred inthe summer of 1993 during a workshop on the use of networked environmentspresented to foreign-language and composition instructors All participantswere new to real-time computer-mediated communication At the end of theworkshop the group was asked to use the chat tool one last time to reflect

on the dayrsquos activities An instructor from the English department wrote thefollowing

Irsquom a bit fractured Is this what those in the know call a post-modernmoment Irsquom situated on the margins of assorted discourse communitiesnot sure how to construct myself for (or how Irsquoll be constructed by) eachaudience Help me (Thorne 1999 p 4)

For this participant the chat experience confounded conventional genres suchas conversation and information exchange and perhaps to borrow from Faigley(1992) more involved a ldquoreconfiguring of discursive relationsrdquo (p 180) Of

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course even a few years later in the mid- and late-1990s a wide array ofInternet-mediated practices was common to the point of complete transpar-ency for habituated late modern communicators

Review Of Research

Networked Communication Tools in Language Education

The ability to link students by networked computers has created a vari-ety of opportunities for language-based social interaction in L2 educationThe pedagogical impetus behind educational uses of CMC (both Internet-mediated and earlier within local-area networks) has been and continues tobe language development through textually mediated generally peer-focusedcommunication

Reports of L2 uses of Internet and local-area network communication tech-nologies began emerging in the early 1990s These accounts suggested a num-ber of pedagogical benefits from CMC use many of which were not readilyavailable in conventional L2 language (Cononelos amp Oliva 1993) or compo-sition (Colomb amp Simutis 1996) classrooms Reported findings included agreater opportunity for expression of ideas than in face-to-face discussionsand more time for reflection in the production of messages (Kern 1995) morelinguistic production overall (Kelm 1992 Beauvois 1992) and increased par-ticipation by students who do not participate as frequently in face-to-face class-room discussion (Sullivan amp Pratt 1996) The conventional subject positions

of teachers and students were also argued to have shifted dramatically throughthe intervention of technology Speaking about this issue Kelm (1996) statedldquoTechnology allows language instructors to function in new roles designercoach guide mentor facilitator At the same time the students are able to bemore engaged in the learning process as active learners team builders col-laborators and discoverersrdquo (p 27) While such shifts may have occurred insome cases the early euphoria surrounding technology use as the panaceaassuaging the challenges of education and language learning is striking (for acritical treatment of this issue see Knobel Lankshear Honan amp Crawford1998)

Synchronous CMC Use in L2 Education

The use of synchronous CMC (SCMC) commonly referred to as chat hasbeen the basis of a large number of second-language acquisition (SLA) studiesThroughout the early 1990s Kern (1995) used a SCMC tool called Daeda-lus Interchange a local-area network application with sections of universitysecond-semester French foreign-language students Based on his observationsof in-class SCMC use Kern attempted to quantitatively assess the impres-sion that foreign-language students were producing more language output inSCMC environments than was the case in large group face-to-face classroom

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 421

settings Using a quasi-experimental methodology Kern analyzed a 50-minuteFrench foreign-language SCMC session and compared it to an oral in-classdiscussion by the same language students on the same topic The SCMC treat-

ment produced between two and three times more turns per student and ahigher total number of sentences and words compared to the large-group oraldiscussion (see also Abrams 2003) Kern also examined the linguistic qualityof the discussions and found that studentsrsquo SCMC language output was moresophisticated in terms of the range of morphosyntactic features and variety ofdiscourse functions expressed (1995 p 470) These findings are supported byChunrsquos (1994) study of fourth-semester German students in which SCMC usepromoted increased morphological complexity and a greater ratio of complexsentences in non-SCMC written coursework over the course of one semesterMore recent research has also suggested that SCMC language use is more

accurate than face-to-face interaction (Salaberry 2000)While Kern and Chunrsquos research on L2 uses of large-group SCMC havedemonstrable strengths Ortega (1997) noted limitations to comparing com-puter-mediated classroom and whole-class oral discussions Ortega (1997)posited that the variables of group size and communicative task were notaccounted for in the early SCMC research (eg Beauvois 1992 Chun 1994Kelm 1992 Kern 1995) She argued

It is justified to hypothesize that group size and equality of participationare negatively related in traditional oral interactions and positively related

in computer-assisted interactions and that the benefits of electronic overnon-electronic interactions will increase with the size of groupshellipInother words the positive equalizing effect of the electronic mode willbe accentuated when comparing larger groups as in the comparisons ofteacher-fronted whole-class discussion with whole-class electronic dis-cussion (p 86)

This observation in no way obviates early SCMC research efforts but itconstructively suggested attention to key pedagogical and group-size variablesand also set the stage for future work that examines the possibility of cross-modality transfer between SCMC use and oral-language production

Cross-Modality Transfer

A growing number of L2 SCMC investigations explore cross-modality transferbetween spontaneous SCMC and oral L2 language production (eg Abrams2003) Indeed one of the alluring characteristics of SCMC for L2 teachersand learners has been its perceived resemblance to oral conversational lan-guage (eg Chun 1994 for an argument against this claim see Johanyek1997 see also Yates 1996) Since a major goal of foreign-language instruc-tion is the development of oral conversational ability the possible connectionbetween spontaneous L2 language production via text and speech has been a

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long-stranding focus of L2 SCMC research (Beauvois 1997 Payne amp Whitney2002 Abrams 2003 Kost 2004 Payne amp Ross 2005) Payne and Whitney(2002) applied psycholinguistic models of language production and working

memory to cross-modality transfer and found a significant difference in theoral proficiency gains between experimental (+SCMC) and control (-SCMC)groups In a follow-up study Payne and Ross (2005) augmented this psycho-linguistic approach with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explorehow individual differences in working memory capacity may affect languageuse in SCMC A principal finding was that learners testing at lower levelsof measured phonological working memory were able to utilize the scrollingon-screen messages from other students as they generated their own contri-butions Payne and Ross hypothesized that SCMC creates a ldquobootstrappingeffectrdquo that reduces the cognitive demand of L2 language production and may

enable students with measured low-span working memory to produce morecomplex language than would otherwise be the case New possibilities in cross-modality research include emerging CMC tools that support bimodal chat(ie a combination of both text and voice communication see Blake 2005)that may prove promising as environments to support a variety of learningstyles and media preferences

Interactionist SLA Research

A large number of SCMC studies have adopted the interactionist or ldquonegotia-tion of meaningrdquo framework an approach to SLA initially designed for analy-

sis of negotiation of meaning in oral interaction (eg Varonis amp Gass 1985)and subsequently has been applied to SCMC learner data and task configura-tions Briefly described the interactionist hypothesis suggests that nonnativespeakers benefit from negotiation processes such as modifications to linguisticinput that subsequently increase comprehension and promote interlanguagedevelopment (eg Long 1985 Pica 1987 Varonis amp Gass 1985 for a cri-tique of the interactionist SLA paradigm see Block 2003) Pellettierirsquos (2000)interactionist research on Spanish L2 learners using SCMC finds that dyadicgroupings promote an increase in corrective feedback and negotiation at alllevels of discourse a condition that prompts learners to produce form-focused

modifications to their turns Additionally task type specifically goal-orientedclosed tasks is positively correlated to the quantity and type of negotiationsproduced In a similar study from the same period Blake (2000) assessed theSCMC interactions of 50 intermediate learners of Spanish Participants werearranged in dyads and asked to carry out three task types (a) decision mak-ing (b) information gap and (c) jigsaw Like Pellettieri (see also Smith 2003)Blake found that jigsaw tasks produced the greatest number of negotiationsbut nearly all negotiations were lexical in focus with very few addressing prob-lems in syntax or larger units of discourse In a 2005 study Sotillo examinedthe use of Yahoo Instant Messenger to assess the nature of negative feedback

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 423

(eg error correction) occurring in native speaker (NS)mdashnonnative speaker(NNS) and NNS-NNS interaction This study indicated the availability ofnegative feedback within SCMC particularly among the NNS-NNS dyads

with some evidence of learner uptake catalyzed by these direct and indirect(eg recasts) corrective feedback movesBuilding on earlier negotiation of meaning research in both CMC and face-

to-face settings Smith (2003) expanded the Varonis and Gass (1985) four-part model of face-to-face negotiated interactionmdash(a) trigger gt (b) indicator gt(c) response gt (d) optional reaction to responsemdashby explicitly incorporatingtwo additional phases to represent delayed reactions to response turns that areso frequent in SCMC discourse Smith termed these confirmation and recon-firmation phases elements that explicitly conclude a given negotiation routineand which act as discourse markers suggesting the possibility of resuming

nonnegotiation interaction Smithrsquos augmentation of the interactionist modelprovides a more modality-relevant framework for research on computer-medi-ated negotiated interaction

While the interactionist SLA framework constitutes a significant or evenmajority market share of CMC L2 research and has produced interesting find-ings the assumption that negotiation of meaning results in increased com-prehensibility which then is posited to promote language learning has beenstrongly contested (Block 2003 related to CMC see Reinhardt in press)Swain (2000) an early proponent of and contributor to the interactionist para-digm recently contested these correlations stating ldquo[V]irtually no research

has demonstrated that the greater comprehensibility achieved through nego-tiation leads to second language learningrdquo (p 98) Interactionist researchersare aware of this problem and subsequently often make only descriptive claimsconfirming the presence of negotiation in SCMC discourse For example ina recent NNS-NS SCMC study Lee (2006) concluded that while her studysupported the interactionist hypothesis it ldquodid not address whether responsesto implicit feedback led to L2 developmentrdquo but rather it ldquosimply identifiedfeedback features used by both NSs and NNSs to negotiate meaning and formin the immediacy of ongoing [SCMC] dialoguerdquo (p 171) Another challengeto the interactionist paradigm is its traditionally exclusive focus on linguistic

elements and encapsulated discoursal moves with little attention to or provi-sion for the goal-directed pragmatic and cultural dimensions of communica-tive activity as they may relate to language learning (Kern 2006) Researcherscommitted to the interactionist hypothesis however are addressing theselimitations for example by focusing on cognitive processes such as noticingand attention to form that more robustly correlate negotiation of meaningto measurable gains in linguistic and communicative competence (eg EllisBasturkmen amp Loewen 2001) Within CMC L2 research an inspiring researcharticle by OrsquoRourke (2005) frontally addresses the constraints of interactionistCMC research by contrapuntally contrasting it to Vygotsky (1997) inspired

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sociocultural theory (SCT the latter is discussed next) OrsquoRourke utilized inter-actionist methodologies as an aid in uncovering language phenomena associ-ated with metalinguistic awareness At the same time he openly acknowledged

interactionismrsquos tendency toward determinismsmdashboth that technology can beseen to determine linguistic functions and that negotiation of meaning can besomewhat ironically presented as a set of predefined categories of nonnegotia-ble discoursal moves He also problematized SCT as overstating the plasticityof social relations interpretation of tasks contexts (and by extension sub-jectivities) and cultural significances associated with particular technologiesFor research on technology-mediated L2 language use OrsquoRourke suggestedcareful attention to the ldquofeatures of artifacts and environments [that] can begraded according to the strength of their tendency to promote attention toformrdquo (p 435) This approach could allow interactionist methodology greater

responsivity to the flexibility and local cultural qualities of the activity andartifacts at hand while also accepting the ldquorelatively identifiable contoursrdquo ofhistorically stable contexts language practices and technologies

Sociocultural Theory and CMC L2 Research

L2 technology researchers have found SCT to be a useful theoretical frameworkdue in large part to its serious attention to the symbolic and material mediatorsof human activity (eg Belz 2002 Darhower 2002 Oskoz 2005 Thorne2004 Warschauer 1997 2005) The vast majority of technology-related SCT-oriented L2 studies however address the specific context of Internet-mediated

intercultural L2 education an area of pedagogical innovation that has becomeso vibrant as to warrant separate attention and thus will be addressed in thefollowing section To briefly describe the essential elements of theory SCTmdashalso referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (for discussion of thisterminological difference see Thorne 2005)mdashis rooted in the writings of theRussian psychologist Vygotsky (1997) and his colleagues (eg Leontrsquoev 1981Luria 1976 Volosinov 1973) SCT argues that human mental functioningis fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifactsactivities and concepts (Ratner 2002) Humans are understood to utilize his-torically developed repositories of existingmdashas well as to create newmdashsemi-

otic and conceptual artifacts that allow them to regulate their biological andbehavioral activity In this sense individual and communal practices are onone hand articulations of historical continuance on the other hand howeverthey possess revolutionary potential for individual and collective change (seeSawchuk Duarte amp Elhammoumi 2006) Language use as well as languageorganization and conceptual structure are the primary of these social-semi-otic mediational tools (for an SCT-informed linguistic model of communica-tive activity see Thorne amp Lantolf 2006) While human neurobiology is anobvious and necessary condition for higher order thinking human cognitiveactivity develops and is qualitatively transformed through interaction with

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

Q9

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telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

Q11

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Q13

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Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

Q14

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

ER56528_C015indd 442 6607 111911 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2734

Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

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Q17

ER56528_C015indd 443 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2834

444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

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446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

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diffusion of the World Wide Web (in the mid-1990s) it has become clicheacute toengage hyperbole when attempting to describe the magnitude of the Internetrsquostransformative effects on local and global communicative practices yet recent

demographic trends empirically substantiate hyperbolic phenomena Specifi-cally as of December 31 2005 there are estimated to be over one billionInternet users globally Among world regions it is not surprising that NorthAmerica retains the greatest percentage of Internet penetration (681 of thetotal population) followed by OceanaAustralia (529) and Europe (359)Of greater surprise may be that the largest absolute number of Internet userscurrently reside in Asia (364270713 from Internet Use Stats wwwinternet-worldstatscomstatshtm) Against this backdrop of global Internet growthto paraphrase Internet pioneer Tim Berners-Lee (1998) the Internet is less atechnological fact than a social fact and one that is mediated in large part by

textual language use These many issues suggest the need for a new alchemywithin second-language education one in which linguistic precision and dis-course competence continue to play roles but in the service of cultivating thecapacity to make collectively relevant meanings in the inherently interculturalcontexts of everyday life

This review chapter will discuss a number of contexts and uses of technolo-gies generally Internet communication technologies as they have been and arebeing used in second-language education environments Three primary areasof research and pedagogical innovation will be addressed (a) the use of syn-chronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) generally in intraclass

configurations (b) Internet-mediated intercultural second language (L2) edu-cation where learners engage with one another across language communitiesand often across nation state borders and (c) additional language learning asa function of participation in Internet-supported communities such as onlineforums fan sites fan fiction sites and online gaming These topics will befollowed by a discussion of recent and emerging technologies and a presenta-tion of challenges to technology-mediated language learning Throughout thechapter the iterative theme will be the implications and potentialities of teach-ing and learning additional languages through activities mediated by Internetcommunication and information environments The discussion begins how-

ever with a retrospective visit to the unrestrained optimism characterizingearly reports on technology use in education

Preamble Early Perspectives on Technology Use in Education

Within the academy at large early pedagogical rationales for uses of computer-mediated communication (CMC) often involved bringing studentsrsquo thinkingand writing into the classroom as legitimate knowledge (Bruce Peyton ampBatson 1993) The ldquoelectronic writing spacerdquo (Bolter 1991) provided by com-puters in composition courses and later networked writing environments

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 419

were eagerly greeted as convention and genre-shattering tools that wouldtransform the nature of communication and the production of and audi-ence for student-produced texts As an example of the early enthusiasm for

a computer-mediated paradigm for learning Landow argued that ldquowe mustabandon the conceptual systems founded upon ideas of center margin hierar-chy and linearity and replace them with ones of multilinearity nodes linksand networksrdquo (1992 p 2) In a similar vein Lanham predicted ldquoSooneror laterhellipelectronic texts will redefine the writing reading and professing ofliteraturerdquo (Lanham 1993 p 1) and later suggested ldquoElectronic technologyis full of promising avenues for language instruction it will be lunacy if we donot construct a sophisticated comparative-literature pedagogy upon itrdquo (1993p 23) Both Landow and Lanham emphasized the substantive aesthetic andmaterial shifts that digital and networked technologies seemed capable of pro-

ducing such as the polyvalent structure of ldquotextsrdquo as they are produced andconsumed in digital and hypertext environments and a reduction of the timeand space constraints that characterized predigital and pre-Internet communi-cation and information practices These resources were widely acknowledgedto catalyze a potential new age of community building through communica-tion (eg Reingold 1993) and to support committed radical reform to educa-tional practice (Lankshear Peters amp Knobel 1996)

Throughout the 1990s direct personal experience with network technolo-gies initiated a viscerally motivated pedagogical shift that moved many lan-guage educators from cognitivist assumptions about knowledge and learning

as brain-local phenomena to contextual collaborative and social-interactionalapproaches to language development and activity (eg Cummins amp Sayers1995 Hawisher 1994 Hilz amp Turoff 1993 Noblitt 1995 Warschauer ampKern 2000) Particularly in the context of synchronous CMC or real-timeldquochat-stylerdquo communication the novelty and defamiliarization of communi-cation within these spaces was provocative An illustration of this occurred inthe summer of 1993 during a workshop on the use of networked environmentspresented to foreign-language and composition instructors All participantswere new to real-time computer-mediated communication At the end of theworkshop the group was asked to use the chat tool one last time to reflect

on the dayrsquos activities An instructor from the English department wrote thefollowing

Irsquom a bit fractured Is this what those in the know call a post-modernmoment Irsquom situated on the margins of assorted discourse communitiesnot sure how to construct myself for (or how Irsquoll be constructed by) eachaudience Help me (Thorne 1999 p 4)

For this participant the chat experience confounded conventional genres suchas conversation and information exchange and perhaps to borrow from Faigley(1992) more involved a ldquoreconfiguring of discursive relationsrdquo (p 180) Of

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420 bull Thorne

course even a few years later in the mid- and late-1990s a wide array ofInternet-mediated practices was common to the point of complete transpar-ency for habituated late modern communicators

Review Of Research

Networked Communication Tools in Language Education

The ability to link students by networked computers has created a vari-ety of opportunities for language-based social interaction in L2 educationThe pedagogical impetus behind educational uses of CMC (both Internet-mediated and earlier within local-area networks) has been and continues tobe language development through textually mediated generally peer-focusedcommunication

