Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

download Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

of 73

  • date post

    08-Apr-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    220
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

  • 8/6/2019 Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

    1/73

    http://www.ebook.edu.vn 0

    AI HOC A NANGTRNG AI HOC KY THUAT

    KHOA CONG NGHE THONG TIN IEN T VIEN THONG------

    OO AANN TTOOTT NNGGHHIIEEPP

    E TAI: THIET KE TUYEN THONG TIN VE TINH

    Giao vien hng danSinh vien thc hien : ANG ROLp : 20T-PY

    Tuy Hoa , 10/2002

  • 8/6/2019 Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

    2/73

    http://www.ebook.edu.vn 1

    Li Noi au

    Trong nhng thap ky qua, cung vi s phat trien cua khoa hoc , cong nghenganh vien thong a co nhng phat trien vt bac, ap ng nhng nhu cau trao oi

    thong tin gop phan khong nho trong cong cuoc xay dng va nh hng phat trien

    cua xa hoi loai ngi.

    Chung ta song trong ky nguyen cua s bung no thong tin, viec trao oi thong

    tin dien ra khap moi ni tren the gii vi yeu cau nhanh chong va chnh xac. oi vi

    thong tin quoc te, thong tin ve tinh a cung cap nhng ng thong tin dung lng

    ln, khi tam lien lac xay ra trong dien rong th thong tin ve tinh the hien tnh u viet

    cua no ve mat kinh te. Hien nay nc ta ang chuan b phong ve tinh cho rieng mnh

    nham ap ng cac nhu cau thong tin ngay cang cao trong nc va quoc te. e hieuro he thong thong tin ve tinh bao gom cong nghe thong tin, cong nghe thiet b, s

    lien lac qua he thong thong tin ve tinh va t o xay dng mot tuyen lien lac phu hp,

    c s giup cua thay giao hng dan, em thc hien e tai :

    Thiet ke tuyen thong tin ve tinh .c s hng dan tan tnh cua thay , em a co gang van dung cac kien

    thc a hoc e hoan thanh o an, nhng v thi gian va kien thc con han che, chac

    han trong o an nay khong tranh khoi nhng thieu sot. Em rat mong c s gop y,

    ch bao, ong gop cua cac thay co va cac ban .Em xin chan thanh cam n cac thay co trong khoa Cong nghe thong tin

    ien t vien thong a giup em trong suot thi gian hoc tap ma ac biet la s

    hng dan ch bao cua thay giup em hoan thanh o an nay.

    Tuy hoa, thang 11 nam 2002

    Sinh vien

    ang Ro

  • 8/6/2019 Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

    3/73

    http://www.ebook.edu.vn 2

    MUC LUC------

    LI NOI AUCHNG I : TONG QUAN VE THONG TIN VE TINH

    1.1. S ra i cua cac he thong thong tin ve tinh 5

    1.2. Qua trnh phat trien 5

    1.3. ac iem cua thong tin ve tinh 6

    1.4. Cac dang quy ao cua ve tinh 6

    1.4.1. Quy ao elip 8

    1.4.2. Quy ao tron 8

    1. Quy ao cc 8

    2. Quy ao nghieng 8

    3. Quy ao xch ao 8

    1.5. Cau truc mot he thong thong tin ve tinh 8

    1.6. Cac phng phap a truy nhap en ve tinh 12

    1.6.1. Phng phap a truy nhap phan chia theo tan so FDMA 121.6.2. Phng phap a truy nhap phan chia theo thi gian TDMA 13

    1.6.3. Phng phap a truy nhap phan chia theo ma CDMA 14

    1.7.Ket luan chng 16

    CHNG II : SONG VO TUYEN IEN

    2.1 . Tan so va cac ac tnh cua song vo tuyen ien trong thong tin ve tinh 172.1.1. Song vo tuyen va tan so 17

    2.1.2. Cac tan so s dung cho thong tin ve tinh 17

    2.2 . Phan cc song 17

    2.2.1. nh ngha 17

    2.2.2. Song phan cc elip 18

    2.2.3. Song phan cc tron 18

    2.2.4. Song phan cc thang 182.3. S truyen lan song vo tuyen ien 18

  • 8/6/2019 Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

    4/73

    http://www.ebook.edu.vn 3

    2.3.1. Khai niem ve s truyen lan song vo tuyen trong thong tin ve tinh 18

    2.3.2. Ton hao trong khong gian t do 19

    2.3.3. Ca so vo tuyen 19

    2.3.4. Tap am trong truyen lan song vo tuyen 20

    2.3.5. S giam kha nang tach biet phan cc cheo do ma 20

    2.3.6. EIRP : ac trng kha nang phat 20

    2.3.7. G/T : ac trng o nhay may thu 21

    2.3.8. S nhieu loan do cac song can nhieu 21

    CHNG III : KY THUAT TRAM MAT AT

    3.1 . Cong nghe va ac tnh cua anten 233.1.1. Yeu cau chat lng oi vi anten thong tin ve tinh 23

