Theories of Emotion & Motivation Emotion zEmotion ya response of the whole organism...

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Transcript of Theories of Emotion & Motivation Emotion zEmotion ya response of the whole organism...

Introduction to Psychology

Theories of Emotion& Motivation

EmotionEmotiona response of the whole organismphysiological arousalexpressive behaviorsconscious experienceTheories of EmotionDoes your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?James-Lange Theory of EmotionExperience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuliFear(emotion)


Sight of oncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)

Cannon-BardTheory of EmotionEmotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:physiological responses subjective experience of emotionSight of oncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)



Schachters Two Factor Theory of EmotionTo experience emotion one must:be physically aroused cognitively label the arousalCognitivelabel

Im afraidFear(emotion)

Sight of oncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)


Cognition and EmotionThe brains shortcut for emotions

Two Routes to EmotionAppraisalEventEmotionalresponsePhysiologicalactivationExpressivebehaviorSubjectiveexperienceTwo Dimensions of EmotionPositivevalenceNegativevalenceHigharousalLowarousalpleasantrelaxationjoysadnessfearangerEmotional Arousal

Autonomic nervous system controlsphysiological arousalSympatheticdivision (arousing)Pupils dilateDecreasesPerspiresIncreasesAcceleratesInhibitsSecrete stresshormonesParasympatheticdivision (calming)Pupils contractIncreasesDriesDecreasesSlowsActivatesDecreasessecretion ofstress hormonesEYESSALIVATIONSKINRESPIRATIONHEARTDIGESTIONADRENALGLANDSArousal and PerformancePerformance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks

PerformancelevelLow Arousal HighDifficult tasksEasy tasksEmotion-Lie DetectorsPolygraphmachine commonly used in attempts to detect liesmeasures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotionperspirationheart rateblood pressurebreathing changesEmotion- A Polygraph Examination

Emotion- Lie DetectorsControl QuestionUp to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone?Relevant QuestionDid the deceased threaten to harm you in any way?Relevant > Control --> LieEmotion-Lie Detectors

Control questionRelevantquestionControl questionRelevantquestion(a)(b)RespirationPerspirationHeart rateEmotion-Lie Detectors50 Innocents50 Thieves1/3 of innocent declared guilty1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)

PercentageInnocentpeopleGuiltypeople80706050403020100Judged innocent by polygraphJudged guilty by polygraphEmotion-Lie DetectorsIs 70% accuracy good?Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually guiltytest all employees285 will be wrongly accusedWhat about 95% accuracy? Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guiltytest all employees (including 999 innocents)50 wrongly declared guilty1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (2%)Expressing EmotionGender and expressivenessMenWomenSad Happy ScaryFilm Type16141210 8 6 4 2 0NumberofexpressionsExpressing EmotionSmiles can show different emotions:A) Mask angerB) Overly politeC) Soften criticismD) Reluctant compliance

Expressing EmotionCulturally universal expressions

Experiencing EmotionThe Amygdala-a neural key to fear learning

Experiencing EmotionCatharsisemotional releasecatharsis hypothesis releasing aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urgesFeel-good, do-good phenomenonpeoples tendency to be helpful when already in a good moodExperiencing EmotionSubjective Well-Beingself-perceived happiness or satisfaction with lifeused along with measures of objective well-beingphysical and economic indicators to evaluate peoples quality of lifeExperiencing EmotionAre todays collegians materialistic?

Percentagerating goal as veryimportantoressential

90807060504030201001966 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96YearDeveloping a meaningful life philosophyBeing very well-off financiallyExperiencing EmotionDoes money buy happiness?Year100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%

Averageper-personafter-tax incomein 1995 dollarsPercentagedescribingthemselves asvery happy

$20,000$19,000$18,000$17,000$16,000$15,000$14,000$13,000$12,000$11,000$10,000$9,000$8,000$7,000$6,000$5,000$4,0001930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Percentage very happyPersonal incomeExperiencing EmotionValues and life satisfactionMoneyLove1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00Life satisfaction 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0-0.2-0.4ImportancescoresExperiencing EmotionAdaptation-Level Phenomenontendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level brightness of lights volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experienceRelative Deprivationperception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneselfOpponent-Process Theory of Emotion

StrongNeutralStrongFirst experience(a)StrongNeutralStrong

After repeated experiences(b)Happiness is...Researchers Have Found ThatHappy People Tend to

Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries)

Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable

Have close friendships or a satisfyingmarriage

Have work and leisure that engagetheir skills

Have a meaningful religious faith

Sleep well and exerciseHowever, Happiness Seems Not MuchRelated to Other Factors, Such as


Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful)

Education levels

Parenthood (having children or not)

Physical attractivenessMotivationMotivationa need or desire that energizes and directs behaviorInstinctcomplex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearnedMotivationDrive-Reduction Theorythe idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the needDrive-reducingbehaviors(eating, drinking)Need(e.g., forfood, water)Drive(hunger, thirst)MotivationHomeostasistendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal stateregulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular levelIncentivea positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviorMaslows Hierarchy of Needs begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfiedthen higher-level safety needs become active then psychological needs become activeSelf-actualization needsNeed to live up to ones fullest and unique potentialEsteem needsNeed for self-esteem,achievement, competence,and independence; need forrecognition and respect from others

Safety needsNeed to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable

Belongingness and love needsNeed to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienationPhysiological needsNeed to satisfy hunger and thirst

Motivation-HungerStomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time in minutesSubject swallowsballoon, whichmeasures stomachcontractionSubject presseskey each timewhen hungryStomach contractionsHunger pangsMotivation-HungerGlucosethe form of sugar that circulates in the bloodprovides the major source of energy for body tissueswhen its level is low, we feel hungerMotivation-HungerSet Pointthe point at which an individuals weight thermostat is supposedly setwhen the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weightBasal Metabolic Ratebodys base rate of energy expenditureMotivation-HungerThe hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions

Eating DisordersAnorexia Nervosawhen a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starveusually an adolescent femaleBulimia Nervosadisorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of highly caloric foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exerciseEating Disorders- Anorexia Nervosawhen a person is less than 85% of their normal body weight95% of sufferers are female most are between the ages of 18-3030% of persons diagnosed with anorexia nervosa dieWomens Body Images

ThinnestWomensidealWhat womenbelieved menpreferredWhat menactuallypreferredWomenscurrentbody imageFattestSexual MotivationSex is a physiologically based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and valuesSexual MotivationSexual Response Cyclethe four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson excitementplateauorgasmresolutionRefractory Periodresting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasmThe Sexual Response Cycle

MalesFemalesOrgasmPlateauExcitementResolutionResolutionwith orgasmResolutionwithoutorgasmSexual MotivationEstrogena sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males Forces Affecting Sexual MotivationPhysiologicalreadinessImaginativestimuliExternalstimuliSexual motivationSexual DisordersProblems that consistently impair sexual arousal or functioningIn Menpremature ejaculationejaculation before they or their partners wishimpotenceinability to have or maintain erectionIn Womenorgasmic disorderinfrequent or absent orgasmsSexual MotivationSame drives, different attitudesIceland Germany Great Canada Mexico United India Taiwan Singapore Britan StatesCountry100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0PercentansweringwrongDo you think it is, or is not, wrong for a couple to have a baby if they are not married?Sexual MotivationBirths to unwed parentsUnited StatesCanadaJapanBritain 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Year40% 35 30