Reports of L2 uses of Internet and local-area network communication tech-nologies began emerging in the early 1990s These accounts suggested a num-ber of pedagogical benefits from CMC use many of which were not readilyavailable in conventional L2 language (Cononelos amp Oliva 1993) or compo-sition (Colomb amp Simutis 1996) classrooms Reported findings included agreater opportunity for expression of ideas than in face-to-face discussionsand more time for reflection in the production of messages (Kern 1995) morelinguistic production overall (Kelm 1992 Beauvois 1992) and increased par-ticipation by students who do not participate as frequently in face-to-face class-room discussion (Sullivan amp Pratt 1996) The conventional subject positions

of teachers and students were also argued to have shifted dramatically throughthe intervention of technology Speaking about this issue Kelm (1996) statedldquoTechnology allows language instructors to function in new roles designercoach guide mentor facilitator At the same time the students are able to bemore engaged in the learning process as active learners team builders col-laborators and discoverersrdquo (p 27) While such shifts may have occurred insome cases the early euphoria surrounding technology use as the panaceaassuaging the challenges of education and language learning is striking (for acritical treatment of this issue see Knobel Lankshear Honan amp Crawford1998)

Synchronous CMC Use in L2 Education

The use of synchronous CMC (SCMC) commonly referred to as chat hasbeen the basis of a large number of second-language acquisition (SLA) studiesThroughout the early 1990s Kern (1995) used a SCMC tool called Daeda-lus Interchange a local-area network application with sections of universitysecond-semester French foreign-language students Based on his observationsof in-class SCMC use Kern attempted to quantitatively assess the impres-sion that foreign-language students were producing more language output inSCMC environments than was the case in large group face-to-face classroom

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 421

settings Using a quasi-experimental methodology Kern analyzed a 50-minuteFrench foreign-language SCMC session and compared it to an oral in-classdiscussion by the same language students on the same topic The SCMC treat-

ment produced between two and three times more turns per student and ahigher total number of sentences and words compared to the large-group oraldiscussion (see also Abrams 2003) Kern also examined the linguistic qualityof the discussions and found that studentsrsquo SCMC language output was moresophisticated in terms of the range of morphosyntactic features and variety ofdiscourse functions expressed (1995 p 470) These findings are supported byChunrsquos (1994) study of fourth-semester German students in which SCMC usepromoted increased morphological complexity and a greater ratio of complexsentences in non-SCMC written coursework over the course of one semesterMore recent research has also suggested that SCMC language use is more

accurate than face-to-face interaction (Salaberry 2000)While Kern and Chunrsquos research on L2 uses of large-group SCMC havedemonstrable strengths Ortega (1997) noted limitations to comparing com-puter-mediated classroom and whole-class oral discussions Ortega (1997)posited that the variables of group size and communicative task were notaccounted for in the early SCMC research (eg Beauvois 1992 Chun 1994Kelm 1992 Kern 1995) She argued

It is justified to hypothesize that group size and equality of participationare negatively related in traditional oral interactions and positively related

in computer-assisted interactions and that the benefits of electronic overnon-electronic interactions will increase with the size of groupshellipInother words the positive equalizing effect of the electronic mode willbe accentuated when comparing larger groups as in the comparisons ofteacher-fronted whole-class discussion with whole-class electronic dis-cussion (p 86)

This observation in no way obviates early SCMC research efforts but itconstructively suggested attention to key pedagogical and group-size variablesand also set the stage for future work that examines the possibility of cross-modality transfer between SCMC use and oral-language production

Cross-Modality Transfer

A growing number of L2 SCMC investigations explore cross-modality transferbetween spontaneous SCMC and oral L2 language production (eg Abrams2003) Indeed one of the alluring characteristics of SCMC for L2 teachersand learners has been its perceived resemblance to oral conversational lan-guage (eg Chun 1994 for an argument against this claim see Johanyek1997 see also Yates 1996) Since a major goal of foreign-language instruc-tion is the development of oral conversational ability the possible connectionbetween spontaneous L2 language production via text and speech has been a

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long-stranding focus of L2 SCMC research (Beauvois 1997 Payne amp Whitney2002 Abrams 2003 Kost 2004 Payne amp Ross 2005) Payne and Whitney(2002) applied psycholinguistic models of language production and working

memory to cross-modality transfer and found a significant difference in theoral proficiency gains between experimental (+SCMC) and control (-SCMC)groups In a follow-up study Payne and Ross (2005) augmented this psycho-linguistic approach with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explorehow individual differences in working memory capacity may affect languageuse in SCMC A principal finding was that learners testing at lower levelsof measured phonological working memory were able to utilize the scrollingon-screen messages from other students as they generated their own contri-butions Payne and Ross hypothesized that SCMC creates a ldquobootstrappingeffectrdquo that reduces the cognitive demand of L2 language production and may

enable students with measured low-span working memory to produce morecomplex language than would otherwise be the case New possibilities in cross-modality research include emerging CMC tools that support bimodal chat(ie a combination of both text and voice communication see Blake 2005)that may prove promising as environments to support a variety of learningstyles and media preferences

Interactionist SLA Research

A large number of SCMC studies have adopted the interactionist or ldquonegotia-tion of meaningrdquo framework an approach to SLA initially designed for analy-

sis of negotiation of meaning in oral interaction (eg Varonis amp Gass 1985)and subsequently has been applied to SCMC learner data and task configura-tions Briefly described the interactionist hypothesis suggests that nonnativespeakers benefit from negotiation processes such as modifications to linguisticinput that subsequently increase comprehension and promote interlanguagedevelopment (eg Long 1985 Pica 1987 Varonis amp Gass 1985 for a cri-tique of the interactionist SLA paradigm see Block 2003) Pellettierirsquos (2000)interactionist research on Spanish L2 learners using SCMC finds that dyadicgroupings promote an increase in corrective feedback and negotiation at alllevels of discourse a condition that prompts learners to produce form-focused

modifications to their turns Additionally task type specifically goal-orientedclosed tasks is positively correlated to the quantity and type of negotiationsproduced In a similar study from the same period Blake (2000) assessed theSCMC interactions of 50 intermediate learners of Spanish Participants werearranged in dyads and asked to carry out three task types (a) decision mak-ing (b) information gap and (c) jigsaw Like Pellettieri (see also Smith 2003)Blake found that jigsaw tasks produced the greatest number of negotiationsbut nearly all negotiations were lexical in focus with very few addressing prob-lems in syntax or larger units of discourse In a 2005 study Sotillo examinedthe use of Yahoo Instant Messenger to assess the nature of negative feedback

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 423

(eg error correction) occurring in native speaker (NS)mdashnonnative speaker(NNS) and NNS-NNS interaction This study indicated the availability ofnegative feedback within SCMC particularly among the NNS-NNS dyads

with some evidence of learner uptake catalyzed by these direct and indirect(eg recasts) corrective feedback movesBuilding on earlier negotiation of meaning research in both CMC and face-

to-face settings Smith (2003) expanded the Varonis and Gass (1985) four-part model of face-to-face negotiated interactionmdash(a) trigger gt (b) indicator gt(c) response gt (d) optional reaction to responsemdashby explicitly incorporatingtwo additional phases to represent delayed reactions to response turns that areso frequent in SCMC discourse Smith termed these confirmation and recon-firmation phases elements that explicitly conclude a given negotiation routineand which act as discourse markers suggesting the possibility of resuming

nonnegotiation interaction Smithrsquos augmentation of the interactionist modelprovides a more modality-relevant framework for research on computer-medi-ated negotiated interaction

While the interactionist SLA framework constitutes a significant or evenmajority market share of CMC L2 research and has produced interesting find-ings the assumption that negotiation of meaning results in increased com-prehensibility which then is posited to promote language learning has beenstrongly contested (Block 2003 related to CMC see Reinhardt in press)Swain (2000) an early proponent of and contributor to the interactionist para-digm recently contested these correlations stating ldquo[V]irtually no research

has demonstrated that the greater comprehensibility achieved through nego-tiation leads to second language learningrdquo (p 98) Interactionist researchersare aware of this problem and subsequently often make only descriptive claimsconfirming the presence of negotiation in SCMC discourse For example ina recent NNS-NS SCMC study Lee (2006) concluded that while her studysupported the interactionist hypothesis it ldquodid not address whether responsesto implicit feedback led to L2 developmentrdquo but rather it ldquosimply identifiedfeedback features used by both NSs and NNSs to negotiate meaning and formin the immediacy of ongoing [SCMC] dialoguerdquo (p 171) Another challengeto the interactionist paradigm is its traditionally exclusive focus on linguistic

elements and encapsulated discoursal moves with little attention to or provi-sion for the goal-directed pragmatic and cultural dimensions of communica-tive activity as they may relate to language learning (Kern 2006) Researcherscommitted to the interactionist hypothesis however are addressing theselimitations for example by focusing on cognitive processes such as noticingand attention to form that more robustly correlate negotiation of meaningto measurable gains in linguistic and communicative competence (eg EllisBasturkmen amp Loewen 2001) Within CMC L2 research an inspiring researcharticle by OrsquoRourke (2005) frontally addresses the constraints of interactionistCMC research by contrapuntally contrasting it to Vygotsky (1997) inspired

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424 bull Thorne

sociocultural theory (SCT the latter is discussed next) OrsquoRourke utilized inter-actionist methodologies as an aid in uncovering language phenomena associ-ated with metalinguistic awareness At the same time he openly acknowledged

interactionismrsquos tendency toward determinismsmdashboth that technology can beseen to determine linguistic functions and that negotiation of meaning can besomewhat ironically presented as a set of predefined categories of nonnegotia-ble discoursal moves He also problematized SCT as overstating the plasticityof social relations interpretation of tasks contexts (and by extension sub-jectivities) and cultural significances associated with particular technologiesFor research on technology-mediated L2 language use OrsquoRourke suggestedcareful attention to the ldquofeatures of artifacts and environments [that] can begraded according to the strength of their tendency to promote attention toformrdquo (p 435) This approach could allow interactionist methodology greater

responsivity to the flexibility and local cultural qualities of the activity andartifacts at hand while also accepting the ldquorelatively identifiable contoursrdquo ofhistorically stable contexts language practices and technologies

Sociocultural Theory and CMC L2 Research

L2 technology researchers have found SCT to be a useful theoretical frameworkdue in large part to its serious attention to the symbolic and material mediatorsof human activity (eg Belz 2002 Darhower 2002 Oskoz 2005 Thorne2004 Warschauer 1997 2005) The vast majority of technology-related SCT-oriented L2 studies however address the specific context of Internet-mediated

intercultural L2 education an area of pedagogical innovation that has becomeso vibrant as to warrant separate attention and thus will be addressed in thefollowing section To briefly describe the essential elements of theory SCTmdashalso referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (for discussion of thisterminological difference see Thorne 2005)mdashis rooted in the writings of theRussian psychologist Vygotsky (1997) and his colleagues (eg Leontrsquoev 1981Luria 1976 Volosinov 1973) SCT argues that human mental functioningis fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifactsactivities and concepts (Ratner 2002) Humans are understood to utilize his-torically developed repositories of existingmdashas well as to create newmdashsemi-

otic and conceptual artifacts that allow them to regulate their biological andbehavioral activity In this sense individual and communal practices are onone hand articulations of historical continuance on the other hand howeverthey possess revolutionary potential for individual and collective change (seeSawchuk Duarte amp Elhammoumi 2006) Language use as well as languageorganization and conceptual structure are the primary of these social-semi-otic mediational tools (for an SCT-informed linguistic model of communica-tive activity see Thorne amp Lantolf 2006) While human neurobiology is anobvious and necessary condition for higher order thinking human cognitiveactivity develops and is qualitatively transformed through interaction with

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

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430 bull Thorne

telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

Q10

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

Q11

Q12

Q13

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Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

Q14

Q15

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

ER56528_C015indd 442 6607 111911 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2734

Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

Q16

Q17

ER56528_C015indd 443 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2834

444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

ER56528_C015indd 444 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2934

Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

Q19

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446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

ER56528_C015indd 446 6607 111912 AM

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

Q22

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 419

were eagerly greeted as convention and genre-shattering tools that wouldtransform the nature of communication and the production of and audi-ence for student-produced texts As an example of the early enthusiasm for

a computer-mediated paradigm for learning Landow argued that ldquowe mustabandon the conceptual systems founded upon ideas of center margin hierar-chy and linearity and replace them with ones of multilinearity nodes linksand networksrdquo (1992 p 2) In a similar vein Lanham predicted ldquoSooneror laterhellipelectronic texts will redefine the writing reading and professing ofliteraturerdquo (Lanham 1993 p 1) and later suggested ldquoElectronic technologyis full of promising avenues for language instruction it will be lunacy if we donot construct a sophisticated comparative-literature pedagogy upon itrdquo (1993p 23) Both Landow and Lanham emphasized the substantive aesthetic andmaterial shifts that digital and networked technologies seemed capable of pro-

ducing such as the polyvalent structure of ldquotextsrdquo as they are produced andconsumed in digital and hypertext environments and a reduction of the timeand space constraints that characterized predigital and pre-Internet communi-cation and information practices These resources were widely acknowledgedto catalyze a potential new age of community building through communica-tion (eg Reingold 1993) and to support committed radical reform to educa-tional practice (Lankshear Peters amp Knobel 1996)

Throughout the 1990s direct personal experience with network technolo-gies initiated a viscerally motivated pedagogical shift that moved many lan-guage educators from cognitivist assumptions about knowledge and learning

as brain-local phenomena to contextual collaborative and social-interactionalapproaches to language development and activity (eg Cummins amp Sayers1995 Hawisher 1994 Hilz amp Turoff 1993 Noblitt 1995 Warschauer ampKern 2000) Particularly in the context of synchronous CMC or real-timeldquochat-stylerdquo communication the novelty and defamiliarization of communi-cation within these spaces was provocative An illustration of this occurred inthe summer of 1993 during a workshop on the use of networked environmentspresented to foreign-language and composition instructors All participantswere new to real-time computer-mediated communication At the end of theworkshop the group was asked to use the chat tool one last time to reflect

on the dayrsquos activities An instructor from the English department wrote thefollowing

Irsquom a bit fractured Is this what those in the know call a post-modernmoment Irsquom situated on the margins of assorted discourse communitiesnot sure how to construct myself for (or how Irsquoll be constructed by) eachaudience Help me (Thorne 1999 p 4)

For this participant the chat experience confounded conventional genres suchas conversation and information exchange and perhaps to borrow from Faigley(1992) more involved a ldquoreconfiguring of discursive relationsrdquo (p 180) Of

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420 bull Thorne

course even a few years later in the mid- and late-1990s a wide array ofInternet-mediated practices was common to the point of complete transpar-ency for habituated late modern communicators

Review Of Research

Networked Communication Tools in Language Education

The ability to link students by networked computers has created a vari-ety of opportunities for language-based social interaction in L2 educationThe pedagogical impetus behind educational uses of CMC (both Internet-mediated and earlier within local-area networks) has been and continues tobe language development through textually mediated generally peer-focusedcommunication

Reports of L2 uses of Internet and local-area network communication tech-nologies began emerging in the early 1990s These accounts suggested a num-ber of pedagogical benefits from CMC use many of which were not readilyavailable in conventional L2 language (Cononelos amp Oliva 1993) or compo-sition (Colomb amp Simutis 1996) classrooms Reported findings included agreater opportunity for expression of ideas than in face-to-face discussionsand more time for reflection in the production of messages (Kern 1995) morelinguistic production overall (Kelm 1992 Beauvois 1992) and increased par-ticipation by students who do not participate as frequently in face-to-face class-room discussion (Sullivan amp Pratt 1996) The conventional subject positions

of teachers and students were also argued to have shifted dramatically throughthe intervention of technology Speaking about this issue Kelm (1996) statedldquoTechnology allows language instructors to function in new roles designercoach guide mentor facilitator At the same time the students are able to bemore engaged in the learning process as active learners team builders col-laborators and discoverersrdquo (p 27) While such shifts may have occurred insome cases the early euphoria surrounding technology use as the panaceaassuaging the challenges of education and language learning is striking (for acritical treatment of this issue see Knobel Lankshear Honan amp Crawford1998)

Synchronous CMC Use in L2 Education

The use of synchronous CMC (SCMC) commonly referred to as chat hasbeen the basis of a large number of second-language acquisition (SLA) studiesThroughout the early 1990s Kern (1995) used a SCMC tool called Daeda-lus Interchange a local-area network application with sections of universitysecond-semester French foreign-language students Based on his observationsof in-class SCMC use Kern attempted to quantitatively assess the impres-sion that foreign-language students were producing more language output inSCMC environments than was the case in large group face-to-face classroom

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 421

settings Using a quasi-experimental methodology Kern analyzed a 50-minuteFrench foreign-language SCMC session and compared it to an oral in-classdiscussion by the same language students on the same topic The SCMC treat-

ment produced between two and three times more turns per student and ahigher total number of sentences and words compared to the large-group oraldiscussion (see also Abrams 2003) Kern also examined the linguistic qualityof the discussions and found that studentsrsquo SCMC language output was moresophisticated in terms of the range of morphosyntactic features and variety ofdiscourse functions expressed (1995 p 470) These findings are supported byChunrsquos (1994) study of fourth-semester German students in which SCMC usepromoted increased morphological complexity and a greater ratio of complexsentences in non-SCMC written coursework over the course of one semesterMore recent research has also suggested that SCMC language use is more

accurate than face-to-face interaction (Salaberry 2000)While Kern and Chunrsquos research on L2 uses of large-group SCMC havedemonstrable strengths Ortega (1997) noted limitations to comparing com-puter-mediated classroom and whole-class oral discussions Ortega (1997)posited that the variables of group size and communicative task were notaccounted for in the early SCMC research (eg Beauvois 1992 Chun 1994Kelm 1992 Kern 1995) She argued