    3.1.2. Phan loai anten 23

    3.1.3. He thong anten bam ve tinh 24

    3.1.4. Cac ac tnh ve ien 24

    3.2 . Cong nghe may phat 27

    3.2.1. May phat cong suat cao 27

    3.2.2. Phan loai cac bo khuyech cong suat cao 273.2.3. Cau hnh 28

    3.2.4. Meo do xuyen ieu che 29

    3.3. Cong nghe may thu 30

    3.3.1. Cau truc tram thu 30

    3.3.2. Khuyech ai tap am thap 30

    CHNG IV : TRAM VE TINH4.1. Cau hnh tram ve tinh vi mot bo phat ap n gian 32

    4.2. Phan bo dai tan cua bo phat ap 32

    4.3. Cac mang ve tinh nhieu chum 33

    4.3.1.u iem cuave tinh nhieu chum 34

    4.3.2. Lien ket gia cac vung bao phu 34

    1. Lien ket nh bc nhay cua bo phat ap 34

    2. Lien ket nh chuyen mach tren ve tinh (SS/TDMA) 35

    3. Lien ket nh quet chum 36

  • 8/6/2019 Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

    5/73

    http://www.ebook.edu.vn 4

    4.3.3. Cac tuyen noi lien ve tinh 36

    1. Cac tuyen noi gia cac ve tinh a tnh vi ve tinh quy ao thap 362. Cac tuyen noi gia cac ve tinh a tnh 373. Cac tuyen noi gia cac ve tinh quy ao thap 37

    4.4. Cac mang ve tinh tai tao 384.4.1. Bo phat ap tai tao 384.4.2. ac iem bo phat ap tai tao 38

    CHNG V : THIET KE NG TRUYEN5.1. Gii thieu 425.2. Cac ch tieu chat lng 42

    5.3. Cac ch tieu san sang 435.4. Quan he gia chat lng va C/N 435.5. C/N tong 465.6. Cong suat song mang 465.7. Cong suat tap am nhiet 48

    5.7.1. Tap am ben ngoai 495.7.2. Tap am ben trong 495.7.3. Tap am he thong 51

    5.8. Cong suat tap am nhieu 515.8.1. Can nhieu tap am khac 515.8.2. Nhieu cung tuyen 52

    5.9. Phan phoi tap am 535.10. Tnh toan o san sang 53

    5.11. Tnh toan ket noi a truy nhap 54

    CHNG VI : TNH TOAN TUYEN THONG TIN6.1. Gii thieu chng 556.2. Tnh toan tuyen thong tin 55

    6.2.1. Cac thong so can cho tnh toan 556.3. Tnh toan 56

    6.3.1. C ly thong tin, goc ngang va goc phng v cua anten tram mat at 566.3.2. Tnh cac thong so c ban 57

    6.4. Tnh d tr tuyen tram thu truyen hnh qua ve tinh (TVRO) 64Ket luan e tai 68Tai lieu tham khao

  • 8/6/2019 Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

    6/73

    http://www.ebook.edu.vn 5

    CHNG ITONG QUAN VE THONG TIN VE TINH

    1.1. S RA I CUA CAC HE THONG THONG TIN VE TINHThong tin vo tuyen qua ve tinh la thanh tu nghien cu trong lnh vc truyenthong va muc tieu cua no la gia tang ve mat c ly va dung lng vi chi ph thap .

    Ket hp s dung hai ky thuat - ten la va viba a m ra ky nguyen thong tinve tinh. Dch vu c cung cap theo cach nay bo sung mot cach hu ch cho cac dchvu ma trc o oc nhat ch do cac mang di at cung cap, s dung vo tuyen va cap.

