This week’s Objectives
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Public Health: What It Is and How It Works
Understand the 3 Core Functions and 10 Essential Public Health Services FrameworkApply the 10 Essential Public Health Services to a population health problemCompare the 10 Essential Public Health Services (CDC) to the 11 Essential Public Health Functions (WHO, PAHO)Identify the major components of public healths infrastructure and key dimensions of each component Identify strategies for assessing and enhancing the infrastructure of public health1This weeks Objectives
22Chapter 5 (Turnock, 5th ed)Core Functions and Public Health Practice3Understand the 3 Core Functions and 10 Essential Public Health Services FrameworkApply the 10 Essential Public Health Services to a population health problemCompare the 10 Essential Public Health Services (CDC) to the 11 Essential Public Health Functions (WHO, PAHO)4Learning Objectives4Essential Services of Public HealthMonitor health statusDiagnose and investigate Inform, educate, and empowerMobilize community partnershipsDevelop policies and plans6. Enforce laws and regulations7. Link to or provide services8. Assure a competent workforce9. Evaluate health services10. Research
55The last part of the Public Health in America statement defines the Essential Services of Public Health. The ten essential services are shown up here on the screen and include:Monitor health status to identify and solve community health problemsDiagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the communityInform, educate, and empower people about health issuesMobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problemsDevelop policies and plans that support individual and community health effortsEnforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safetyLink people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailableAssure a competent public and personal health care workforceEvaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health servicesResearch for new insights and innovative solutions to health problemsBasically, any public health activity can fit into one of these ten categories. So for example, Essential Service #1 includes activities such as data collection, community health assessments and the maintenance of population health registries. As another example, Essential Service #7 includes personal health care services as well as transportation and other enabling services and assuring the availability of culturally appropriate personnel and materials. Since the release of the ten Essential Services, numerous initiatives have explored the utility and feasibility of these services and have found them to be a good descriptor of public health.
Governmental RoleThe governmental public health agency has a vital function: to see to it that vital elements are in place and the mission is being adequately addressed.
6IOMs Future of Public Health6Assessment: What are the problems, needs and resources?Policy Development: What will be done based on resources and priorities?Assurance: How can we make sure priority problems are addressed based on scientific evidence?7Translating Public Health Functions into Practice7
How Public Health Works: Essential Services88StatisticianCommunity Researcher
91. Monitor Health Status
9Well, what is entailed in each of these EPHS. Lets take a look at them one by one and cite some examples from the practice world.Community Health Assessments (IPLAN, APEX, PATCH, MAPP, etc)not just health planners, but nurses, environmental health, managers, inspectors and our community partners.Making data and information freely available on the InternetOngoing assessment of community health status Identification of threats to healthDetermination of health service needsAttention to special high risk populationsIdentification of community assets & resourcesInterpretation & communicationMultisectoral information systems10Monitor Health Status10Well, what is entailed in each of these EPHS. Lets take a look at them one by one and cite some examples from the practice world.Community Health Assessments (IPLAN, APEX, PATCH, MAPP, etc)not just health planners, but nurses, environmental health, managers, inspectors and our community partners.Making data and information freely available on the Internethttp://www.countyhealthrankings.org/111. MonitorDisease DetectivesEpidemiologistLaboratorianEmergency Manager
122. Diagnose and Investigate
12Case finding via reports and linking illnesses to environmental and community factors. Emerging infections, Resistant diseases, lab capability, cluster investigations (ID, cancer, suicide, etc)Car seats as contributor to childhood injuriessafe paths to schools programs.
Early identification of unusual event patterns Access to public health lab capabilitiesActive infectious disease and environmental surveillance activitiesTechnical and human resource capacity for thorough investigation13Diagnose and Investigate13Case finding via reports and linking illnesses to environmental and community factors. Emerging infections, Resistant diseases, lab capability, cluster investigations (ID, cancer, suicide, etc)Car seats as contributor to childhood injuriessafe paths to schools programs.
Disease Detectives - YouTube2. Diagnose14Health EducatorMedia SpecialistCommunity Outreach Worker
153. Inform, Educate, Empower
15Sex education in the schoolsPeople killing people----anti violence effortsOrganize support groups for abused womenCommunity organizationSocial marketing and targeted communicationAccess to health informationCollaboration with health care providers on health messages and programsJoint health education efforts with media, schools, churches, work sites, etc.16Inform, Educate, Empower16Sex education in the schoolsPeople killing people----anti violence effortsOrganize support groups for abused womenhttp://vimeo.com/22274847 3. Inform17
Community OrganizerOutreach WorkerCity Planner184. Mobilize Partnerships18Patterning with business to assure employee healthPartnering with hospitals on community health improvment
Convening and facilitating partnershipsUndertaking defined health improvement planning efforts and projectsBuilding coalitions to draw upon the full range of potential human and material resources to improve community health19Mobilizing Partnerships19Patterning with business to assure employee healthPartnering with hospitals on community health improvment
YouTube - Allies for Health: Community Partnerships for Health in Public Housing4. Mobilize20Policy AnalystPolicy AdvocatePlannerEconomist
215. Develop Policies and Plans
21Working within communities to reduce tobacco useFinding creative ways to break language barriersImproving disaster planningLeadership development at all levelsSystematic community-wide planning for health improvementDeveloping & tracking goals and objectivesJoint evaluation with medical care systemDevelopment of policy and legislation to achieve public health goals22Develop Policies and Plans22Working within communities to reduce tobacco useFinding creative ways to break language barriersImproving disaster planning
235. Plan23This is one of 2 models showing how the MAPP process works and is an especially good image for connecting to communities. The phases of MAPP are shown along a road that leads to A Healthier Community. The 4 MAPP Assessments are shown on the main road and represent the core activities in the process. MAPP is a way to define your interim goals between where you are and A Healthier Community. It also helps prioritize, set realistic action plans to get there, and celebrate your successes along the way. One challenge with this image is that it makes the MAPP process look linear when its actually cyclical.
Put another way, using MAPP is like taking a trip. MAPP can help you figure out where you want to go, how to get there, and who needs to be in the car. You may need to pick up extra people along the way to help you reach your destination. And, by the time you get there, MAPP may have helped you figure out an even better destination.
Environmental Health SpecialistIndustrial HygienistReviewer
246. Enforce Laws & Regulations
24New Immunization RequirementsIsolating and treating communicable diseasesEnforcement of sanitary codesProtection of drinking water suppliesEnforcement of clean air standardsAnimal controlFollow-up of hazard investigationsMonitor quality of medical careReview of new drugs, biologics & devices25Enforcing Laws & Regulations25New Immunization RequirementsIsolating and treating communicable diseasesYouTube - Public Health Inspector - Working in Canada266. EnforceNursePhysicianDentistTranslatorCase Manager
277. Link to & Assure Medical Care
27Providing prenatal care and instructionSupporting private health care providersAssurance of effective access and entryCulturally appropriate materials and staffOngoing care managementTransportation servicesTargeted outreach & education for special populations28Link to & Assure Care28Providing prenatal care and instructionSupporting private health care providersYouTube - Meeting the Needs of California's Diverse Patient Populations7. Link29EducatorTrainerRegulator
308. Assure a Competent Workforce
30Not just academics.Assure quality care through education partnershipsContinuing education through distance learning
Education, training, assessment of personnelEfficient processes for licensure & credentialingLifelong learning modelsActive partnerships with professional training programsContinuing education for management and leadership development31Assure Competent Workforce31Not just academics.Assure quality care through education par