It is justified to hypothesize that group size and equality of participationare negatively related in traditional oral interactions and positively related

in computer-assisted interactions and that the benefits of electronic overnon-electronic interactions will increase with the size of groupshellipInother words the positive equalizing effect of the electronic mode willbe accentuated when comparing larger groups as in the comparisons ofteacher-fronted whole-class discussion with whole-class electronic dis-cussion (p 86)

This observation in no way obviates early SCMC research efforts but itconstructively suggested attention to key pedagogical and group-size variablesand also set the stage for future work that examines the possibility of cross-modality transfer between SCMC use and oral-language production

Cross-Modality Transfer

A growing number of L2 SCMC investigations explore cross-modality transferbetween spontaneous SCMC and oral L2 language production (eg Abrams2003) Indeed one of the alluring characteristics of SCMC for L2 teachersand learners has been its perceived resemblance to oral conversational lan-guage (eg Chun 1994 for an argument against this claim see Johanyek1997 see also Yates 1996) Since a major goal of foreign-language instruc-tion is the development of oral conversational ability the possible connectionbetween spontaneous L2 language production via text and speech has been a

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long-stranding focus of L2 SCMC research (Beauvois 1997 Payne amp Whitney2002 Abrams 2003 Kost 2004 Payne amp Ross 2005) Payne and Whitney(2002) applied psycholinguistic models of language production and working

memory to cross-modality transfer and found a significant difference in theoral proficiency gains between experimental (+SCMC) and control (-SCMC)groups In a follow-up study Payne and Ross (2005) augmented this psycho-linguistic approach with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explorehow individual differences in working memory capacity may affect languageuse in SCMC A principal finding was that learners testing at lower levelsof measured phonological working memory were able to utilize the scrollingon-screen messages from other students as they generated their own contri-butions Payne and Ross hypothesized that SCMC creates a ldquobootstrappingeffectrdquo that reduces the cognitive demand of L2 language production and may

enable students with measured low-span working memory to produce morecomplex language than would otherwise be the case New possibilities in cross-modality research include emerging CMC tools that support bimodal chat(ie a combination of both text and voice communication see Blake 2005)that may prove promising as environments to support a variety of learningstyles and media preferences

Interactionist SLA Research

A large number of SCMC studies have adopted the interactionist or ldquonegotia-tion of meaningrdquo framework an approach to SLA initially designed for analy-

sis of negotiation of meaning in oral interaction (eg Varonis amp Gass 1985)and subsequently has been applied to SCMC learner data and task configura-tions Briefly described the interactionist hypothesis suggests that nonnativespeakers benefit from negotiation processes such as modifications to linguisticinput that subsequently increase comprehension and promote interlanguagedevelopment (eg Long 1985 Pica 1987 Varonis amp Gass 1985 for a cri-tique of the interactionist SLA paradigm see Block 2003) Pellettierirsquos (2000)interactionist research on Spanish L2 learners using SCMC finds that dyadicgroupings promote an increase in corrective feedback and negotiation at alllevels of discourse a condition that prompts learners to produce form-focused

modifications to their turns Additionally task type specifically goal-orientedclosed tasks is positively correlated to the quantity and type of negotiationsproduced In a similar study from the same period Blake (2000) assessed theSCMC interactions of 50 intermediate learners of Spanish Participants werearranged in dyads and asked to carry out three task types (a) decision mak-ing (b) information gap and (c) jigsaw Like Pellettieri (see also Smith 2003)Blake found that jigsaw tasks produced the greatest number of negotiationsbut nearly all negotiations were lexical in focus with very few addressing prob-lems in syntax or larger units of discourse In a 2005 study Sotillo examinedthe use of Yahoo Instant Messenger to assess the nature of negative feedback

Q3

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 423

(eg error correction) occurring in native speaker (NS)mdashnonnative speaker(NNS) and NNS-NNS interaction This study indicated the availability ofnegative feedback within SCMC particularly among the NNS-NNS dyads

with some evidence of learner uptake catalyzed by these direct and indirect(eg recasts) corrective feedback movesBuilding on earlier negotiation of meaning research in both CMC and face-

to-face settings Smith (2003) expanded the Varonis and Gass (1985) four-part model of face-to-face negotiated interactionmdash(a) trigger gt (b) indicator gt(c) response gt (d) optional reaction to responsemdashby explicitly incorporatingtwo additional phases to represent delayed reactions to response turns that areso frequent in SCMC discourse Smith termed these confirmation and recon-firmation phases elements that explicitly conclude a given negotiation routineand which act as discourse markers suggesting the possibility of resuming

nonnegotiation interaction Smithrsquos augmentation of the interactionist modelprovides a more modality-relevant framework for research on computer-medi-ated negotiated interaction

While the interactionist SLA framework constitutes a significant or evenmajority market share of CMC L2 research and has produced interesting find-ings the assumption that negotiation of meaning results in increased com-prehensibility which then is posited to promote language learning has beenstrongly contested (Block 2003 related to CMC see Reinhardt in press)Swain (2000) an early proponent of and contributor to the interactionist para-digm recently contested these correlations stating ldquo[V]irtually no research

has demonstrated that the greater comprehensibility achieved through nego-tiation leads to second language learningrdquo (p 98) Interactionist researchersare aware of this problem and subsequently often make only descriptive claimsconfirming the presence of negotiation in SCMC discourse For example ina recent NNS-NS SCMC study Lee (2006) concluded that while her studysupported the interactionist hypothesis it ldquodid not address whether responsesto implicit feedback led to L2 developmentrdquo but rather it ldquosimply identifiedfeedback features used by both NSs and NNSs to negotiate meaning and formin the immediacy of ongoing [SCMC] dialoguerdquo (p 171) Another challengeto the interactionist paradigm is its traditionally exclusive focus on linguistic

elements and encapsulated discoursal moves with little attention to or provi-sion for the goal-directed pragmatic and cultural dimensions of communica-tive activity as they may relate to language learning (Kern 2006) Researcherscommitted to the interactionist hypothesis however are addressing theselimitations for example by focusing on cognitive processes such as noticingand attention to form that more robustly correlate negotiation of meaningto measurable gains in linguistic and communicative competence (eg EllisBasturkmen amp Loewen 2001) Within CMC L2 research an inspiring researcharticle by OrsquoRourke (2005) frontally addresses the constraints of interactionistCMC research by contrapuntally contrasting it to Vygotsky (1997) inspired

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sociocultural theory (SCT the latter is discussed next) OrsquoRourke utilized inter-actionist methodologies as an aid in uncovering language phenomena associ-ated with metalinguistic awareness At the same time he openly acknowledged

interactionismrsquos tendency toward determinismsmdashboth that technology can beseen to determine linguistic functions and that negotiation of meaning can besomewhat ironically presented as a set of predefined categories of nonnegotia-ble discoursal moves He also problematized SCT as overstating the plasticityof social relations interpretation of tasks contexts (and by extension sub-jectivities) and cultural significances associated with particular technologiesFor research on technology-mediated L2 language use OrsquoRourke suggestedcareful attention to the ldquofeatures of artifacts and environments [that] can begraded according to the strength of their tendency to promote attention toformrdquo (p 435) This approach could allow interactionist methodology greater

responsivity to the flexibility and local cultural qualities of the activity andartifacts at hand while also accepting the ldquorelatively identifiable contoursrdquo ofhistorically stable contexts language practices and technologies

Sociocultural Theory and CMC L2 Research

L2 technology researchers have found SCT to be a useful theoretical frameworkdue in large part to its serious attention to the symbolic and material mediatorsof human activity (eg Belz 2002 Darhower 2002 Oskoz 2005 Thorne2004 Warschauer 1997 2005) The vast majority of technology-related SCT-oriented L2 studies however address the specific context of Internet-mediated

intercultural L2 education an area of pedagogical innovation that has becomeso vibrant as to warrant separate attention and thus will be addressed in thefollowing section To briefly describe the essential elements of theory SCTmdashalso referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (for discussion of thisterminological difference see Thorne 2005)mdashis rooted in the writings of theRussian psychologist Vygotsky (1997) and his colleagues (eg Leontrsquoev 1981Luria 1976 Volosinov 1973) SCT argues that human mental functioningis fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifactsactivities and concepts (Ratner 2002) Humans are understood to utilize his-torically developed repositories of existingmdashas well as to create newmdashsemi-

otic and conceptual artifacts that allow them to regulate their biological andbehavioral activity In this sense individual and communal practices are onone hand articulations of historical continuance on the other hand howeverthey possess revolutionary potential for individual and collective change (seeSawchuk Duarte amp Elhammoumi 2006) Language use as well as languageorganization and conceptual structure are the primary of these social-semi-otic mediational tools (for an SCT-informed linguistic model of communica-tive activity see Thorne amp Lantolf 2006) While human neurobiology is anobvious and necessary condition for higher order thinking human cognitiveactivity develops and is qualitatively transformed through interaction with

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

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430 bull Thorne

telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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432 bull Thorne

Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

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Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

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444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

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446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

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420 bull Thorne

course even a few years later in the mid- and late-1990s a wide array ofInternet-mediated practices was common to the point of complete transpar-ency for habituated late modern communicators

Review Of Research

Networked Communication Tools in Language Education

The ability to link students by networked computers has created a vari-ety of opportunities for language-based social interaction in L2 educationThe pedagogical impetus behind educational uses of CMC (both Internet-mediated and earlier within local-area networks) has been and continues tobe language development through textually mediated generally peer-focusedcommunication

Reports of L2 uses of Internet and local-area network communication tech-nologies began emerging in the early 1990s These accounts suggested a num-ber of pedagogical benefits from CMC use many of which were not readilyavailable in conventional L2 language (Cononelos amp Oliva 1993) or compo-sition (Colomb amp Simutis 1996) classrooms Reported findings included agreater opportunity for expression of ideas than in face-to-face discussionsand more time for reflection in the production of messages (Kern 1995) morelinguistic production overall (Kelm 1992 Beauvois 1992) and increased par-ticipation by students who do not participate as frequently in face-to-face class-room discussion (Sullivan amp Pratt 1996) The conventional subject positions

of teachers and students were also argued to have shifted dramatically throughthe intervention of technology Speaking about this issue Kelm (1996) statedldquoTechnology allows language instructors to function in new roles designercoach guide mentor facilitator At the same time the students are able to bemore engaged in the learning process as active learners team builders col-laborators and discoverersrdquo (p 27) While such shifts may have occurred insome cases the early euphoria surrounding technology use as the panaceaassuaging the challenges of education and language learning is striking (for acritical treatment of this issue see Knobel Lankshear Honan amp Crawford1998)

Synchronous CMC Use in L2 Education

The use of synchronous CMC (SCMC) commonly referred to as chat hasbeen the basis of a large number of second-language acquisition (SLA) studiesThroughout the early 1990s Kern (1995) used a SCMC tool called Daeda-lus Interchange a local-area network application with sections of universitysecond-semester French foreign-language students Based on his observationsof in-class SCMC use Kern attempted to quantitatively assess the impres-sion that foreign-language students were producing more language output inSCMC environments than was the case in large group face-to-face classroom

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 421

settings Using a quasi-experimental methodology Kern analyzed a 50-minuteFrench foreign-language SCMC session and compared it to an oral in-classdiscussion by the same language students on the same topic The SCMC treat-

ment produced between two and three times more turns per student and ahigher total number of sentences and words compared to the large-group oraldiscussion (see also Abrams 2003) Kern also examined the linguistic qualityof the discussions and found that studentsrsquo SCMC language output was moresophisticated in terms of the range of morphosyntactic features and variety ofdiscourse functions expressed (1995 p 470) These findings are supported byChunrsquos (1994) study of fourth-semester German students in which SCMC usepromoted increased morphological complexity and a greater ratio of complexsentences in non-SCMC written coursework over the course of one semesterMore recent research has also suggested that SCMC language use is more

accurate than face-to-face interaction (Salaberry 2000)While Kern and Chunrsquos research on L2 uses of large-group SCMC havedemonstrable strengths Ortega (1997) noted limitations to comparing com-puter-mediated classroom and whole-class oral discussions Ortega (1997)posited that the variables of group size and communicative task were notaccounted for in the early SCMC research (eg Beauvois 1992 Chun 1994Kelm 1992 Kern 1995) She argued

It is justified to hypothesize that group size and equality of participationare negatively related in traditional oral interactions and positively related

in computer-assisted interactions and that the benefits of electronic overnon-electronic interactions will increase with the size of groupshellipInother words the positive equalizing effect of the electronic mode willbe accentuated when comparing larger groups as in the comparisons ofteacher-fronted whole-class discussion with whole-class electronic dis-cussion (p 86)

This observation in no way obviates early SCMC research efforts but itconstructively suggested attention to key pedagogical and group-size variablesand also set the stage for future work that examines the possibility of cross-modality transfer between SCMC use and oral-language production

Cross-Modality Transfer

A growing number of L2 SCMC investigations explore cross-modality transferbetween spontaneous SCMC and oral L2 language production (eg Abrams2003) Indeed one of the alluring characteristics of SCMC for L2 teachersand learners has been its perceived resemblance to oral conversational lan-guage (eg Chun 1994 for an argument against this claim see Johanyek1997 see also Yates 1996) Since a major goal of foreign-language instruc-tion is the development of oral conversational ability the possible connectionbetween spontaneous L2 language production via text and speech has been a

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long-stranding focus of L2 SCMC research (Beauvois 1997 Payne amp Whitney2002 Abrams 2003 Kost 2004 Payne amp Ross 2005) Payne and Whitney(2002) applied psycholinguistic models of language production and working

memory to cross-modality transfer and found a significant difference in theoral proficiency gains between experimental (+SCMC) and control (-SCMC)groups In a follow-up study Payne and Ross (2005) augmented this psycho-linguistic approach with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explorehow individual differences in working memory capacity may affect languageuse in SCMC A principal finding was that learners testing at lower levelsof measured phonological working memory were able to utilize the scrollingon-screen messages from other students as they generated their own contri-butions Payne and Ross hypothesized that SCMC creates a ldquobootstrappingeffectrdquo that reduces the cognitive demand of L2 language production and may

enable students with measured low-span working memory to produce morecomplex language than would otherwise be the case New possibilities in cross-modality research include emerging CMC tools that support bimodal chat(ie a combination of both text and voice communication see Blake 2005)that may prove promising as environments to support a variety of learningstyles and media preferences

Interactionist SLA Research

A large number of SCMC studies have adopted the interactionist or ldquonegotia-tion of meaningrdquo framework an approach to SLA initially designed for analy-

sis of negotiation of meaning in oral interaction (eg Varonis amp Gass 1985)and subsequently has been applied to SCMC learner data and task configura-tions Briefly described the interactionist hypothesis suggests that nonnativespeakers benefit from negotiation processes such as modifications to linguisticinput that subsequently increase comprehension and promote interlanguagedevelopment (eg Long 1985 Pica 1987 Varonis amp Gass 1985 for a cri-tique of the interactionist SLA paradigm see Block 2003) Pellettierirsquos (2000)interactionist research on Spanish L2 learners using SCMC finds that dyadicgroupings promote an increase in corrective feedback and negotiation at alllevels of discourse a condition that prompts learners to produce form-focused

modifications to their turns Additionally task type specifically goal-orientedclosed tasks is positively correlated to the quantity and type of negotiationsproduced In a similar study from the same period Blake (2000) assessed theSCMC interactions of 50 intermediate learners of Spanish Participants werearranged in dyads and asked to carry out three task types (a) decision mak-ing (b) information gap and (c) jigsaw Like Pellettieri (see also Smith 2003)Blake found that jigsaw tasks produced the greatest number of negotiationsbut nearly all negotiations were lexical in focus with very few addressing prob-lems in syntax or larger units of discourse In a 2005 study Sotillo examinedthe use of Yahoo Instant Messenger to assess the nature of negative feedback

Q3

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 423

(eg error correction) occurring in native speaker (NS)mdashnonnative speaker(NNS) and NNS-NNS interaction This study indicated the availability ofnegative feedback within SCMC particularly among the NNS-NNS dyads

with some evidence of learner uptake catalyzed by these direct and indirect(eg recasts) corrective feedback movesBuilding on earlier negotiation of meaning research in both CMC and face-

to-face settings Smith (2003) expanded the Varonis and Gass (1985) four-part model of face-to-face negotiated interactionmdash(a) trigger gt (b) indicator gt(c) response gt (d) optional reaction to responsemdashby explicitly incorporatingtwo additional phases to represent delayed reactions to response turns that areso frequent in SCMC discourse Smith termed these confirmation and recon-firmation phases elements that explicitly conclude a given negotiation routineand which act as discourse markers suggesting the possibility of resuming

nonnegotiation interaction Smithrsquos augmentation of the interactionist modelprovides a more modality-relevant framework for research on computer-medi-ated negotiated interaction

While the interactionist SLA framework constitutes a significant or evenmajority market share of CMC L2 research and has produced interesting find-ings the assumption that negotiation of meaning results in increased com-prehensibility which then is posited to promote language learning has beenstrongly contested (Block 2003 related to CMC see Reinhardt in press)Swain (2000) an early proponent of and contributor to the interactionist para-digm recently contested these correlations stating ldquo[V]irtually no research

has demonstrated that the greater comprehensibility achieved through nego-tiation leads to second language learningrdquo (p 98) Interactionist researchersare aware of this problem and subsequently often make only descriptive claimsconfirming the presence of negotiation in SCMC discourse For example ina recent NNS-NS SCMC study Lee (2006) concluded that while her studysupported the interactionist hypothesis it ldquodid not address whether responsesto implicit feedback led to L2 developmentrdquo but rather it ldquosimply identifiedfeedback features used by both NSs and NNSs to negotiate meaning and formin the immediacy of ongoing [SCMC] dialoguerdquo (p 171) Another challengeto the interactionist paradigm is its traditionally exclusive focus on linguistic

elements and encapsulated discoursal moves with little attention to or provi-sion for the goal-directed pragmatic and cultural dimensions of communica-tive activity as they may relate to language learning (Kern 2006) Researcherscommitted to the interactionist hypothesis however are addressing theselimitations for example by focusing on cognitive processes such as noticingand attention to form that more robustly correlate negotiation of meaningto measurable gains in linguistic and communicative competence (eg EllisBasturkmen amp Loewen 2001) Within CMC L2 research an inspiring researcharticle by OrsquoRourke (2005) frontally addresses the constraints of interactionistCMC research by contrapuntally contrasting it to Vygotsky (1997) inspired

