Thesis of Tarun Nigam

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STUDIES ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF PTERIDOPHYTES OF DOON VALLEY AND ADJACENT AREAS, UTTARANCHAL

Transcript of Thesis of Tarun Nigam

Thesis of Tarun Nigam

STUDIES ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF PTERIDOPHYTES OF DOON VALLEY AND ADJACENT AREAS, UTTARANCHALSUMMARYOf The

THESISSUBMITTED TO

C. S. J. M. UNIVERSITY, KANPURFOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHYIN

BOTANYBy

TARUN NIGAMUnder the supervision of

Dr. Indra Mani Semwal

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, D.B.S. (P.G.) COLLEGE, KANPUR.1

Thesis of Tarun Nigam

2008ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt was my great fortune to have been associated and to work under the supervision of Dr. Indra Mani Semwal, Reader, Post Graduate Department of Botany, D.B.S. College, Kanpur. I take this opportunity to express my profound and deepest sense of gratitude to his suggestions, guidance, and encouragement in transforming the effort into success. I gratefully acknowledge with thanks to Dr. S.K. Mishra, Ex. Principal and Dr. S.K. Srivastava, Principal, D.B.S. College, Kanpur for enrolling me as Ph. D. student and allowing me to use their institutional facilities. I am extremely grateful to Dr. A.C. Khare Ex Head and Dr. J.P. Dubey, Head, Department of Botany for their painstaking help and fruitful discussions in course of my doctoral work. I am thankful for their ready help at needy situations. With great respect and gratitude, I thank Dr. J.B. Singh Reader (Retired), Department of Botany, D.B.S. College Kanpur for his constant encouragement, indulgement, teaching, suggestions and cooperations that he had shown throughout the course of this study. Without his blessing the work would not have been completed.

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Thesis of Tarun Nigam

I feel immense pleasure in expressing my thanks to Dr. P. B. Khare, Senior Scientist, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Dr. H.C. Pande Senior Scientist, Botanical Survey of India, Dehradun and Dr. G.S. Rajwar, Head, Department of Botany, Govt. (P.G.) College, Rishikesh, Uttaranchal for their untiring guidance, valuable advice, encouragement and moral support during the entire course of my study. I shall ever remain obliged to them. My special thanks are due to Shri H. M. Bhatt, Ayush Bhatt and Shri Dinesh Semwal with whom I spared most of my enjoyable moments during my work at Dehradun and Mussoorie. My heartfelt thanks go to my friends with whom I have shared everyday, a drama of laughter, struggle, joys, failures and victories especially Mukesh Kumar, Sandhya, Kanchan, Seema, and Rashmi Pandey. I owe a lot to my mother Smt. Gayatri Devi and father Shri Thakur Prasad who trusted and allowed me to work at Kanpur and different places of Uttaranchal, which no words can express. I will remain indebted to my brother Karan Singh for extending all possible help whenever needed. In the last, I thank all those whose names do not figure here but have helped me directly or indirectly during the course of my study and in shaping of this thesis.

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Thesis of Tarun Nigam

TARUN NIGAM Research Scholar

Dr. I. M. SemwalPh.D.

Department of BotanyD. B. S. (P.G.) College, Kanpur.Phones College 0512-2651730 Res.- 0512-2631776

Reader

CertificateThis is to certify that the present thesis, entitled STUDIES ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF PTERIDOPHYTES OF

DOON VALLEY AND ADJACENT AREAS, UTTARANCHAL submitted by Mr. TARUN NIGAM, embodies the findings of his original research work carried out under my supervision and it fulfills all the conditions prescribed by C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur for the award of Ph.D. Degree in Botany. He has attended department of botany more than two hundred days to complete this investigation.

Date 20 April, 2008

Dr. I. M. Semwal( Supervisor)

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INDEXCHAPTER NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. CONTENTS PAGE NO.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE MATERIALS AND METHOD OBSERVATION DISCUSSION- DISTRIBUTION AN ECOLOGY OF PTERIDOPHYTES ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING FERN POPULATION IN THE AREA OBSERVATION ON THE ACCLIMATIZATION OF FERNS ETHNOBATANICAL IMPORTANCE OF PTERIDOPHYTES BIBLIOGRAPHY

1 - 20 21 31 32 33 34 63 64 144 145 167

7. 8. 9.

