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Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil and palm oilPh.D. thesis, Part 3: Life cycle inventory of rapeseed oil and palm oil

Jannick H Schmidt Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University

Title: Life assessment of rapeseed oil and palm oil. Ph.D. thesis, Part 3: Life cycle inventory of rapeseed oil and palm oil Author: Jannick Hoejrup Schmidt Published by: Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University Distribution: http://vbn.aau.dk Date: 15-jun-2007 (version for the assessment committe) Cover: Fotos by:1 4 2 5 3 8 7 61) Jannick H Schmidt, Rapeseed field near Aalborg, May 2007 2) Calle Schmidt, Rapeseed field in Northern Jutland, May 2007 3) Picture obtained from: http://jyndevad.okologgen.dk (Accessed May 2007) 4) Jannick H Schmidt, Rapeseed oil, June 2007 5) Jannick H Schmidt, Palm oil, May 2007 6) Jannick H Schmidt, United Plantations Berhad, Malaysia, November 2006 7) Jannick H Schmidt, United Plantations Berhad, Malaysia, November 2006 8) Jannick H Schmidt, United Plantations Berhad, Malaysia, August 2005

PrefaceThis report is published as part of the Ph.D. thesis: Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil and palm oil. The thesis consists of three parts: 1. Part 1: Summary report The summary report describes the overall problem of the Ph.D. project, the research outline, summaries of the research and perspectives and recommendations. 2. Part 2: Article collection (6 scientific articles) The article collection presents the core of the scientific output of the Ph.D. project. 3. Part 3: Life cycle inventory of rapeseed oil and palm oil This life cycle inventory report provides and documents the background material for the scientific article: Comparative life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil and palm oil (published in part two of the thesis). This includes definition of system boundaries, the collected data, the modelling of the investigated system, sensitivity analyses and an evaluation of sensitivity, completeness and consistency. The inventory report has character of an appendix report to the life cycle assessment The Ph.D. thesis was carried out at the Department of Development and Planning at Aalborg University. The project was initiated under the framework of the DUCED - I&UA project which is a Danish university consortium for environment and development. The thesis was supervised by professor Per Christensen and associate professor Eskild Holm Nielsen, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University. Many people, companies and institutions have provided essential data, insights and great hospitality during meetings and longer stays which have made this study possible. Therefore, a special thanks goes to:Carl Bek-Nielsen (Executive director of United Plantation), Dr. Gurmit Singh (Research director), Dr. Xaviar Arulandoo (Research controller), Dr. Mukesh Sharma (Research manager) and the rest of the Research Department at United Plantations Berhad, Teluk Intan, Malaysia Jesper Korning (Quality manager), Lars Kronborg (Quality engineer), Anders Kromand Hansen (Engineer) and Anders Dahl (Trading Manager), AarhusKarlshamn, Aarhus, Denmark Vijaya Subramaniam (Research officer), Engineering & Processing Division, Energy and Environment Unit, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), Kajang, Malaysia Prof. Dr. P Agamuthu (Professor) and the students at the Solid Waste Lab, Institute of Biological Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Randolph Jeremiah (Project officer), MUCED, Malaysian University Consortium for Environment and Development, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Sumiani Yusoff (Researcher), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Peter Shonfield, LCA Team Leader, Chemistry & Environmental Protection Department, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever

Jannick Hoejrup Schmidt, June 2007

Contents1 Introduction................................................................................................................................................................9 1.1 Purpose of the life cycle inventory.............................................................................................................................9 1.2 Functional unit............................................................................................................................................................9 1.3 Method for system delimitation..................................................................................................................................9 1.4 Method applied for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA).....................................................................................12 1.5 Data collection..........................................................................................................................................................16 1.6 Structure of the report...............................................................................................................................................16 System boundaries of inventoried systems.............................................................................................................19 2.1 Marginal suppliers of affected crops ........................................................................................................................19 2.2 System expansion oil mill stage ............................................................................................................................20 2.3 System expansion agricultural stage......................................................................................................................23 2.4 Scenarois related to system expansion .....................................................................................................................28 2.5 Inventoried system summary.................................................................................................................................30 Energy .......................................................................................................................................................................33 3.1 Electricity from the grid in Denmark .......................................................................................................................33 3.2 Electricity from the grid in Malaysia and Indonesia ................................................................................................37 3.3 Electricity from the grid in Brazil ............................................................................................................................38 3.4 Electricity from the grid in Canada ..........................................................................................................................39 3.5 Electricity in different countries, summary ..............................................................................................................39 3.6 District heating in Denmark .....................................................................................................................................40 Transport..................................................................................................................................................................43 4.1 Transport with lorry .................................................................................................................................................43 4.2 Transport with ocean tanker .....................................................................................................................................44 4.3 Traction ....................................................................................................................................................................45 4.4 Transport with passenger car....................................................................................................................................46 Agricultural stage: Rapeseed ..................................................................................................................................47 5.1 Product flow in agricultural stage.............................................................................................................................48 5.2 Omitted inventory data in agricultural stage ............................................................................................................51 5.3 Energy use ................................................................................................................................................................52 5.4 Materials...................................................................................................................................................................58 5.5 Co-products ..............................................................................................................................................................65 5.6 Emissions .................................................................................................................................................................66 5.7 Overhead in agricultural stage..................................................................................................................................77 5.8 Capital goods in agricultural stage ...........................................................................................................................77 5.9 Transport of materials in agricultural stage ..............................................................................................................80 5.10 LCI of rapeseed agricultural stage, summary .........................................................................................................81 Agricultural stage: Oil palm, fresh fruit bunches (FFB)