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424 bull Thorne

sociocultural theory (SCT the latter is discussed next) OrsquoRourke utilized inter-actionist methodologies as an aid in uncovering language phenomena associ-ated with metalinguistic awareness At the same time he openly acknowledged

interactionismrsquos tendency toward determinismsmdashboth that technology can beseen to determine linguistic functions and that negotiation of meaning can besomewhat ironically presented as a set of predefined categories of nonnegotia-ble discoursal moves He also problematized SCT as overstating the plasticityof social relations interpretation of tasks contexts (and by extension sub-jectivities) and cultural significances associated with particular technologiesFor research on technology-mediated L2 language use OrsquoRourke suggestedcareful attention to the ldquofeatures of artifacts and environments [that] can begraded according to the strength of their tendency to promote attention toformrdquo (p 435) This approach could allow interactionist methodology greater

responsivity to the flexibility and local cultural qualities of the activity andartifacts at hand while also accepting the ldquorelatively identifiable contoursrdquo ofhistorically stable contexts language practices and technologies

Sociocultural Theory and CMC L2 Research

L2 technology researchers have found SCT to be a useful theoretical frameworkdue in large part to its serious attention to the symbolic and material mediatorsof human activity (eg Belz 2002 Darhower 2002 Oskoz 2005 Thorne2004 Warschauer 1997 2005) The vast majority of technology-related SCT-oriented L2 studies however address the specific context of Internet-mediated

intercultural L2 education an area of pedagogical innovation that has becomeso vibrant as to warrant separate attention and thus will be addressed in thefollowing section To briefly describe the essential elements of theory SCTmdashalso referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (for discussion of thisterminological difference see Thorne 2005)mdashis rooted in the writings of theRussian psychologist Vygotsky (1997) and his colleagues (eg Leontrsquoev 1981Luria 1976 Volosinov 1973) SCT argues that human mental functioningis fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifactsactivities and concepts (Ratner 2002) Humans are understood to utilize his-torically developed repositories of existingmdashas well as to create newmdashsemi-

otic and conceptual artifacts that allow them to regulate their biological andbehavioral activity In this sense individual and communal practices are onone hand articulations of historical continuance on the other hand howeverthey possess revolutionary potential for individual and collective change (seeSawchuk Duarte amp Elhammoumi 2006) Language use as well as languageorganization and conceptual structure are the primary of these social-semi-otic mediational tools (for an SCT-informed linguistic model of communica-tive activity see Thorne amp Lantolf 2006) While human neurobiology is anobvious and necessary condition for higher order thinking human cognitiveactivity develops and is qualitatively transformed through interaction with

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

Q9

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telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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438 bull Thorne

per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

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Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

ER56528_C015indd 442 6607 111911 AM

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

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444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

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httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3034

446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

ER56528_C015indd 446 6607 111912 AM

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

Q22

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 421

settings Using a quasi-experimental methodology Kern analyzed a 50-minuteFrench foreign-language SCMC session and compared it to an oral in-classdiscussion by the same language students on the same topic The SCMC treat-

ment produced between two and three times more turns per student and ahigher total number of sentences and words compared to the large-group oraldiscussion (see also Abrams 2003) Kern also examined the linguistic qualityof the discussions and found that studentsrsquo SCMC language output was moresophisticated in terms of the range of morphosyntactic features and variety ofdiscourse functions expressed (1995 p 470) These findings are supported byChunrsquos (1994) study of fourth-semester German students in which SCMC usepromoted increased morphological complexity and a greater ratio of complexsentences in non-SCMC written coursework over the course of one semesterMore recent research has also suggested that SCMC language use is more

accurate than face-to-face interaction (Salaberry 2000)While Kern and Chunrsquos research on L2 uses of large-group SCMC havedemonstrable strengths Ortega (1997) noted limitations to comparing com-puter-mediated classroom and whole-class oral discussions Ortega (1997)posited that the variables of group size and communicative task were notaccounted for in the early SCMC research (eg Beauvois 1992 Chun 1994Kelm 1992 Kern 1995) She argued

It is justified to hypothesize that group size and equality of participationare negatively related in traditional oral interactions and positively related

in computer-assisted interactions and that the benefits of electronic overnon-electronic interactions will increase with the size of groupshellipInother words the positive equalizing effect of the electronic mode willbe accentuated when comparing larger groups as in the comparisons ofteacher-fronted whole-class discussion with whole-class electronic dis-cussion (p 86)

This observation in no way obviates early SCMC research efforts but itconstructively suggested attention to key pedagogical and group-size variablesand also set the stage for future work that examines the possibility of cross-modality transfer between SCMC use and oral-language production

Cross-Modality Transfer

A growing number of L2 SCMC investigations explore cross-modality transferbetween spontaneous SCMC and oral L2 language production (eg Abrams2003) Indeed one of the alluring characteristics of SCMC for L2 teachersand learners has been its perceived resemblance to oral conversational lan-guage (eg Chun 1994 for an argument against this claim see Johanyek1997 see also Yates 1996) Since a major goal of foreign-language instruc-tion is the development of oral conversational ability the possible connectionbetween spontaneous L2 language production via text and speech has been a

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422 bull Thorne

long-stranding focus of L2 SCMC research (Beauvois 1997 Payne amp Whitney2002 Abrams 2003 Kost 2004 Payne amp Ross 2005) Payne and Whitney(2002) applied psycholinguistic models of language production and working

memory to cross-modality transfer and found a significant difference in theoral proficiency gains between experimental (+SCMC) and control (-SCMC)groups In a follow-up study Payne and Ross (2005) augmented this psycho-linguistic approach with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explorehow individual differences in working memory capacity may affect languageuse in SCMC A principal finding was that learners testing at lower levelsof measured phonological working memory were able to utilize the scrollingon-screen messages from other students as they generated their own contri-butions Payne and Ross hypothesized that SCMC creates a ldquobootstrappingeffectrdquo that reduces the cognitive demand of L2 language production and may

enable students with measured low-span working memory to produce morecomplex language than would otherwise be the case New possibilities in cross-modality research include emerging CMC tools that support bimodal chat(ie a combination of both text and voice communication see Blake 2005)that may prove promising as environments to support a variety of learningstyles and media preferences

Interactionist SLA Research

A large number of SCMC studies have adopted the interactionist or ldquonegotia-tion of meaningrdquo framework an approach to SLA initially designed for analy-

sis of negotiation of meaning in oral interaction (eg Varonis amp Gass 1985)and subsequently has been applied to SCMC learner data and task configura-tions Briefly described the interactionist hypothesis suggests that nonnativespeakers benefit from negotiation processes such as modifications to linguisticinput that subsequently increase comprehension and promote interlanguagedevelopment (eg Long 1985 Pica 1987 Varonis amp Gass 1985 for a cri-tique of the interactionist SLA paradigm see Block 2003) Pellettierirsquos (2000)interactionist research on Spanish L2 learners using SCMC finds that dyadicgroupings promote an increase in corrective feedback and negotiation at alllevels of discourse a condition that prompts learners to produce form-focused

modifications to their turns Additionally task type specifically goal-orientedclosed tasks is positively correlated to the quantity and type of negotiationsproduced In a similar study from the same period Blake (2000) assessed theSCMC interactions of 50 intermediate learners of Spanish Participants werearranged in dyads and asked to carry out three task types (a) decision mak-ing (b) information gap and (c) jigsaw Like Pellettieri (see also Smith 2003)Blake found that jigsaw tasks produced the greatest number of negotiationsbut nearly all negotiations were lexical in focus with very few addressing prob-lems in syntax or larger units of discourse In a 2005 study Sotillo examinedthe use of Yahoo Instant Messenger to assess the nature of negative feedback

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 423

(eg error correction) occurring in native speaker (NS)mdashnonnative speaker(NNS) and NNS-NNS interaction This study indicated the availability ofnegative feedback within SCMC particularly among the NNS-NNS dyads

with some evidence of learner uptake catalyzed by these direct and indirect(eg recasts) corrective feedback movesBuilding on earlier negotiation of meaning research in both CMC and face-

to-face settings Smith (2003) expanded the Varonis and Gass (1985) four-part model of face-to-face negotiated interactionmdash(a) trigger gt (b) indicator gt(c) response gt (d) optional reaction to responsemdashby explicitly incorporatingtwo additional phases to represent delayed reactions to response turns that areso frequent in SCMC discourse Smith termed these confirmation and recon-firmation phases elements that explicitly conclude a given negotiation routineand which act as discourse markers suggesting the possibility of resuming

nonnegotiation interaction Smithrsquos augmentation of the interactionist modelprovides a more modality-relevant framework for research on computer-medi-ated negotiated interaction

While the interactionist SLA framework constitutes a significant or evenmajority market share of CMC L2 research and has produced interesting find-ings the assumption that negotiation of meaning results in increased com-prehensibility which then is posited to promote language learning has beenstrongly contested (Block 2003 related to CMC see Reinhardt in press)Swain (2000) an early proponent of and contributor to the interactionist para-digm recently contested these correlations stating ldquo[V]irtually no research

has demonstrated that the greater comprehensibility achieved through nego-tiation leads to second language learningrdquo (p 98) Interactionist researchersare aware of this problem and subsequently often make only descriptive claimsconfirming the presence of negotiation in SCMC discourse For example ina recent NNS-NS SCMC study Lee (2006) concluded that while her studysupported the interactionist hypothesis it ldquodid not address whether responsesto implicit feedback led to L2 developmentrdquo but rather it ldquosimply identifiedfeedback features used by both NSs and NNSs to negotiate meaning and formin the immediacy of ongoing [SCMC] dialoguerdquo (p 171) Another challengeto the interactionist paradigm is its traditionally exclusive focus on linguistic

elements and encapsulated discoursal moves with little attention to or provi-sion for the goal-directed pragmatic and cultural dimensions of communica-tive activity as they may relate to language learning (Kern 2006) Researcherscommitted to the interactionist hypothesis however are addressing theselimitations for example by focusing on cognitive processes such as noticingand attention to form that more robustly correlate negotiation of meaningto measurable gains in linguistic and communicative competence (eg EllisBasturkmen amp Loewen 2001) Within CMC L2 research an inspiring researcharticle by OrsquoRourke (2005) frontally addresses the constraints of interactionistCMC research by contrapuntally contrasting it to Vygotsky (1997) inspired

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424 bull Thorne

sociocultural theory (SCT the latter is discussed next) OrsquoRourke utilized inter-actionist methodologies as an aid in uncovering language phenomena associ-ated with metalinguistic awareness At the same time he openly acknowledged

interactionismrsquos tendency toward determinismsmdashboth that technology can beseen to determine linguistic functions and that negotiation of meaning can besomewhat ironically presented as a set of predefined categories of nonnegotia-ble discoursal moves He also problematized SCT as overstating the plasticityof social relations interpretation of tasks contexts (and by extension sub-jectivities) and cultural significances associated with particular technologiesFor research on technology-mediated L2 language use OrsquoRourke suggestedcareful attention to the ldquofeatures of artifacts and environments [that] can begraded according to the strength of their tendency to promote attention toformrdquo (p 435) This approach could allow interactionist methodology greater

responsivity to the flexibility and local cultural qualities of the activity andartifacts at hand while also accepting the ldquorelatively identifiable contoursrdquo ofhistorically stable contexts language practices and technologies

Sociocultural Theory and CMC L2 Research

L2 technology researchers have found SCT to be a useful theoretical frameworkdue in large part to its serious attention to the symbolic and material mediatorsof human activity (eg Belz 2002 Darhower 2002 Oskoz 2005 Thorne2004 Warschauer 1997 2005) The vast majority of technology-related SCT-oriented L2 studies however address the specific context of Internet-mediated

intercultural L2 education an area of pedagogical innovation that has becomeso vibrant as to warrant separate attention and thus will be addressed in thefollowing section To briefly describe the essential elements of theory SCTmdashalso referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (for discussion of thisterminological difference see Thorne 2005)mdashis rooted in the writings of theRussian psychologist Vygotsky (1997) and his colleagues (eg Leontrsquoev 1981Luria 1976 Volosinov 1973) SCT argues that human mental functioningis fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifactsactivities and concepts (Ratner 2002) Humans are understood to utilize his-torically developed repositories of existingmdashas well as to create newmdashsemi-

otic and conceptual artifacts that allow them to regulate their biological andbehavioral activity In this sense individual and communal practices are onone hand articulations of historical continuance on the other hand howeverthey possess revolutionary potential for individual and collective change (seeSawchuk Duarte amp Elhammoumi 2006) Language use as well as languageorganization and conceptual structure are the primary of these social-semi-otic mediational tools (for an SCT-informed linguistic model of communica-tive activity see Thorne amp Lantolf 2006) While human neurobiology is anobvious and necessary condition for higher order thinking human cognitiveactivity develops and is qualitatively transformed through interaction with

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

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430 bull Thorne

telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

Q10

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

Q11

Q12

Q13

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Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

Q14

Q15

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

ER56528_C015indd 442 6607 111911 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2734

Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

Q16

Q17

ER56528_C015indd 443 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2834

444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

Q19

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446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

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422 bull Thorne

long-stranding focus of L2 SCMC research (Beauvois 1997 Payne amp Whitney2002 Abrams 2003 Kost 2004 Payne amp Ross 2005) Payne and Whitney(2002) applied psycholinguistic models of language production and working

memory to cross-modality transfer and found a significant difference in theoral proficiency gains between experimental (+SCMC) and control (-SCMC)groups In a follow-up study Payne and Ross (2005) augmented this psycho-linguistic approach with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explorehow individual differences in working memory capacity may affect languageuse in SCMC A principal finding was that learners testing at lower levelsof measured phonological working memory were able to utilize the scrollingon-screen messages from other students as they generated their own contri-butions Payne and Ross hypothesized that SCMC creates a ldquobootstrappingeffectrdquo that reduces the cognitive demand of L2 language production and may

enable students with measured low-span working memory to produce morecomplex language than would otherwise be the case New possibilities in cross-modality research include emerging CMC tools that support bimodal chat(ie a combination of both text and voice communication see Blake 2005)that may prove promising as environments to support a variety of learningstyles and media preferences

Interactionist SLA Research

A large number of SCMC studies have adopted the interactionist or ldquonegotia-tion of meaningrdquo framework an approach to SLA initially designed for analy-

sis of negotiation of meaning in oral interaction (eg Varonis amp Gass 1985)and subsequently has been applied to SCMC learner data and task configura-tions Briefly described the interactionist hypothesis suggests that nonnativespeakers benefit from negotiation processes such as modifications to linguisticinput that subsequently increase comprehension and promote interlanguagedevelopment (eg Long 1985 Pica 1987 Varonis amp Gass 1985 for a cri-tique of the interactionist SLA paradigm see Block 2003) Pellettierirsquos (2000)interactionist research on Spanish L2 learners using SCMC finds that dyadicgroupings promote an increase in corrective feedback and negotiation at alllevels of discourse a condition that prompts learners to produce form-focused

modifications to their turns Additionally task type specifically goal-orientedclosed tasks is positively correlated to the quantity and type of negotiationsproduced In a similar study from the same period Blake (2000) assessed theSCMC interactions of 50 intermediate learners of Spanish Participants werearranged in dyads and asked to carry out three task types (a) decision mak-ing (b) information gap and (c) jigsaw Like Pellettieri (see also Smith 2003)Blake found that jigsaw tasks produced the greatest number of negotiationsbut nearly all negotiations were lexical in focus with very few addressing prob-lems in syntax or larger units of discourse In a 2005 study Sotillo examinedthe use of Yahoo Instant Messenger to assess the nature of negative feedback

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 423

(eg error correction) occurring in native speaker (NS)mdashnonnative speaker(NNS) and NNS-NNS interaction This study indicated the availability ofnegative feedback within SCMC particularly among the NNS-NNS dyads

with some evidence of learner uptake catalyzed by these direct and indirect(eg recasts) corrective feedback movesBuilding on earlier negotiation of meaning research in both CMC and face-

to-face settings Smith (2003) expanded the Varonis and Gass (1985) four-part model of face-to-face negotiated interactionmdash(a) trigger gt (b) indicator gt(c) response gt (d) optional reaction to responsemdashby explicitly incorporatingtwo additional phases to represent delayed reactions to response turns that areso frequent in SCMC discourse Smith termed these confirmation and recon-firmation phases elements that explicitly conclude a given negotiation routineand which act as discourse markers suggesting the possibility of resuming

nonnegotiation interaction Smithrsquos augmentation of the interactionist modelprovides a more modality-relevant framework for research on computer-medi-ated negotiated interaction

While the interactionist SLA framework constitutes a significant or evenmajority market share of CMC L2 research and has produced interesting find-ings the assumption that negotiation of meaning results in increased com-prehensibility which then is posited to promote language learning has beenstrongly contested (Block 2003 related to CMC see Reinhardt in press)Swain (2000) an early proponent of and contributor to the interactionist para-digm recently contested these correlations stating ldquo[V]irtually no research

has demonstrated that the greater comprehensibility achieved through nego-tiation leads to second language learningrdquo (p 98) Interactionist researchersare aware of this problem and subsequently often make only descriptive claimsconfirming the presence of negotiation in SCMC discourse For example ina recent NNS-NS SCMC study Lee (2006) concluded that while her studysupported the interactionist hypothesis it ldquodid not address whether responsesto implicit feedback led to L2 developmentrdquo but rather it ldquosimply identifiedfeedback features used by both NSs and NNSs to negotiate meaning and formin the immediacy of ongoing [SCMC] dialoguerdquo (p 171) Another challengeto the interactionist paradigm is its traditionally exclusive focus on linguistic

elements and encapsulated discoursal moves with little attention to or provi-sion for the goal-directed pragmatic and cultural dimensions of communica-tive activity as they may relate to language learning (Kern 2006) Researcherscommitted to the interactionist hypothesis however are addressing theselimitations for example by focusing on cognitive processes such as noticingand attention to form that more robustly correlate negotiation of meaningto measurable gains in linguistic and communicative competence (eg EllisBasturkmen amp Loewen 2001) Within CMC L2 research an inspiring researcharticle by OrsquoRourke (2005) frontally addresses the constraints of interactionistCMC research by contrapuntally contrasting it to Vygotsky (1997) inspired