168 175 176 180 181 - 216

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SUMMARY

STUDIES ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF PTERIDOPHYTES OF DOON VALLEY AND ADJACENT AREAS, UTTARANCHAL. INTRODUCTION:The pteridophytes are uniquely charming, graceful and probably the most beautiful of all the non flowering plants. It is the delicacy of their finely divided fronds and flowing growth habit that make them so attractive. The group holds strange fascination that increases as one knows more and more about them. Yet, they are plants of enormous antiquity and though outdated by the angio sperms of the modern age, and still in a state of active evolution. Pteridophytes of today are diminutive relatives of the gaint forest constituents of the carboniferous period which laid down the rich seams of coal upon which not only the industrial revolution but the structures of modern society were to be founded. Many of them were dominating plants forms in those early days and evolved their often enormous finely divided leaves only to seek for the widest possible area of greenery to Catch the sunlight for photosynthesis.

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Thesis of Tarun Nigam

The ferns constitute a major group of the living pteridophytes and are almost always and everywhere met under favourable conditions of growth. The dominance of the fern is over since long. Most part of them are now extinct and displaced by the newly emergent group of plants. But still then they form a good part of the cross section of any continental flora. Perhaps the antiquity and their ability to survive through ages are the most fascinating points of the story of their life. Ferns are basically vascular plants, also known as vascular cryptogams. They occupy a position in between the seed bearing and non seed bearing plants. Ferns are distributed all over the world but majority of them are restricted to tropical forests and usually prefer diverse range of habitat. The life cycle of fern consists of two phases i.e. haploid non vascular gametophyte and diploid vascular sporophyte, both phases are autotrophic morphologically very distinct and physiologically independent to each other. The sporophyte phase is dominant phase. It exhibits a great variation in form, size and structure. Nearly all the living ferns are herbaceous except a few woody tree fern. Stem bear microphyllous or megaphyllous leaves, spores are produced in special structures called the sporangia that are invariably subtended by leaf like appendage called the sporophylls. The two very complex entities of nature, the organism and the environment are inter dependent, mutually reactive and inter related. The genetic

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make up along with the extrinsic conditions control the distribution of organisms. The gross environment of the pteridophytes is much the same as that for other vascular plants growing in the same localities but not the microenvironment because the majority of pteridophytes are adopted to modify environment such as the vicinity of water falls, forest floor and streams where they get sufficient shade, light and moisture. The continuous trespassing by human, limit the luxuriant growth of ferns in the area, Garhwal hills are facing multiferous ecological disturbance. The unplanned and excessive exploitation of nature is causing an accelerated environmental decay. The damage to the ecological balance is mostly man made or is caused by human negligence. This is evident from the loss of forest cover and frequent landslides at hills and floods in the plains. Many of the erstwhile abundant species have been rare and several of them are on their way to extinction. All this calls for a sound policy of management and conservation. The mountains of Indian Himalayas are very rich in the fern flora. Variety of vascular cryptogams occur in the Himalayan region at the variety of habitats. These plants are very important for the study of ecological aspects. The pteridophytes of the areas are found as hydrophytes, Lithophytes and epiphytes etc. The epiphyte grow at several host ranges. The epiphytic vegetation of the area is poor on account of the rigorous climate.

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Thesis of Tarun Nigam

The epiphytes make their appearance during the rainy season when they thickly clad the tree trunks and branches. Before the advent of winter in the month of October, the life cycle is completed, the fronds in most of the ferns turn yellowish and wither while the rhizomes remain in dormant condition. The awareness of the importance of nature conservation and necessity to conserve the biodiversity has become very essential. Pteridophytes, a primitive colonizer on land with broad spectrum of biological types, occure from small filmy ferns to arborescent tree and from submerged aquatics to epiphytes and xerophytes. During the past three decades, ecological investigations of the Indian pteridophytes have been progressing steadily as evidence by the fact that out of about 600 species of ferns known from Indian region, over 500 species have been investigated. Whereas our knowledge of the floristic and ecology of this group of plants is almost stagnant. Authors enumerating the species of various regions and mountains do not present adequate ecological data but make only passing mention of their behaviours and habitats.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE AREAThe area lies between the latitudes 29o58' and 31o 2' 30'' N and longitudes 77o 34' 45"and 78o 18' 30" E and bounded by the Himalayas in the north the Shivalic hills in the south the Ganges in the east and Yamuna river in the west. Dehradun the state capital of Uttaranchal is the gateway to beuteons mussoorie

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and Chakrata. In legend and love, Dehradu