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    Third Generation

    of Computers

    Integrated Circuits

    Prepared by: Cristobal, JersonFlores, Jason

    Saringan, Sherwin KeithLeus, Hainah KarizaRecido, Jayrell

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    History Transistors were a tremendous breakthrough in

    advancing the computer. However no one could

    predict that thousands even now millions oftransistors (circuits) could be compacted in such a

    small space.

    In 1958 and 1959, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and

    Robert Noyce of Fairchild Camera, came up with asolution to the problem of large numbers of

    components, and the integrated circuit was developed.

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    History Instead of making transistors one-by-one, several

    transistors could be made at the same time, on the

    same piece of semiconductor. Not only transistors, but

    other electric components such as resistors, capacitors

    and diodes could be made by the same process with

    the same materials.

    Originally it was thought that integrated circuits would

    be useful only in military applications, and many

    microprocessor investors pulled out before the work

    was completed. However time has proven the

    integrated circuit to be greatly undervalued.

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    What is it?Integrated circuit also known as chip, microchip

    or IC, is a collection of miniaturized transistors

    placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors,

    which drastically increased the speed and efficiency

    of computers while reducing its size and served as

    the hallmark of third generation computers

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    Advantages of IC Very small size: Hundred times smaller than the

    discrete circuits.

    Lesser weight: As large number of components can bepacked into a single chip, weight is reduced

    Reduced cost: The mass production technique has

    helped to reduce the price

    High reliability: Due to absence of soldered connection,

    few interconnections and small temperature rise failure

    rate is low.

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    Characteristics of IC Low power requirement: As the size is small power

    consumption is less.

    Easy replacement: In case of failure chip can easily be

    replaced.

    Users interacted with computers through keyboards

    and mouse rather than traditional punched cards and

    printers.

    Extensive use of high-level language became possible in

    Third Generation Computers.

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    Types of ICBy number of component:

    SSI (small-scale integration) - Up to 100 electronic components

    per chip

    MSI (medium-scale integration) - From 100 to 3,000 electronic

    components per chip

    LSI (large-scale integration) - From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic

    components per chip

    VLSI (very large-scale integration) - From 100,000 to 1,000,000electronic components per chip

    ULSI (ultra large-scale integration) - More than 1 million

    electronic components per chip

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    Types of ICBy type of signal:

    Analog / Linear- works by processing continuous signals

    has continuously variable output (theoretically capable of

    attaining an infinite number of states) that depends on the

    input signal level

    the output signal level is a linear function of the input signal

    level

    Digital - operates at only a few defined levels or states, usingbinary mathematics to process 0 and 1 signals, rather than

    over a continuous range of signal amplitudes

    Mixed Signal makes use of both analog and digital

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    Types of ICBy type of signal:

    Analog / Linear- works by processing continuous signals

    has continuously variable output (theoretically capable of

    attaining an infinite number of states) that depends on the

    input signal level

    the output signal level is a linear function of the input signal

    level

    Digital - operates at only a few defined levels or states, usingbinary mathematics to process 0 and 1 signals, rather than

    over a continuous range of signal amplitudes

    Mixed Signal makes use of both analog and digital

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    Important EventsComputing Systems1955

    Bell Labs introduced its first transistor computer.

    Transistors made computers energy-efficient.

    1958

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was

    formed. This year also witnessed the making ofthe first silicon chip by Jack Kilby and Robert

    Noyce.

    1968DEC launched the first mini computer known as

    PDP-8

    1969

    The US Department of Defense founded theAdvanced Research Projects Agency Network

    (ARPANET). It was established with intent to

    develop a computer network and is the

    predecessor of the Internet.

    1971Microcomputers came up with microprocessors

    and Ted Hoff at Intel, introduced 4-bit 4004.

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    Important EventsOperating Systems1954

    MIT came up with their operating system for

    UNIVAC 1103.

    1964 Dartmouth timesharing operating system wasdeveloped.

    1965Multics was announced. However, it was opened

    for paying customers in October 1969.

    1966 DOS/360 of IBM came up.

    1969This year witnessed the development of the Unix

    operating system by AT&T.

    1976 CP/M was developed during this year.

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    Important EventsProgramming Systems

    1959

    COBOL concept came up followed by its

    implementation that was developed by the

    Codasyl Committee in 1960. The LISP

    implementation was developed in 1959. LISP's

    successor, Common LISP, came up later in 1984.

    1964

    IBM came up with PL/I concept. PL/M followed

    years later in 1972. 1964 also saw the

    development of BASIC by Kemeny and Kurtz.

    1969 Ken Thompson developed the B language.

    1970 This was when Pascal was developed.

    1972

    It was during 1972 that Smalltalk and Prolog were

    developed. One of the most important events in

    the history of computing was the development of

    C language. It was developed by Dennis Ritchie in

    1972.

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    A much better technology in terms of speed(much

    faster), reliability(more stable, consumes less

    power and generates less heat), size(smaller),

    price(cheaper in terms of labor and cost, requiresless maintenance) and innovation(operating

    system, language) compared to its predecessors:

    the vacuum tube and the transistor.With the

    development of the integrated circuit, a newgeneration of more advanced computers took

    over its predecessors.

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    With the introduction of the first processor by

    Intel in 1971, the Intel 4004 which is a 4-bit

    processor which had a speed of 740 kHz, a new

    generation of computers was born: the fourthgeneration computers or the microprocessors. It

    was made possible because of integrated circuit

    technology. Thousands of integrated circuits were

    built onto a single silicon chip and what in the firstgeneration filled an entire room could now fit in

    the palm of the hand in the form of a

    microprocessor.

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    Sources http://icttrends.com/preparation/fundamentals/generations-of-

    computers/third-generation-computers

    http://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/definition/integrated-

    circuit

    http://www.techiwarehouse.com/engine/a046ee08/Generations-of-

    Computer

    http://www.buzzle.com/articles/computer-history-full-timeline.html

    http://www.buzzle.com/articles/history-of-computer-processors.html

    http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2002/FiveGenerations.asp

    http://armymedical.tpub.com/MD0057/MD00570034.htm

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