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424 bull Thorne

sociocultural theory (SCT the latter is discussed next) OrsquoRourke utilized inter-actionist methodologies as an aid in uncovering language phenomena associ-ated with metalinguistic awareness At the same time he openly acknowledged

interactionismrsquos tendency toward determinismsmdashboth that technology can beseen to determine linguistic functions and that negotiation of meaning can besomewhat ironically presented as a set of predefined categories of nonnegotia-ble discoursal moves He also problematized SCT as overstating the plasticityof social relations interpretation of tasks contexts (and by extension sub-jectivities) and cultural significances associated with particular technologiesFor research on technology-mediated L2 language use OrsquoRourke suggestedcareful attention to the ldquofeatures of artifacts and environments [that] can begraded according to the strength of their tendency to promote attention toformrdquo (p 435) This approach could allow interactionist methodology greater

responsivity to the flexibility and local cultural qualities of the activity andartifacts at hand while also accepting the ldquorelatively identifiable contoursrdquo ofhistorically stable contexts language practices and technologies

Sociocultural Theory and CMC L2 Research

L2 technology researchers have found SCT to be a useful theoretical frameworkdue in large part to its serious attention to the symbolic and material mediatorsof human activity (eg Belz 2002 Darhower 2002 Oskoz 2005 Thorne2004 Warschauer 1997 2005) The vast majority of technology-related SCT-oriented L2 studies however address the specific context of Internet-mediated

intercultural L2 education an area of pedagogical innovation that has becomeso vibrant as to warrant separate attention and thus will be addressed in thefollowing section To briefly describe the essential elements of theory SCTmdashalso referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (for discussion of thisterminological difference see Thorne 2005)mdashis rooted in the writings of theRussian psychologist Vygotsky (1997) and his colleagues (eg Leontrsquoev 1981Luria 1976 Volosinov 1973) SCT argues that human mental functioningis fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifactsactivities and concepts (Ratner 2002) Humans are understood to utilize his-torically developed repositories of existingmdashas well as to create newmdashsemi-

otic and conceptual artifacts that allow them to regulate their biological andbehavioral activity In this sense individual and communal practices are onone hand articulations of historical continuance on the other hand howeverthey possess revolutionary potential for individual and collective change (seeSawchuk Duarte amp Elhammoumi 2006) Language use as well as languageorganization and conceptual structure are the primary of these social-semi-otic mediational tools (for an SCT-informed linguistic model of communica-tive activity see Thorne amp Lantolf 2006) While human neurobiology is anobvious and necessary condition for higher order thinking human cognitiveactivity develops and is qualitatively transformed through interaction with

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

Q9

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telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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438 bull Thorne

per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

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440 bull Thorne

Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

ER56528_C015indd 442 6607 111911 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2734

Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

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444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

Q19

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httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3034

446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

ER56528_C015indd 446 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

Q22

Q23

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Q24

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 423

(eg error correction) occurring in native speaker (NS)mdashnonnative speaker(NNS) and NNS-NNS interaction This study indicated the availability ofnegative feedback within SCMC particularly among the NNS-NNS dyads

with some evidence of learner uptake catalyzed by these direct and indirect(eg recasts) corrective feedback movesBuilding on earlier negotiation of meaning research in both CMC and face-

to-face settings Smith (2003) expanded the Varonis and Gass (1985) four-part model of face-to-face negotiated interactionmdash(a) trigger gt (b) indicator gt(c) response gt (d) optional reaction to responsemdashby explicitly incorporatingtwo additional phases to represent delayed reactions to response turns that areso frequent in SCMC discourse Smith termed these confirmation and recon-firmation phases elements that explicitly conclude a given negotiation routineand which act as discourse markers suggesting the possibility of resuming

nonnegotiation interaction Smithrsquos augmentation of the interactionist modelprovides a more modality-relevant framework for research on computer-medi-ated negotiated interaction

While the interactionist SLA framework constitutes a significant or evenmajority market share of CMC L2 research and has produced interesting find-ings the assumption that negotiation of meaning results in increased com-prehensibility which then is posited to promote language learning has beenstrongly contested (Block 2003 related to CMC see Reinhardt in press)Swain (2000) an early proponent of and contributor to the interactionist para-digm recently contested these correlations stating ldquo[V]irtually no research

has demonstrated that the greater comprehensibility achieved through nego-tiation leads to second language learningrdquo (p 98) Interactionist researchersare aware of this problem and subsequently often make only descriptive claimsconfirming the presence of negotiation in SCMC discourse For example ina recent NNS-NS SCMC study Lee (2006) concluded that while her studysupported the interactionist hypothesis it ldquodid not address whether responsesto implicit feedback led to L2 developmentrdquo but rather it ldquosimply identifiedfeedback features used by both NSs and NNSs to negotiate meaning and formin the immediacy of ongoing [SCMC] dialoguerdquo (p 171) Another challengeto the interactionist paradigm is its traditionally exclusive focus on linguistic

elements and encapsulated discoursal moves with little attention to or provi-sion for the goal-directed pragmatic and cultural dimensions of communica-tive activity as they may relate to language learning (Kern 2006) Researcherscommitted to the interactionist hypothesis however are addressing theselimitations for example by focusing on cognitive processes such as noticingand attention to form that more robustly correlate negotiation of meaningto measurable gains in linguistic and communicative competence (eg EllisBasturkmen amp Loewen 2001) Within CMC L2 research an inspiring researcharticle by OrsquoRourke (2005) frontally addresses the constraints of interactionistCMC research by contrapuntally contrasting it to Vygotsky (1997) inspired

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sociocultural theory (SCT the latter is discussed next) OrsquoRourke utilized inter-actionist methodologies as an aid in uncovering language phenomena associ-ated with metalinguistic awareness At the same time he openly acknowledged

interactionismrsquos tendency toward determinismsmdashboth that technology can beseen to determine linguistic functions and that negotiation of meaning can besomewhat ironically presented as a set of predefined categories of nonnegotia-ble discoursal moves He also problematized SCT as overstating the plasticityof social relations interpretation of tasks contexts (and by extension sub-jectivities) and cultural significances associated with particular technologiesFor research on technology-mediated L2 language use OrsquoRourke suggestedcareful attention to the ldquofeatures of artifacts and environments [that] can begraded according to the strength of their tendency to promote attention toformrdquo (p 435) This approach could allow interactionist methodology greater

responsivity to the flexibility and local cultural qualities of the activity andartifacts at hand while also accepting the ldquorelatively identifiable contoursrdquo ofhistorically stable contexts language practices and technologies

Sociocultural Theory and CMC L2 Research

L2 technology researchers have found SCT to be a useful theoretical frameworkdue in large part to its serious attention to the symbolic and material mediatorsof human activity (eg Belz 2002 Darhower 2002 Oskoz 2005 Thorne2004 Warschauer 1997 2005) The vast majority of technology-related SCT-oriented L2 studies however address the specific context of Internet-mediated

intercultural L2 education an area of pedagogical innovation that has becomeso vibrant as to warrant separate attention and thus will be addressed in thefollowing section To briefly describe the essential elements of theory SCTmdashalso referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (for discussion of thisterminological difference see Thorne 2005)mdashis rooted in the writings of theRussian psychologist Vygotsky (1997) and his colleagues (eg Leontrsquoev 1981Luria 1976 Volosinov 1973) SCT argues that human mental functioningis fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifactsactivities and concepts (Ratner 2002) Humans are understood to utilize his-torically developed repositories of existingmdashas well as to create newmdashsemi-

otic and conceptual artifacts that allow them to regulate their biological andbehavioral activity In this sense individual and communal practices are onone hand articulations of historical continuance on the other hand howeverthey possess revolutionary potential for individual and collective change (seeSawchuk Duarte amp Elhammoumi 2006) Language use as well as languageorganization and conceptual structure are the primary of these social-semi-otic mediational tools (for an SCT-informed linguistic model of communica-tive activity see Thorne amp Lantolf 2006) While human neurobiology is anobvious and necessary condition for higher order thinking human cognitiveactivity develops and is qualitatively transformed through interaction with

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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426 bull Thorne

social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

Q8

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

Q9

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430 bull Thorne

telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

Q11

Q12

Q13

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440 bull Thorne

Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

Q14

Q15

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

Q16

Q17

ER56528_C015indd 443 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2834

444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

ER56528_C015indd 444 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2934

Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

Q19

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446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

ER56528_C015indd 446 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Q24

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424 bull Thorne

sociocultural theory (SCT the latter is discussed next) OrsquoRourke utilized inter-actionist methodologies as an aid in uncovering language phenomena associ-ated with metalinguistic awareness At the same time he openly acknowledged

interactionismrsquos tendency toward determinismsmdashboth that technology can beseen to determine linguistic functions and that negotiation of meaning can besomewhat ironically presented as a set of predefined categories of nonnegotia-ble discoursal moves He also problematized SCT as overstating the plasticityof social relations interpretation of tasks contexts (and by extension sub-jectivities) and cultural significances associated with particular technologiesFor research on technology-mediated L2 language use OrsquoRourke suggestedcareful attention to the ldquofeatures of artifacts and environments [that] can begraded according to the strength of their tendency to promote attention toformrdquo (p 435) This approach could allow interactionist methodology greater

responsivity to the flexibility and local cultural qualities of the activity andartifacts at hand while also accepting the ldquorelatively identifiable contoursrdquo ofhistorically stable contexts language practices and technologies

Sociocultural Theory and CMC L2 Research

L2 technology researchers have found SCT to be a useful theoretical frameworkdue in large part to its serious attention to the symbolic and material mediatorsof human activity (eg Belz 2002 Darhower 2002 Oskoz 2005 Thorne2004 Warschauer 1997 2005) The vast majority of technology-related SCT-oriented L2 studies however address the specific context of Internet-mediated

intercultural L2 education an area of pedagogical innovation that has becomeso vibrant as to warrant separate attention and thus will be addressed in thefollowing section To briefly describe the essential elements of theory SCTmdashalso referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (for discussion of thisterminological difference see Thorne 2005)mdashis rooted in the writings of theRussian psychologist Vygotsky (1997) and his colleagues (eg Leontrsquoev 1981Luria 1976 Volosinov 1973) SCT argues that human mental functioningis fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifactsactivities and concepts (Ratner 2002) Humans are understood to utilize his-torically developed repositories of existingmdashas well as to create newmdashsemi-

otic and conceptual artifacts that allow them to regulate their biological andbehavioral activity In this sense individual and communal practices are onone hand articulations of historical continuance on the other hand howeverthey possess revolutionary potential for individual and collective change (seeSawchuk Duarte amp Elhammoumi 2006) Language use as well as languageorganization and conceptual structure are the primary of these social-semi-otic mediational tools (for an SCT-informed linguistic model of communica-tive activity see Thorne amp Lantolf 2006) While human neurobiology is anobvious and necessary condition for higher order thinking human cognitiveactivity develops and is qualitatively transformed through interaction with

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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426 bull Thorne

social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

Q7

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

Q8

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

Q9

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telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

Q10

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

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Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

ER56528_C015indd 442 6607 111911 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

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444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

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446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

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httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Q24

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 425

and contributions to social and material environments (see Lantolf amp Thorne2006a 2006b Stetsenko amp Arievich 2004 Tomasello 1999)

SCT has been used to frame a number of areas of L2 CMC inquiry Dar-

hower (2002) examined the use of SCMC in two fourth-semester univer-sity-level Spanish courses His analysis illustrates that students were able toappropriate the chat environment to produce a personally meaningful highlyintersubjective discourse community that included the performance of nonstu-dent identities theatrical role play sarcasm and recurrent forms of humor andstrategic uses of the L1 to support more sophisticated dialogue all of whichextended the discourse possibilities substantially beyond those available in theface-to-face classroom setting In a multisite research project that resulted inthe text Electronic Literacies Warschauer (1999) examined technology usein linguistically and ethnically diverse college-level ESL Hawaiian language

and English writing courses His emphasis was to assess the impact of tech-nology-mediated learning activities across divergent contexts with a focus onunderstanding the limits and possibilities of computer-mediation as a poten-tially transformative force in the development of computer literacy L2 com-municative competence and L1 writing Warschauerrsquos analysis shows that theprocesses and outcomes of technology use differed greatly across the variouscontexts suggesting constitutive ecological relationships (eg Bateson 1972)between institutional mission and culture teacher beliefs about the processesand expected outcomes associated with learning and student-participants assubjects with agency and independent life goals To take two of the cases the

undergraduate ESL course emphasized discrete point surface-level grammati-cal accuracy and subsequently computer-mediated activities involved primar-ily grammar drills and attention to linguistic form The Hawaiian languagecourse by contrast was ideologically committed to writing as a form of col-lective empowerment with computer-mediated activities involving linkages tothe community and the production of applied research that could supportHawaiian language revitalization and maintenance In terms of technologyintegration into formal educational contexts Warschauerrsquos (1999 2005) worksuggests that socially andor professionally relevant ldquostrong purpose activi-tiesrdquo are more productive but equally that the uses of various technologies

should include modality specific and rhetorically appropriate opportunities forexpressionEngestroumlm and Miettenin (1999) pointed out the problem that ldquo[a]ctivity-

theoretical studies of work and communication have thus far mainly dealt withdevelopment and learning within well-bounded activity systemsrdquo (p 32) Yetdemonstrably life and learning are not composed of isolated or strictly isolat-able moments and spaces (eg Leander amp Lovvorn 2006 Roth ElmeskyCarambo McKnight amp Beers 2005) Addressing this issue Thorne (19992000a) focused on the interpenetrations occurring between microinteractionalactivity and macrosocial and cultural structures through an examination of

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social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

Q9

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430 bull Thorne

telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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432 bull Thorne

Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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438 bull Thorne

per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

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440 bull Thorne

Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

ER56528_C015indd 442 6607 111911 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 2734

Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

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444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

Q19

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httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3034

446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

ER56528_C015indd 446 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

Q22

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Q24

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426 bull Thorne

social and formal educational uses of Internet communication technologiesBased on log file transcripts and ethnographic interviews with participantsThorne presented evidence that for a number of students the discursive fram-

ing of L2 educational activity is differentially configured when mediated bysynchronous Internet communication tools The question posed was why isthis the case Although prior research on CMC use in L2 contexts (eg Beau-vois 1998 Chun 1994 Warschauer 1997) provided important descriptiveanalyses of uses of CMC for educational purposes this work was limited byits lack of attention to macrocultural processes also at work (cf Warschauer1999 previously discussed) Addressing this problem Thorne proposed a two-level theoretical framework for the study of CMC that draws and expandsupon theoretical treatments of mediation and interactivity system analysisThis approach to human activity mediated by artifacts distinguishes the ldquogen-

otyperdquo of an artifactrsquos essential features and functional from its ldquophenotyperdquoor observable characteristics as it is used within goal-directed activity1 Whileartifacts always possess a discrete functional materialitymdashtheir brute observ-able genotypic existencemdashin practice artifacts are meaningfully and differen-tially defined by their historical patterns of use Within the context of CMCL2 use a phenotypic approach frames in-class digital interaction within thelarger context of participantsrsquo prior and everyday use of Internet communica-tion tools Through a focus on divergent communities mediated by commonmediational artifactsmdashin this case Internet communication toolsmdashthe rele-vance and importance of interactivity system analysis becomes both obvious

and necessary Extensions of this line of research will be further discussed inthe next section of this chapter

Internet-Mediated Intercultural L2 Education

The use of Internet technologies to encourage dialogue between distributedindividuals and partner classes proposes a compelling shift in L2 educationone that moves learners away from simulated classroom-based contexts andtoward actual interaction with expert speakers of the language they are study-ing The conceptualization of L2 learning and use as foremost a process ofintercultural communication in both online and offline contexts has receivedsignificant attention in recent years (eg Belz amp Thorne 2006a Belz ampReinhardt 2004 Brammerts 1996 Byram 1997 Furstenberg 2003 Fursten-berg Levet English amp Maillet 2001 Kinginger 1998 2004 Kramsch 1998OrsquoDowd 2003 Sercu 2004 Tella 1991 Thorne 2003 2006) Indeed withgreater Internet access across more of the world there has been the suggestion

1 Genotype and phenotype are terms from biology that Thorne analogically applies to the discussionof artifact mediation The definition of genotype is the basic genetic structure of an organism whilephenotype describes the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of itsgenotype with the environment

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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428 bull Thorne

suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

Q8

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

Q9

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430 bull Thorne

telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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432 bull Thorne

Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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434 bull Thorne

(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise differences between expert andlearner discourse in difficult-to-teach (and learn) areas (eg da compounds andmodal particles for German) Belz used corpus-informed contrastive analysissometimes described as data-driven learning (eg Johns 1991) to ascertainsubtle differences in uses of discrete linguistic elements and collocations (iecommon patterns of lexical affiliation) across learner and expert corpora oflanguage use Assessing variance in the frequency and distribution of linguis-

tic elements between expert and learner language use is especially relevant forICL2E projects as issues of pragmatic appropriacy and cultural misalignmentsare all recorded in persistent textual form With ecologically aligned corporaof both learner and expert language use Belz and Thorne (2006b) suggestedthat L2 teachers can better

capitalize on the blended quality of telecollaborative pedagogy in con-junction with the results of contrastive learner corpus analysis to con-vey an understanding of L2 competence that is rooted in frequency ofuse as well as grammatical accuracy to construct quantitative profiles oflearnersrsquo linguistic development over time and to design individualized

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 435

corpus-based pedagogical interventions for underused or misused fea-tures (p xv)

This review of ICL2E research has attempted to show that the goals of

various projects and interventions are diverse but often include linguistic andpragmatic development as well as increasing awareness about onersquos own cul-tural background those of onersquos interlocutors and the processes involved incarrying out extended developmentally productive and ultimately meaning-ful dialogue with persons who are primary speakers of other languages Whilecorrespondence with expert speakers of the language of study is a pedagogicalmethod with a long history (eg Freinet 1994) the recent surge in peda-gogical and research efforts in this area suggests that ICL2E is exerting a sig-nificant and broad-based influence on the character processes and goals ofmainstream L2 language education