    Ky nguyen vu tru c bat au vao nam 1957 vi viec phong ve tinh nhan

    tao au tien (ve tinh Sputnik cua Lien xo cu ). Nhng nam tiep theo cac ve tinhkhac cung lan lt c phong nh SCORE phat quang ba (nam 1958 ), ve tinhphan xa ECHO (1960), cac ve tinh chuyen tiep bang rong TELSTAR va RELAY(1962) va ve tinh a tnh au tien la SYNCOM (1963).

    Trong nam 1965, ve tinh a tnh thng mai au tien INTELSAT-1 anhdau s m au cho hang loat cac ve tinh INTELSAT. Cung nam o, Lien xo cucung phong ve tinh truyen thong au tien trong loat ve tinh truyen thongMOLNYA.

    1.2. QUA TRNH PHAT TRIENCac he thong ve tinh au tien cung cap dung lng thap vi gia tng oi caonh ve tinh INTELSAT-1 nang 68kg khi phong, co dung lng 480 kenh thoai vi gia32.500USD mot kenh trong mot nam. Gia thanh nay cao la do chi ph phong, ket hpvi gia ve tinh co tnh en tuoi tho ve tinh ngan (1 nam ri ) va dung lng thap.

    Viec giam gia la ket qua cua nhieu no lc, nhng no lc o a dan en viectao ra cac ten la phong co kha nang a cac ve tinh ngay cang nang hn len quyao (3750kg khi phong ve tinh INTELSAT-VI). Ngoai ra ky thuat viba ngay cangphat trien a tao ieu kien thc hien cac anten nhieu bup song co kha nang tao bienhnh ma bup song cua chung hoan toan thch ng vi hnh dang luc a, cho phep tais dung cung mot bang tan gia cac bup song va ket hp s dung cac bo khuyech aitruyen dan cong suat cao hn. Dung lng ve tinh tang len dan en giam gia thanhmoi kenh thoai (80.000 kenh tren INTELSAT-VI co gia thue moi kenh la 380USD).

    Ngoai viec giam chi ph truyen thong, ac iem noi bac nhat la tnh adang cua cac dch vu ma cac he thong thong tin ve tinh cung cap va dien bao phurong cua ve tinh a c dung e thiet lap cac tuyen thong tin vo tuyen c ly xa,nh ve tinh INTELSAT-1 cho phep thiet lap cac tram hai ben b ai Tay Dng

    ket noi c vi nhau. Khi kch thc va cong suat cua cac ve tinh cang tang lenth cang cho phep giam kch thc cua cac tram mat at va do vay giam gia thanh

  • 8/6/2019 Thong Tin Ve Tinh2

    7/73

    http://www.ebook.edu.vn 6

    cua chung, dan en tang so lng cac tram mat at. Do o co the khai thac mottnh nang khac cua ve tinh, o la kha nang thu thap hoac phat quang ba cac tnhieu t hoac ti mot so a iem.Thay v phat cac tn hieu t iem nay ti iemkhac, bay gi co the phat t mot may duy nhat ti rat nhieu may thu phan bo trongmot vung rong ln, hoac ngc lai, co the phat t nhieu tram ti mot tram trungtam duy nhat. V vay, cac mang truyen so lieu a iem, cac mang quang ba qua vetinh va cac mang thu thap d lieu. Co the phat quang ba ti cac may phat chuyentiep hoac trc tiep ti khach hang ca nhan. Cac mang nay hoat ong vi cac trammat at nho co anten ng knh t 0,6 en 3,5m.

    1.3. AC IEM CUA THONG TIN VE TINHThong tin ve tinh tuy ra i muon nhng c phat trien nhanh chong bi v

    no co nhieu li the so vi cac he thong truyen thong khac, o la:

    Vung phu song rong, ch can ba ve tinh la co the phu song toan cau. Thiet b phat song cua he thong thong tin ve tinh ch can cong suat nho. Viec lap at hoac di chuyen mot he thong thong tin ve tinh tren mat at

    tng oi nhanh chong va khong phu thuoc vao cau hnh mang cung nh he thongtruyen dan .

    He thong thong tin ve tinh co the phuc vu nhieu dch vu khac nhau nhvien thong thoai va phi thoai, tham do a chat, truyen hnh anh, quan sat muc tieu,nghien cu kh tng, phuc vu quoc phong an ninh, v.v

    Thong tin ve tinh rat on nh. a co nhieu trng hp bao to, ong atmanh lam cho cac phng tien truyen thong khac mat tac dung ch con duy nhatthong tin ve tinh hoat ong.

    Cac thiet