Open Internet Communities and Affi liative Networks

People have interests passions hobbies idols fetishes problems addictionsand aspirations that they want to communicate share argue about and bondover The Internet has created compelling opportunities to engage in all ofthese (and more) that include discussion fora associated with newspapers suchas Le Monde (Hanna amp de Nooy 2003) fan fiction sites (Black 2005 2006)and fan Web sites (Lam 2000 2004 Lam amp Kramsch 2003) To begin witha project that most closely relates to instructed L2 learning in a finely crafted

study Hanna and de Nooy (2003) reported on four students of French whoparticipated in public Internet discussion forums associated with the Parisiannewspaper Le Monde The authors presented a strong rationale for opting touse public discussion forums rather than more conventional telecollaborationpartnerships While it is a debatable point Hanna and de Nooy argued thatwhile telecollaboration has many virtues students are still ldquosafely within theclassroom virtual though it might berdquo (p 73) and limited by the fact that theyoccupy and predominantly speak from the institutionally bounded subjectposition of student or learner Le Monde discussion fora by contrast exist tosupport argumentation and debate about mostly contemporary political and

cultural issues One forum in particular labeled Autre sujets (other topics)included a wide range of participants and topics and was selected as the venuefor the study

The French language learners in Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study wereDavid and Laura both American and Eleanor and Fleurie who were Eng-lish Each studentrsquos opening post to the Autre sujets forum was analyzed andfollowed for the number and content of the responses received Each of the4 students opened with a gambit that positioned them as learners of Frenchbut they differed in their tone and affect Eleanor and Fleurie opted to cre-ate new stand-alone messages on the forum with the respective subject lines

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Les Anglais (ldquoThe Englishrdquo) and Une fille anglaise (ldquoAn English girlrdquo) In thecontent of their posts Eleanor and Fleurie each made explicit requests for con-versational partners to help them improve their French They received a few

cordial as well as abrupt replies each of which suggested that they actually saysomething or take a position in the ongoing discussion Neither did and bothdisappeared from the forum

David and Laura in contrast both opened with a response to another mes-sage de facto entering into a turn exchange system as their messages weremarked by the subject line header of the message they had responded to (egReacutef Combattre le modegravele ameacutericainmdashldquoFight the American modelrdquo) Theyalso each began by apologizing for the limitations of their French-languageability Hanna and de Nooy (2003) interpreted this as a clever strategy thatldquoreinstates certain cultural bordersrdquo and that provided them with ldquoa particular

speaking positionrdquo (p 78) that may have yielded advantages in the debate cul-ture of the forum It is also salient that immediately following their language-apology gambits they each contributed position statements on the themes ofracism and cultural imperialism David in fact primarily used English in hisposts but with coaching and support from forum participants he maintaineda significant presence on the forum suggesting ldquo[N]either politeness nor lin-guistic accuracy is the measure of intercultural competence hererdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 78) Rather in the circumstances of Le Monde discussionforums participation in the genre of debate is the minimum threshold formembership The critically important message from this study framed in the

vernacular is that if you want to communicate with real people you needto self-present as a real person yourself From an instructional perspectiveencouraging (or requiring) students to participate in noneducationally ori-ented online communities would involve teaching students how to recognizegenres and subsequently how to engage in discussion that does not ultimatelyrevolve around ldquothe self hellip as the exotic little foreignerthe otherrdquo (Hanna ampde Nooy 2003 p 73)

Hanna and de Nooyrsquos (2003) study illustrates that participation in open andthematically oriented Internet communities supports the very processes L2education ostensibly seeks to provide such as the use of language as a resource

for ongoing identity formation and personally meaningful communication inthe service of goals that extend beyond ldquopracticerdquo or ldquolearningrdquo in the restric-tive senses associated with institutional settings In related research investi-gating diaspora and immigrant youth engaged in nonacademically structureduses of the Internet Lam (2000 2004) ethnographically documented a num-ber of developmental trajectories One individual an immigrant from HongKong struggled with English was tracked as a low-achieving student andexpressed significant trepidation about English the language of his new homein the United States In high school however he began to explore the Inter-net developed a Web site devoted to the Japanese pop (J-pop) singer Ryoko

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 437

and started to converse over e-mail and SCMC with a number of other J-popfans This process was mediated largely in English but also included transcul-tural expressive features such as emoticons Web-page design and elements

from other languages (eg Chinese) Participation in a vibrant online commu-nity elevated Almonrsquos confidence and enhanced his capacity to use a genre ofEnglish appropriate to online communication As Almonrsquos semiotic repertoireexpanded he developed the ability to construct a complex online identity andto build and sustain meaningful relationships Commenting on the differencesbetween Almonrsquos developmental progress in English in school and in the Inter-net peer group Lam and Kramsch (2003) argued that while Almonrsquos textualidentity on the Internet was a positive and empowering discursive formationhis position in the US high school ldquois also symbolically constructed thistime as a low-pride lsquolow-acheiverrsquordquo (p 155) In other words noted Lam and

Kramsch the sophisticated genre of English language use Almon demonstratedonline may not meet the selection criteria necessary to pass the high-schoolexit composition test This case presents a number of challenges to the conven-tional goals and processes of language education such as the rigidity of thegate-keeping mechanisms of high-stakes testing the disconnect between andthe prescriptivist epistemology of schooling and language use that is appropri-ate in other contexts (Internet-mediated and otherwise) and what should orcould be done to leverage and perhaps formally acknowledge a plurality ofcommunicative practices that are currently considered stigmatized linguisticvarieties In an age marked by transcultural and hybrid genres of communica-

tion these issues will increase in intensity and complexity and will necessarilyhave to inform the L2 educational frameworks of the future

New(er) Technologies and L2 Education

A number of recent techonologies namely wikis blogs and gaming are rap-idly being appropriated into L2 educational contexts There is currently verylittle research on the use of these tools for L2 learning presenting an obviousopportunity for future work

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs and wikis are considered second-generation Web applications and repre-sent relatively modest technological advancements over their static Web pagepredecessor (for a review of these technologies see Thorne amp Payne 2005)Wiki (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki meaning ldquoquickrdquo) describes a Web-basedenvironment that supports collaborative writing Wikis are designed to beintensely collaborative and allow multiple users to edit content and contributeto the production of continually evolving texts and informational resourcesThe radical dimension to wiki use is its challenge of the notion of authorship Inthe archetypal wiki there is no distinction between ldquoauthorrdquo and ldquoaudiencerdquo

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438 bull Thorne

per se since readers of a wiki page can spontaneously opt to become a col-laborating author Individual wiki pages can be password limited to one or agroup of users using an access-control list but wiki technology is premised on

the idea of universal writeaccess Within the context of group and educationaluses wikis obviate the need to laboriously merge individual contributions inorder to avoid deleting one anotherrsquos work Most wiki engines track each addi-tion deletion and modification so that changes can be assessed against earlierversions of the text Furthermore determining the amount of individual par-ticipation in a group project for assessment purposes need not rely exclusivelyon self- and peer-assessments by group members or observational hunches bythe teacher Like an archaeological tell a wikirsquos current content is but the toplayer of temporally stratified laminations of text that record the history of thewriting process (Thorne amp Payne 2005)

Blogs and blogging are terms describing use of a Web application that dis-plays serial entries with date and time stamps Most blogs include a commentsfeature that allows visitors to post responses In its short historymdashthe firstuse of the term blog (from ldquoWeblogrdquo) is variably reported to have occurredin either 1996 or 1997 and blogging as a populist movement dates only fromthe turn of the millenniummdashthe rise of blogging as a form of communica-tive and informational expression has been mercurial To take one exampleLiveJournal (httpwwwlivejournalcom) reports over 7 million blogs createdapproximately 5 million of which have been updated at least once LiveJournalreports that female-presenting bloggers outnumber users presenting as males

by approximately 2 to 1 (673 vs 327 respectively) The ages of Live- Journal users span from 13 (35856 blogs created by this age group) to 55(1229) The 15- to 20-year-old age group produces the majority of the blogson this site which suggests that the everyday digital literacy practices of cur-rent high school and college students differ significantly from those of earliergenerations Within L2 education contexts blogging provides an alternative towriting assignments that would normally be presented only to the instructorThe chronological ordering of blog entries creates for each student an archiveof his or her personal work that can be revisited and reflected upon In addi-tion to its intraclass use as a journaling tool blogging is also being used to

link together study abroad students and those still at their home universitiesWhile still in the exploratory phase such uses of blogs serve a number of func-tions such as providing predeparture cultural exposure for students still attheir home university helping students currently abroad to synthesize and putinto narrative form their cultural and linguistic experiences and for creatingpredeparture-orientation materials that represent student specific experiencesand points of view

While a large number of additional mediated social networks exist such asfacebook (wwwfacebookcom) MySpace (wwwmyspacecom) and Friendster

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 439

(wwwfriendstercom) to date their potential as sites for affiliative interactionand L2 learning has gone entirely unexplored

Gaming and Virtual Environments

A genre of digital environment that will likely emerge as the premier L2 educa-tional technology in the immediate future is virtual environment games (Gee2003) which provide the opportunity for temporary immersion in linguisticcultural and task-based settings One variety of gaming involves interactionwithin preprogrammed (but sometimes customizable) environments the best-selling example of which is The Sims A game that simulates the activitiesand responsibilities of everyday life The Sims is now produced in a numberof languages In an informal assessment of The Sims as a foreign-language

learning tool Purushotma (2005) found that the vocabulary and tasks com-prising the game were highly aligned with the content of conventional foreign-language course content The difference between instructed foreign-languagelearning and a game like The Sims suggested Purushotma is that exposure tothe target language is always linked to carrying out tasks and social actionswhich concomitantly embeds vocabulary and constructions in rich associativecontexts

A second variety of virtual immersion is massive multiplayer online vid-eogames (MMOGs see Steinkeuhler 2006) These Internet-mediated envi-ronments are immensely popular especially among adolescents and younger

adults and are already educational in the sense that gamers must learn tonegotiate complex scenarios be socialized into culturally specific discursiveformations and be capable of negotiating play in real time with environment-driven elements as well as other copresent gamers MMOGs log a gamerrsquosactivity such that there is an ontogenetic developmental component for theonline In essence a gamerrsquos character becomes more capable and more pow-erful based on experience In addition gamers can accumulate (virtual) prop-erty commodities with set exchange values within a given MMOG and insome instances properties and commodities with exchange value recognizedby nongaming global capital (eg in-game resources such as weapons cur-

rency property and even completely developed advanced characters can bebought and sold on eBay) Many MMOGs are multilingual and involve thou-sands of gamers from around the world (eg World of Warcraft) For thegrowing number of individuals participating in MMOG-based cultures theinternational multilingual and task-based qualities of these social spaceswhere language use is literally social action may one day make them de rigueursites for language learning (see Thorne in press) Or perhaps somewhat ironi-cally students will study foreign languages to enhance their gaming skills andinteractional capacity in these largely language organized action-scapes

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Technology as Cultural Artifact and Challenges to L2 Education

This section addresses two final issues relating to technology use in L2 edu-cation The first is (hopefully) a reminder that the Internet does not exist asa neutral medium The second issue is the widening gap between real-worldcommunication and the anachronistic epistemological prescriptivism thatremains dominant in educational institutions

The Internet has enabled multiple new opportunities for information gath-ering enhanced possibilities for producing and disseminating information toothers and has provoked changes in the granularity of information sharingbetween spatially dispersed coworkers friends and family members By defi-nition such communicative practices are made possible through technologicalmediation As the research of Jones (2004) Miller and Slater (2000) and Scol-lon and Scollon (2004) made clear a dichotomized view of face-to-face andInternet-mediated life and certainly a rigid dichotomization between ldquorealrdquoand ldquovirtualrdquo completely dissolves under close examination of lived communi-cative practice Especially among the digital native generation (Presky 2001)a descriptor for individuals who quite literally grew up with (and through)the use of Internet information and communication tools it is apparent thatsocial as well as academic communication increasingly involves participa-tion in community networks mediated by Facebook MySpace blogs vlogs(video blogs) instant messaging MMOGs and voice and text messaging overcell phones (for discussions see Thorne amp Payne 2005 Thorne 2006) Therise in mediated communication in the service of community building andmaintenance suggests that for many students across the world performingcompetent identities in second and additional language(s) may now involveInternet-mediation as or more often than face-to-face and nondigital formsof communication However for an obstinate majority of L2 CMC research-ers the variable meanings and significances of the Internet are masked by thedoxa or taken-for-grantedness of its use in routine everyday cultural prac-tice (eg Bourdieu amp Eagleton 1992) Internet communication tools are likeall human creations cultural tools (eg Cole 1996 Nardi 1996 Wartofsky1979) that carry interactional and relational associations preferred uses (andcorrespondingly dispreferred uses) and expectations of genre-specific com-municative activity Kramsch and Anderson (1999) noted that informationand communication ldquohas become more mediated than ever with a media-tion that ever more diffuses and conceals its authority The role of educationand FL [foreign-language] education in particular is precisely to make thismediation process visiblerdquo (p 39) Cultures-of-use of Internet communicationtools build up over time in relationship to use in particular discursive settingsand to mediate specific social functions The suggestion is that technologiesas culture will have variable meanings and uses for different communitiesWhile Internet communication tools carry the historical residua of their useacross time patterns of past use do not determine present and future activity

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 441

just as gender mother tongue or social class do not determine present andfuture activity Rather the cultures-of-use framework provides another axisalong which to perceive and address cultural conflict variation and similarity

(Thorne 2000a 2003 2006)A telling example of the malleability of Internet communication and infor-mation tools involves wiki technology (previously described) Emigh andHerring (2005) found that despite the potential of wiki environments to trans-form notions of authorship and processes of writing wiki use does not nec-essarily promote the production of heterogeneous creative or nonstandardgenres of text Based on a corpus analysis of Wikipedia and Everything2(another wiki-based encyclopedia) Emigh and Herring found that structuresof postproduction and editorial control resulted in homogeneous formal andstandardized text types despite the expectation that multiple authors would

produce a diversity of text genres As with all technologies described in thischapter task design and procedural processes in interface with exogenouslydeveloped cultures of use and expectations of appropriate Internet communi-cation tool use are critical elements that contribute to the ways that mediatedlanguage-learning activity plays out

The second aforementioned challenge precipitated by the Internet is thatthere now exists an amplification of the conventional generation gap betweentop-down processes and pedagogies that operate in formal learning environ-ments and the bottom-up life experiences of students in secondary and uni-versity environments (eg Lankshear amp Knobel 2003) This gap has been

confirmed in recent research by the Pew Internet and American Life Proj-ect (Levin amp Arafeh 2002) based on focus groups (136 students in gender-balanced and racially diverse clusters) and voluntary participation data (200students who submitted online essays describing their use of the Internet forschool) The 2002 Pew report revealed that while nearly all students used theInternet as a regular part of their educational activities little is known abouthow the Internet is actually used for schoolwork nor has there been adequateconsideration of Internet use as it might substantively inform school policiespractices and pedagogies As Internet users expand numerically and geo-graphically and as Internet information and communication tools continue to

evolve research and pedagogical innovation in the area of CMC and languageeducation will need to continually adapt in response to new populations com-munication tools and emerging communicative needs

Final Points

While in the 1990s the use of the Internet was often treated as a proxy orheuristic environment to assist with the development of ldquorealrdquo communica-tive performance (ie face-to-face communication aural comprehensionand nondigital epistolary conventions such as essay writing) textual Internet-mediated communication now presents its own set of high-stakes contexts and

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442 bull Thorne

modalities Commercial activity is conducted via asynchronous and synchro-nous channels job interviews take place over instant messaging universitycourses are now mediated by course-management systems and chat blogs

wikis and podcasting among other technologies are increasingly being incor-porated into general education and L2 course activities Furthermore with theproliferation of digital multimedia technologies (eg digital-video cameras andvideo-editing software Web-publishing technologies that support audio andvideo and cell phones that record still images and video) mediated communi-cation now includes a large number of small footprint devices that have littleto do with what has been conventionally referred to as a computer Educa-tion generally and language education particularly will need to accommodateemerging communication tools and their attendant communicative genres thatare and have been for some years everyday dimensions of competent social

and professional activityWhile there exists a large volume of research on CMC in foreign and sec-ond-language education this field is something of a shape shifter a researcharea that is polymorphous both across time and within and between boundedareas of inquiry The population of Internet users has expanded geographi-cally and numerically Internet information and communication technologiescontinue to evolve at increasing rates and for many individuals around theworld daily social and professional activity is mediated by ubiquitous comput-ing This observation is not meant to hype these transformations as universallypositive or superior to earlier patterns of communicative and informational

activity On the contrary the point is that with the increasing opportunity tochoose and engineer Internet mediation for educational purposes the respon-sibility to make informed decisionsmdashat the levels of classroom use curricularinnovation institutional policy and even region or nation state agenda set-tingmdashis more critical now than ever before

References

Abrams Z I (2003) The effects of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral perfor-mance Modern Language Journal 87 (2) 157ndash167

Agar M (1994) Language shock Understanding the culture of conversation New YorkWilliam Morrow

Bateson G (1972) Steps toward an ecology of mind Collected essays in anthropology psy-chiatry evolution and epistemology Chicago University Of Chicago Press

Beauvois M H (1992) Computer assisted classroom discussion in the classroom Conversa-tion in slow motion Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 525ndash534

Beauvois M H (1997) Computer-mediated communication Technology for improvingspeaking and writing In M D Bush amp R M Terry (Eds) Technology-enhanced lan-

guage learning (pp 165ndash184) Lincolnwood IL National Textbook CompanyBeauvois M H (1998) Write to speak The effects of electronic communication on the oral

achievement of fourth semester French students In J A Muyskens (Ed) New ways oflearning and teaching Focus on technology and foreign language education BostonHeinle amp Heinle

Belz J A (2002) Social dimensions of telecollaborative language study [Electronic version]

Language Learning amp Technology 6(1) 60ndash81

ER56528_C015indd 442 6607 111911 AM

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 443

Belz J A (2003) Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competencein telecollaboration [Electronic version] Language Learning amp Technology 7 (2)68ndash117

Belz J A (2004) Learner corpus analysis and the development of foreign language profi-

ciency System 32(4) 577ndash591Belz J A (2006) At the intersection of telecollaboration learner corpus analysis and L2pragmatics Considerations for language program direction In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 207ndash246) Bos-ton Thomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2002) The cross-linguistics development of address form usein telecollaborative language learning Two case studies Canadian Modern LanguageReviewRevue canadienne des langues vivant 59(2) 189ndash214

Belz J A amp Kinginger C (2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmaticcompetence by classroom learners of German The case of address forms LanguageLearning 53(4) 591ndash647

Belz J A amp Muumlller-Hartmann A (2003) Teachers as intercultural learners NegotiatingGerman-American telecollaboration along the institutional faultline Modern Language

Journal 87 (1) 71ndash89Belz J A amp Reinhardt J (2005) Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency Inter-

net-mediated German language play International Journal of Applied Linguistics14(3) 324ndash362

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006a) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign languageeducation Boston Heinle amp Heinle

Belz J A amp Thorne S L (Eds) (2006b) Introduction Internet-mediated interculturalforeign language education and the intercultural speaker In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (p iixndashxxv) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Belz J A amp Vyatkina N (2005) Computer-mediated learner corpus research and thedata-driven teaching of L2 pragmatic competence The case of German modal particles (CALPER Working Papers 4 1ndash28) Retrieved June 10 2005 from httpcalperlapsu

edudownloadsdownloadphp143Berners-Lee T (1998) What the semantic web isnrsquot but can represent Retrieved June 10

2005 from httpwwww3orgDesignIssuesRDFnothtmlBernstein B (1996) Pedagogy symbolic control and identity London Taylor amp FrancisBiber D Conrad C amp Reppen R (1998) Corpus linguistics Investigating language struc-

ture and use Cambridge UK Cambridge University PressBlack R W (2005) Access and affiliation The literacy and composition practices of English

language learners in an online fanfiction community Journal of Adolescent amp AdultLiteracy 49(2) 118ndash128

Black R W (2006) Language culture and identity in online fanfiction E-learning 3(2)170ndash184

Blake R J (2005) Bimodal CMC The glue of language learning at a distance CALICO Journal 22(3) 497ndash512

Blake R J amp Zystik E (2003) Whorsquos helping whom Learnerheritage speakersrsquo net-worked discussions in Spanish Applied Linguistics 24(4) 519ndash544

Block D (2003) The social turn in second language acquisition Washington DC George-town University Press

Bolter J D (1991) Writing space The computer hypertext and the history of writing Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum

Bourdieu P amp Eagleton T (1992) Doxa and common life New Left Review 191111ndash121

Brammerts H (1996) Language learning in tandem using the Internet In M Warschauer(Ed) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp 121ndash130) Honolulu Univer-sity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center

Breen M amp Candlin C (1980) The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language

teaching Applied Linguistics 1 89ndash112

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444 bull Thorne

Brouwer C amp Wagner J (2004) Developmental issues in second language conversation Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(1) 29ndash47

Bruce B Peyton J K amp Batson T (Eds) (1993) Network-based classrooms New YorkCambridge University Press

Byram M (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence Clev-edon UK Multilingual MattersByram M amp Zarate G (1997) Definitions objectives and assessment of sociocultural

competence In M Byram G Zarate amp G Neuner (Eds) Sociocultural competence inlanguage learning and teaching Strasbourg France Council of Europe

Byrnes H (1986) Interactional style in German and American conversations Text 2(1)189ndash206

Carter R (1998) Orders of reality CANCODE communication and culture ELT Journal52(1) 43ndash56

Castells M (1996) The rise of the networked society Cambridge UK BlackwellPublishers

Castells M (1997) The power of identity Cambridge UK Blackwell PublishersCastells M (1998) End of millennium Cambridge UK Blackwell Publishers

Castells M (Ed) (2004) The network society A cross-cultural perspective NorthamptonMA Edward Edgar

Chun D M (1994) Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactivecompetence System 22(1) 17ndash31

Cole M (1996) Cultural psychology A once and future discipline Cambridge MABelknapp Press

Colomb G amp Simutis J (1996) Visible conversation and academic inquiry In S Herring(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Council of Europe (2001) Modern languages Learning teaching assessment A commonEuropean framework of reference Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Cononelos T amp Oliva M (1993) Using computer networks to enhance foreign language culture education Foreign Language Annals 26 525ndash534

Crystal D (2001) Language and the Internet Cambridge UK Cambridge UniversityPress

Cummins J amp Sayers D (1995) Brave new schools Challenging cultural literacy through global learning networks New York St Martinrsquos Press

Darhower M (2002) Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communica-tion in the intermediate L2 class A sociocultural case study CALICO Journal 19(2)249ndash277

Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene Oxford UK Oxford University PressDussias P E (2006) Morphological development in Spanish-American telecollaboration In

J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language educa-tion (pp 121ndash146) Boston Thomson Heinle Publishers

Ellis R Basturkmen H amp Loewen S (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL les-sons Language Learning 51(2) 281ndash318

Emigh W amp Herring S C (2005) Collaborative authoring on the Web A genre analysis ofonline encyclopedias In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Hawaii Inter-national Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-38) Los Alamitos CA IEEE Press

Engestroumlm Y (1987) Learning by expanding An activity theoretical approach to develop-mental research Helsinki Finland Orienta-Konsultit

Engestroumlm Y (1999) Activity theory and individual social transformation In Y EngestromR Miettinen amp R L Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 19ndash38)New York Cambridge University Press

Engestroumlm Y amp Miettenin R (1999) Introduction In Y Engestrom R Miettinen amp RL Punamaki (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory (pp 1ndash18) New York CambridgeUniversity Press

Q18

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 445

Erickson T (1999) Persistent conversation An introduction Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4(4)

Faigley L (1992) Fragments of rationality Postmodernity and the subject of compositionPittsburgh PA University of Pittsburgh Press

Freinet C (1994) Oeuvres peacutedagogiques [English translation ] Paris Editions du SeuilFurstenberg G (2003) Reading between the cultural lines In P Patrikis (Ed) Readingbetween the lines Perspectives on foreign language literacy (pp 74ndash98) New HavenCT Yale University Press

Furstenberg G Levet S English K amp Maillet K (2001) Giving a virtual voice to thesilent language of culture The CULTURA project Language Learning amp Technology5(1) 55ndash102

Gee J P (1992) The social mind Language ideology and social practice New YorkBergin amp Garvey

Gee J P (1996) Social linguistics and literacies Ideology in discourses (2nd ed) LondonTaylor amp Francis

Gee J P (2003) What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy New YorkPalgrave Macmillan

Granger S Hung J amp Petch-Tyson S (2002) Computer learner corpora second languageacquisition and foreign language teaching Amsterdam John BenjaminsHanna B amp de Nooy J (2003) A funny thing happened on the way to the forum Elec-

tronic discussion and foreign language learning Language Learning amp Technology7 (1) 71ndash85

Hawisher G (1994) Blinding insights Classification schemes and software for literacyinstruction In C Selfe amp S Hilligoss (Eds) Literacy and computers The complica-tions of teaching and learning with technology (pp 37ndash55) New York MLA

Heritage J (1984) Garfinkel and ethnomethodology Cambridge UK Polity PressHerring S (Ed) (1996) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-

cultural perspectives Philadelphia John BenjaminsHilz S R amp Turoff M (1993) The networked nation (2nd ed) Cambridge MA MIT

Press

Johanyak M (1997) Analyzing the amalgamated electronic text Bringing cognitive socialand contextual factors of individual language users into CMC research Computers andComposition 14 91ndash110

Johns T (1991) Should you be persuadedmdashTwo examples of data-driven learning materialsClassroom Concordancing English Language Research Journal 4 1ndash16

Jones R (2004) The problem of context in computer-mediated communication In PLevine amp R Scollon (Eds) Discourse and technology Multimodal discourse analysis (pp 20ndash33) Washington DC Georgetown University Press

Kelm O (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instructionA preliminary report Foreign Language Annals 25(5) 441ndash454

Kelm O (1996) The application of computer networking in foreign language educationFocusing on principles of second language acquisition In M Warschauer (Ed) Telecol-laboration in foreign language learning (pp 19ndash28) Publisher city Hawaii SecondLanguage Teaching and Curriculum Centre

Kern R G (1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers Effectson quantity and characteristics of language production Modern Language Journal79(4) 457ndash476

Kern R G (2000) Literacy and language teaching Oxford UK Oxford University PressKern R G (2006) Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages TESOL

Quarterly 40(1) 183ndash210Kern R Ware P amp Warschauer M (2004) Crossing frontiers New directions in online

pedagogy and research Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24(1) 243ndash260Kinginger C (1998) Videoconferencing as access to spoken French Modern Language Jour-

nal 82(4) 502ndash513

Q19

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446 bull Thorne

Kinginger C (2004) Communicative foreign language teaching through telecollaborationIn K van Esch amp O St John (Eds) New insights into foreign language learning andteaching (pp 101ndash113) Frankfurt am Main Germany Peter Lang

Kinginger C amp Belz J A (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on pragmatic development in

foreign language learning Microgenetic case studies from telecollaboration and resi-dence abroad Intercultural Pragmatics 2(4) 369ndash422Knobel M Lankshear C Honan E amp Crawford J (1998) The wired world of second-

language education In I Snyder (Ed) Page to screen Taking literacy into the electronicera (pp 20ndash50) New York Routledge

Koumltter M (2002) Tandem learning on the Internet Learner interactions in online virtualenvironments Frankfurt Germany Lang

Kramsch C (1998) Language and culture Oxford UK Oxford University PressKramsch C (1999) Thirdness The intercultural stance In T Vestergaard (Ed) Language

culture and identity (pp 41ndash58) Aalborg Denmark Aalborg University PressKramsch C amp Thorne S L (2002) Foreign language learning as global communica-

tive practice In D Block amp D Cameron (Eds) Globalization and language teaching (pp 83ndash100) London Routledge

Lam W S E (2000) Second language literacy and the design of the self A case study of ateenager writing on the Internet TESOL Quarterly 34(3) 457ndash483

Lam W S E (2004) Second language socialization in a bilingual chat room LanguageLearning amp Technology 8(3) 44ndash65

Lam W S E amp Kramsch C (2003) The ecology of an SLA community in computer-mediated environments in leather In J Leather amp J van Dam (Eds) Ecology of lan-

guage acquisition Dordrecht Netherlands Kluwer PublishersLandow G (1992) Hypertext The convergence of contemporary critical theory and tech-

nology Baltimore Johns HopkinsLanham R (1993) The electronic word Democracy technology and the arts Chicago

University of Chicago PressLankshear C amp Knobel M (2003) New literacies Buckingham UK Open University

Press

Lankshear C Peters M amp Knobel M (1996) Critical pedagogy and cyberspace In HGiroux C Lankshear P McLaren amp M Peters (Eds) Counter narratives Culturalstudies and critical pedagogies in postmodern spaces New York Routledge

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006a) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second lan- guage development Oxford UK Oxford University Press

Lantolf J P amp Thorne S L (2006b) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisitionIn B van Patten amp J Williams (Eds) Explaining SLA Cambridge UK CambridgeUniversity Press

Leander K amp Lovvorn J (2006) Literacy networks Following the circulation of textsbodies and objects in the schooling and online gaming of one youth Cognition andInstruction 24(3) 291ndash340

Lee L (2006) A study of native and nonnative speakersrsquo feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds)Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 147ndash176) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Leontrsquoev A N (1981) The problem of activity in Soviet psychology In J V Wertsch (Ed)The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp 37ndash71) Armonk NY Sharpe

Levin D amp Arafeh S (2002) The digital disconnect The widening gap betweenInternet-savvy students and their schools Washington DC Pew Internet amp AmericanLife Project

Long M (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory In S M Gass amp C GMadden (Eds) Input in second language acquisition (pp 377ndash393) Rowley MANewbury House

Luria A R (1976) Cognitive development Cambridge MA Harvard University PressMarvin C (1990) When old technologies were new Thinking about electric communica-

tion in the late nineteenth century New York Oxford University Press

ER56528_C015indd 446 6607 111912 AM

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3134

8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

httpslidepdfcomreaderfullthornechap15mediating-tecs-sll 3234

448 bull Thorne

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2000) Brave new (virtual) world Transforming languagelearning into cultural studies through online learning environments (MOOs) ADFLBulletin 32(1) 18ndash26

Schneider J amp von der Emde S (2006) Conflicts in cyberspace From communication

breakdown to intercultural dialogue in online collaborations In J Belz amp S L Thorne(Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) BostonThomson Heinle Publishers

Schwienhorst K (2003) Learner autonomy and tandem learning Putting principles intopractice in synchronous and asynchronous telecommunications environments Com-

puter-Assisted Language Learning 16(5) 427ndash443Scollon R amp Scollon S (2001) Intercultural communication (2nd ed) Cambridge UK

BlackwellScollon R amp Scollon S (2004) Nexus analysis Discourse and the emerging Internet New

York RoutledgeSinclair J (1991) Corpus concordance and collocation Oxford UK Oxford University

PressSinclair J (Ed) (2004) How to use corpora in language teaching Philadelphia John

BenjaminsSmith B (2003) Computer-mediated negotiated interaction An expanded model The Mod-

ern Language Journal 87 (1) 38ndash57Sotillo S (2005) Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS

and NNS-NNS dyads CALICO Journal 22(3) 467ndash496Steinkuehler C (2006) Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation in a dis-

course Mind Culture amp Activity 13(1) 38ndash52Stetsenko A amp Arievich I (2004) The self in cultural-historical activity theory Theory amp

Psychology 14(4) 475ndash503Sullivan N amp Pratt E (1996) A comparative study of two ESL writing environments A

computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom System 29 491ndash501Swain M (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond Mediating acquisition through collab-

orative dialogue In J Lantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language learning

Oxford UK Oxford University PressTella S (1991) Introducing international communications networks and electronic mail

into foreign language classrooms A case study in Finnish senior secondary schools Helsinki Finland Yliopistopaino

Thorne S L (1999) An activity theoretical analysis of foreign language electronic discourseUnpublished doctoral dissertation University of California Berkeley

Thorne S L (2000a) Beyond bounded activity systems Heterogeneous cultures in instruc-tional uses of persistent conversation In Editor (Ed) Proceedings of the Thirty-ThirdAnnual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33) Los Alami-tos CA IEEE Press

Thorne S L (2000b) Second language acquisition and the truth(s) about relativity In JLantolf (Ed) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition (pp 219ndash244)New York Oxford University Press

Thorne S L (2003) Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication Lan- guage Learning amp Technology 7 (2) 38ndash67

Thorne S L (2004) Cultural historical activity theory and the object of innovation In O St John K van Esch amp E Schalkwijk (Eds) New insights into foreign language learningand teaching (pp 51ndash70) Frankfurt Germany Peter Lang Verlag

Thorne S L (2005) Epistemology politics and ethics in sociocultural theory Modern Lan- guage Journal 89(3) 393ndash409

Thorne S L (2006) Pedagogical and praxiological lessons from Internet-mediated intercul-tural foreign language education research In J Belz amp S L Thorne (Eds) Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp 2ndash30) Boston Thomson HeinlePublishers

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 449

Thorne S L (in press) Mediated and mediating discourse in transcultural communica-tion environments In S Magnan (Ed) Mediating discourse online Amsterdam JohnBenjamins

Thorne S L amp Lantolf J P (2006) A linguistics of communicative activity In S Makoni

amp A Pennycook (Eds) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages Clevedon UKMultilingual MattersThorne S L amp Payne J S (2005) Evolutionary trajectories Internet-mediated expression

and language education CALICO Journal 22(3) 371ndash397Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition Cambridge MA Harvard

University PressVan Dijk J (2005) The deepening divide Inequality in the information society London

SageVaronis E amp Gass S (1985) Non-nativenon-native conversations A model for negotiating

meaning Applied Linguistics 6(1) 71ndash90Vološinov V N (1973) Marxism and the philosophy of language New York Seminar

PressVygotsky L S (1997) The collected works of L S Vygotsky Volume 4 The history of the

development of higher mental functions New York PlenumWare P (2005) ldquoMissedrdquo communication in online communication Tensions in a German-

American telecollaboration Language Learning amp Technology 9(2) 64ndash89Ware P amp Kramsch C (2005) Toward in intercultural stance Teaching German and Eng-

lish through telecollaboration Modern Language Journal 89(2) 190ndash205Warschauer M (Ed) (1996) Telecollaboration in foreign language learning Honolulu Uni-

versity of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum CenterWarschauer M (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning Theory and practice

Modern Language Journal 81 470ndash481Warschauer M (1999) Electronic literacies Language culture and power in online educa-

tion Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesWarschauer M (2003) Technology and social inclusion Rethinking the digital divide

Cambridge MA MIT Press

Warschauer M (2005) Sociocultural perspectives on CALL In J Egbert amp G M Pet-rie (Eds) CALL Research Perspectives (pp 41ndash51) Mahwah NJ Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates

Warschauer M amp Kern R (2000) Network-based language teaching Concepts and prac-tice Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press

Wartofsky M (1979) Models Dordrecht Netherlands D ReidelWerry C (1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet relay chat In S Herring

(Ed) Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural per-spectives Philadelphia John Benjamins

Yates S (1996) Oral and written aspects of computer conferencing In S Herring (Ed)Computer-mediated communication Linguistic social and cross-cultural perspec-tives Philadelphia John Benjamins

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 427

that Internet-mediated intercultural communication constitutes a ldquosecondwaverdquo of computer-mediated L2 pedagogy (Kern Ware amp Warschauer 2004p 243) To refer to the wide diversity of approaches in this area the umbrella

term Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education (ICL2E note that ldquoInter-net-mediatedrdquo is assumed and thus ellipted from the acronym) will be usedWhile intercultural approaches to language education constitute a vibrant

but minority position in North America Europe has begun to attune its edu-cational systems to acknowledge growing diaspora populations and multilin-gualism as core characteristics of the modern nation state (Council of Europe2001) Displacing the long-standing goal of L2 communicative competencethe ldquoobjective of foreign language teaching is nowhelliplsquointercultural compe-tencersquordquo (Sercu 2004 p 115) Elaborating on this shift Sercu argued

Seen from the intercultural perspective it can be said that what a foreign

language learner needs to learn in order to attain communicative compe-tence is not how to adapt to any one of the foreign cultures present andforget about hisher own cultural identity Rather the task of the partici-pants in such an intercultural situation will be to negotiate by means ofimplicit or explicit cues a situationally adequate system of (inter)culturalstandards and linguistic and pragmatic rules of interaction (p 116)

In reference to the larger goals of L2 education Byram and Zarate (1997)described intercultural competence as the capacity to mediate multiple culturalidentities and situations a perspective that includes but extends far beyond

the mechanics of surface-level grammatical accuracyMany ICL2E researchers and educators have benefited from the work of lin-guistic anthropologist Michael Agar (1994) who brought together languageand culture into a dialectical unity through the construct ldquolanguaculturerdquo(Agar 1994 p 60) Agar emphasized that utterances are always produced andinterpreted in relation to historically formed cultural practices and speech situ-ations thus the ldquolanguardquo in ldquolanguaculturerdquo is to be understood as the localinscription of more holistic frames of reference examples of which includediscourse grammar and language use as discursive practice (see also Carter1998 Gee 1992 1996 McCarthy amp Carter 1994 Scollon amp Scollon 2001)

For L2 learners perhaps especially those at more advanced levels the grow-ing realization of the subtle and obvious differences between their own andothersrsquo languacultures produces what Agar termed ldquorich pointsrdquo the oppor-tunities to collaboratively forge a heightened awareness of self and other thatis fueled by the contestations and confusions that arise during communica-tion (explicitly ldquointerculturalrdquo and otherwise) Agar conceptually shifted cul-ture from the status of object to that of a process ldquoCulture happens whena problem in language has to do with who you arerdquo (p 48) A ldquoproblemrdquo inthe sense meant by Agar (see also Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) is notsomething to avoid or ignore it is a catalyst for development As has been

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428 bull Thorne

suggested by practitioners of cultural-historical activity theory (Engestroumlm1987 1999 Leontrsquoev 1981 for L2 research see Lantolf amp Thorne 2006a2006b Thorne 2000a 2000b 2003 2004 2005) development itself

emerges from the resolution of contradictions which in turn create conditionsfor future perhaps more complex contradictions As the following researchwill suggest differing languacultures and the rich points made visible throughtheir contact have the potential to create potent if also challenging conditionsfor developing intercultural communicative competence

Pedagogical Approaches to ICL2E

Numerous models of Internet-mediated intercultural L2 education exist(for a review see Thorne 2006) One approach termed telecollaboration(Warschauer 1996 Belz 2003 Kinginger 2004) describes internationalclass-to-class partnerships within institutionalized settings Telecollaborationpractitioners tend to formally align their courses and often utilize paralleltexts (eg translations of written material and remakes of films) to struc-ture dialogue form the basis of cross-cultural analyses and encourage criticalreflection on language-culture relations Telecollaboration models are admin-istratively intensive to initiate and maintain due the high level of coordina-tion between partner classes (eg Belz amp Muumlller-Hartmann 2003) Howeverclass-to-class partnerships arguably provide the strongest support for devel-oping sophisticated understandings of intercultural communication throughcareful design of student-initiated investigations and the explicitly designated

role of the instructor as critical mediator and resource A variant of the telecol-laboration model involves connecting language students with heritage speak-ers on the same campus Blake and Zyzikrsquos (2002) research suggests that thisformat holds significant promise While many institutions and regions includepopulations possessing heterogeneous linguistic and cultural backgroundsintracommunity linguistic resources remain largely untapped in instructed L2education Tandem learning used extensively in Europe involves the pairingof individuals in complementary dyads where each is interested in learning theotherrsquos language (Koumltter 2002 OrsquoRourke 2005 Schwienhorst 2003) Tan-dem learning is most associated with noninstitutional learning configurations

and typically requires partners to negotiate discussion topics and the balancebetween overt pedagogical and informal conversational activity

A Review of Select ICL2E Research

More than a decade ago and still prophetic today Kramsch (1993) suggestedthat L2 teaching should be built on a philosophy of conflict one that affirmedfault lines engendered a tolerance for ambiguity and where ldquounderstandingand shared meaning when it occurs is a small miraclerdquo (p 2) While ICL2Eholds tremendous potential a great deal perhaps even the majority of researchin this area suggests that cultural miscommunication and open conflict should

Q8

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 429

be expected (eg Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 Schneider amp von der Emde2003 2006 Thorne 2003 Ware 2005 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) The fol-lowing discussion describes two telecollaboration case studies that focus on

disjuncture between discourse systems and is followed by broader implica-tions for the role of the instructor in ICL2E projects (This review of ICL2E isdrawn largely from Thorne 2006)

Motivated by the awareness that intercultural communication is cer-tainly made more rapid and convenient by global communication networksKramsch and Thorne (2002) argued that the characterizations of face-to-facecommunicative competence (eg Breen amp Candlin 1980 Savignon 1983)may require substantial revision in the context of Internet mediation In astudy that analyzed the e-mail interaction occurring in a French-Americantelecollaoboration project Kramsch and Thorne (see also Kern 2000) illus-

trated that the French and North American students were operating withinand expecting from the other differing genres of communication The Frenchstudents employed a largely factual impersonal and dispassionate genre ofwriting that included supporting their positions with examples and frequentlyemploying argument-building logical connectors (ldquofor examplerdquo ldquohoweverrdquoldquomoreoverrdquo) By contrast the North-American students expected the telecol-laborative interactions to result in peer solidarity and mutual trust buildingEspecially in early phases of the project the phatic style of the American post-ings full of questions and exclamation marks (and other message elementsseeking to build relations rather than exchange information) suggested a high

degree of affective involvement and personal-emotional investment that inthe end did not convert well to contentious academic argumentation In aposttelecollaboration interview one of the American students explained hisexperiences in the partnership in the following way

Interviewer It seemed like you all would ask questions right Didnrsquot youget responses

Eric Sometimes wersquod get longhellipbut itrsquos true we didnrsquot get it seems truethat they werenrsquot doing the same thing we were It seemed like you knowwe had a task And they it seemed like I didnrsquot know what they were

doing [laughs]hellipWhen we [Americans] were talking to each other it wasdebate and agreement and process But with the French wersquod ask a ques-tion and receive a statement (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 97)

As this participant described it the two-partner classes were operating onthe different and orthogonal axes of communication as information exchangeversus communication for personal engagement forming what Bernstein(1996) termed a ldquopotential discursive gaprdquo (p 44) that marks both misalign-ment and an opportunity for alternative possibilities and understandings Ina related article describing ldquomissed communicationrdquo in a German-American

Q9

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430 bull Thorne

telecollaborative partnership Ware (2005) emphasized that intercultural L2research should address not only the processes through which participantsjointly construct online discourse but also how participants construe the

larger context of their participationIn a study that imparts a complementary perspective on the issue of diver-gent communication styles Belz (2003) carried out a linguistic analysis oftelecollaborative exchanges between one American and two German par-ticipants Belz utilized a variety of Hallidayian systemic functional analysiscalled appraisal theory a specialized approach used to analyze the linguisticelements at play in the development negotiation and maintenance of socialrelationships Appraisal theory provides tools to examine epistemic modalityand other linguistic resources that communicators use to display and negotiatefeelings judgments and valuations (see Martin amp White 2005) This study

involved a quantitative analysis of linguistic features in the asynchronousCMC interactions illustrating that while overall rates of appraisal were simi-lar for the three participants there were marked differences in the distributionof positive and negative appraisals between the Germans and the AmericanTo summarize Belz demonstrated in fine-grained linguistic detail that Ankeand Catharina the German partners showed a tendency toward ldquonegativeappraisal categorical assertions and intensification [that] may be reflectiveof broader German interactional patterns of directness explicitness and anorientation toward the selfrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91) In contrast Eric the Ameri-can exhibited ldquopatterns of self-deprecating judgments positive appreciation

and the upscaling of positive evaluations [that] may index broader [American]communicative patterns of indirectness and implicitnessrdquo (Belz 2003 p 91)Belz clearly stated that these differences dialectically interrelate with culturaland institutional communicative patterns but that languacultural norms donot determine discourse in any absolute fashion Rather historically estab-lished languacultural systems represent social semiotic resources that informinteractional preferences Building on Byrnes (1986) the pedagogical implica-tion to be drawn is not that students need necessarily change their discoursepreferences Rather intercultural communicators would benefit from greaterawareness of their own interactional style(s) and the development of height-

ened attunement to the communicative preferences of their interlocutors Theinstructor would have multiple roles in this process such as acting as a criti-cal mediating resource and sounding board to facilitate consciousness raisingand modeling what Kramsch (1999 Ware amp Kramsch 2005) described as anintercultural stance Belz provided the following description of the role of theICL2E educator

[T]he teacher in telecollaboration must be educated to discern identifyexplain and model culturally-contingent patterns of interaction in theabsence of paralinguistic meaning signals otherwise it may be the case

Q10

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 431

that civilizations ultimately do clashmdashin the empirical details of theircomputer-mediated talk (pp 92ndash93)

Put another way the role of the L2 teacher in ICL2E setting is ldquoto prepare stu-

dents to deal with global communicative practices that require far more thanlocal communicative competencerdquo (Kramsch amp Thorne 2002 p 100)

ICL2E research has also addressed issues of pragmatic and linguistic develop-ment that have been argued to be consequences of participation in significantmeaningful typically age-peer personal relationships In a case of languagelearning fostered by interpersonal mediation Thorne (2003) described a stu-dent in a university-level fourth-semester French grammar course participatingin an ICL2E exchange with university students in France In a postsemesterinterview the student described a transition that began with frustration overthe slow start to her key pal relationship but which culminated with a one-

week period of prolific dialogue The exchange began with an e-mail messagebut quickly moved to another Internet communication tool America OnlineInstant Messenger (IM) The student reported that the first IM interactionwent on for nearly 6 hours and included the use of both English and FrenchSubsequent to this the interactions continued in 20- to 30-minute sessionsoften two or three times per day Two issues are highly salientmdashthe shift toIM which is the clear communication tool of choice for peer interaction amonguniversity-aged youth in the United States and the subordination of Frenchlanguage study as an educational activity to the use of French (and English)for the building of a personally meaningful relationship Not discounting the

importance of the flirtatious nature of this relationship the American studentreported that her linguistic and pragmatic performance in French showed sig-nificant shifts Through interaction with and goading from her French keypal the American student eventually gained command of appropriate tu-vous(TV) pronoun use a facility that had eluded her throughout years of Frenchstudy More dramatically the American student had always thought of herselfas ldquohorriblerdquo at French grammar and had little confidence in her capacity tocarry out meaningful communication in the language When asked about thespecific linguistic gains arising from her interactions with her French inter-locutor she made the following remarks

Interviewer What else beside the tuvous stuff did he help you with

Kirsten Usage of ldquoaurdquo versus ldquoenrdquo versus ldquodansrdquo versus ldquoagraverdquo versus youknow that kinda stuff A more in-depth vocabulary for sure hellip itrsquos kindof nice to have a human dictionary on the other end too I was like ldquohowam I supposed to sayrdquo like for examplehellipSo the ldquoderdquo and ldquoagraverdquo thing ldquodela campagnerdquo ldquoagrave le citeacuterdquo whatever stuff like that I was like ldquowowrdquo youknow eeeeeee [vocalization of glee laughs] Because I couldnrsquot get thatfrom a dictionary

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432 bull Thorne

Interviewer Thatrsquos something you have to have a little help with yeah

Kirsten Yeah yeah and how am I supposed to learn it Thatrsquos not in the

grammar books you know [laughing] expressions like that and otherthings It was fun (Thorne 2003 pp 50ndash51)

In these excerpts the American student described the interaction that allowedher access to the French prepositional system that she allegedly ldquocouldnrsquotget hellip from a dictionaryrdquo and that is ldquonot in the grammar booksrdquo ManyFrench-language students have successfully developed the ability to use Frenchprepositions of location from grammar texts or instructor-provided grammarexplanations This student however seemingly required interpersonal media-tion specifically from a desirable age peer who was willing to provide imme-diate corrective feedback as part of an ongoing social relationship During

her initial IM conversation with her French partner she crossed a thresholdthat marked the first time she was consciously aware of her capacity to com-municate meaningfully in French stating ldquothat was the first time that I waslike lsquoI made a connection in Frenchrsquo I was so proud It was like lsquowow thatrsquosme in French and he understood mersquordquo (Thorne 2003 p 53) This brief casestudy suggests that interpersonal dynamics construct differing capacities toact which in turn are associated with a range of possible developmentaltrajectories

The power of social relationships also has a hand to play in one of thestrongest examples of pragmalinguistic learning outcomes reported in ICL2E

research In a series of SCT-informed studies on telecollaboration Belz andKinginger (2002 2003) and Kinginger and Belz (2005) described the devel-opment of address forms used in French and German (tuvous and duSiehereafter TV) Current sociolinguistic research indicates that TV usage hasbecome destabilized in the French and German languages (Morford 1997)Additionally the specialized contexts of foreign-language textbooks and class-room discourse tend to radically simplify the sociopragmatic ambiguity aroundTV usage Perhaps for this reason nearly all of the American student partici-pants in these transatlantic interactions exhibited free variation of TV at thestart of the intercultural communication process Employing the Vygotskian

methodology of microgenetic analysis Belz and Kinginger tracked usage overtime in both e-mail and synchronous CMC sessions and found that after criti-cal moments within exchanges with expert speaker-age peers the Americanparticipants began to systemically modify their usage These critical momentsincluded explicit feedback and rationales for T-form usage from German andFrench peers Additionally the American students had myriad opportunitiesto observe appropriate pronoun use by native speakers across synchronous andasynchronous CMC modalities In this way pragmatic awareness of TV as anissue (ie ldquonoticingrdquo see Schmidt 1993) led to the approximation of expertspeaker norms in most cases Belz and Kinginger argued that the American

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Technologies and Second Language Learning bull 433

studentsrsquo desire to maintain positive face (in essence wanting to be liked)with age peers helped to focus their attention on the role of linguistic formin the performance of pragmatically appropriate communication In further

research the importance of the social relationships built in these transatlanticpartnerships have been linked to positive development of other grammaticaland morphological features namely da-compounds in German (Belz 20042006) modal particles in German (Belz amp Vyatkina 2005) and lexical andmorphological development in Spanish (Dussias 2006)

Methodological Affordances Corpus Analysis and CMC as Persistent Conversation

As we have discussed ICL2E is premised on the notion of language learningthrough intercultural communication A significant problem with the teach-ing of language as culture as well as language form is that the more obvious

manifestations such as grammatical constructions or formulaic pragmaticsare relatively simple to isolate and may require only modest explication Onthe other hand the historically structured resources (ie culture) that informthe subtleties of everyday communication can remain difficult to access or eveninvisible Internet mediation provides a number of affordances in this area Inaddition to the process ontology of unfolding activity the actual moment-by-moment participation in a chat-dialogue box or even the first reading of anasynchronous post most CMC tools also produce a digital record that hasbeen described as ldquopersistent conversationrdquo (Erickson 1999) Erickson pro-vided the following insightful description

[D]igital conversation may be synchronous or asynchronous and itsaudience intimate or vast Its persistence means that it may be far morestructured or far more amorphous than an oral exchange and that itmay have the formality of published text or the informality of chat Thepersistence of such conversations also opens the door to a variety of newuses and practices persistent conversations may be searched browsedreplayed annotated visualized restructured and recontextualized withwhat are likely to be profound impacts on personal social and institu-tional practices

The persistence of (relatively) spontaneous language production is useful forL2 learners on at least two levels The first is the immediate rerepresentationof a message that has been typed and submitted to a synchronous or asynchro-nous forum In the case of SCMC for example messages are first entered intoa discrete text window and then when posted take their place in the publiclyshared window as a turn at talk in an ongoing two- or multiparty discus-sion This representation of onersquos message as a unified and emplaced utter-ance objectifies it in a way that is distinctive from the experience of havingproducing it Learners often see gaps problems or a need for revision in theirown messages when rereading them just moments after they have been posted

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8112019 Thorne_Chap15_Mediating Tecs amp SLL

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434 bull Thorne

(Thorne 2000a) For example in the following excerpt a student describeslearning from e-mail interactions with a French friend

Eric e-mail is kind of like not a written thinghellipwhen you read e-mail

you get conversation but in a written form so you can go back and lookat themhellipIrsquove had that experience where conversational constructionsappear in an e-mail form from a native speaker of French which is reallyneat Because it doesnrsquot fly by you and kind of ldquolook at thatrdquo (Kramschamp Thorne 2002 p 97)

A second use of persistence is that transcripts can be intensively searchedand analyzed after the fact If we understand language use as a form of socialaction (Heritage 1984) CMC makes these actions visible and durative Thiscreates significant opportunities for reflection and analysis that would oth-

erwise not be possible From a conversation analytic perspective Brouwerand Wagner (2004) described working with ldquocollections of phenomenologicalsimilarityrdquo meaning recurrent patterns of communicative activity that sharestructural and functional features and are used as a ldquoresource for construct-ing intersubjective meanings in social liferdquo (p 31) One approach for makingvisible such ldquocollections of phenomenological similarityrdquo is to utilize compu-tational tools that can search produce collocations and variably sort largevolumes of real-language data that reflect specific genres or communicativecontexts of interest This approach is called corpus linguistics (eg BiberConrad amp Reppen 1998 Granger Hung amp Petch-Tyson 2002 McCarthy

1998 Sinclair 1991 2004)Within ICL2E Belz (2004 2006) and her collaborators used corpus ana-lytic techniques to query large volumes of Internet-mediated intercultural lan-guage conversations to ascertain the precise d