The xyz affair
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The xyz affair
The xyz affairEmily McCadams
Causes of XYZ AffairBritain and France warring nationsAmerica traded with both the British and the FrenchThe British were attacking American shipsJays Treaty to stop BritishFrench became upset with increasing Anglo- American allianceStarted attacking American ships
George WashingtonWanted to keep neutrality in foreign affairsSent John Jay to create a treaty with British in 1794Sent Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to be U.S. Minister to FranceWas not received in 1796
John AdamsBecame president in 1797Wanted to keep neutrality in foreign affairs as wellWanted to modify the Franco- American alliance of 1778 Sent three diplomats to France
French RequestsPrince Talleyrand sent three French agents to meet with American diplomatsAsked for a $250,000 bribe for negotiations with Prince Talleyrand, a twelve million dollar loan for France, and asked them to express regret for alliance with Great Britain
5Charles Cotesworth PinkneyOriginally sent to France by WashingtonWasnt acceptedSent back by AdamsFederalistResponded to the Frenchs requests with, No! No! Not a sixpence!John MarshallFederalistSeen as a hero for refusing to give in to unreasonable and somewhat dishonorable demands.
Elbridge GerryAnti- FederalistDid not come to agreement with the Pinckney and Marshall because of party issueStayed after they left FrancePrince Talleyrand tried to convince him that his presence in France would prevent war.tried to negotiate separate terms with France, but did not succeed. Adamss Administration ReactionAdams went straight to Congress, and told them what the French had askedThe Anti-Federalist Party in Congress wished to see the actual letters that were sent Adams showed them the letters, but substituted the names of the French agents with X, Y, and Z The American ReactionThe American citizens became very concerned and upset about the requests of the FrenchTheir outcry: Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!
The Quasi-War of 1798-1800Adams set his mind on warHe asked Congress for money to arrange for war and gave American ships permission to fire on French ships. The Department of the Navy was established, and more ships were madeThere was battle and attacks were made, but not a declared war
Ending the ConflictAdams wanted peace from France as soon as possible In 1799, Adams sent a second commission of Americans to France They made negotiations to stop warfare by 1800
Influence on AmericaThe American response to expecting money has influenced political decisions afterwards Just because two countries are allies in one war, does not mean they will be in the next The French expected money back from their help in the American Revolution, but America did not follow upBibliographyBillias, George. Academic American, 1989 ed., s.v. Gerry, Elbridge. Danbury, Connecticut:Grolier Incorporated, 1989."A Biography of Elbridge Gerry 1744-1814." American History: From Revolution ToReconstruction and beyond. Accessed 24 November 2013.http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/biographies/elbridge-gerry/. Combs, Jerald. World Book: Millennium, 2000 ed., s.v. XYZ Affair. Chicago: World Book,Inc., 2000.Cullen, Charles. World Book: Millennium, 2000 ed., s.v. Marshall, John. Chicago: WorldBook, Inc., 2000.Ferrell, Robert. Academic American, 1989 ed., s.v. XYZ Affair. Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated, 1989.Handlin, Oscar. World Book: Millennium, 2000 ed., s.v. United States, History of the: 17841819: Early problems and politics: Foreign affairs. Chicago: World Book,Inc., 2000.Hutson, James. World Book: Millennium, 2000 ed., s.v. Adams, John C.: AdamsAdministration 1797-1801): Difficulties with France. Chicago: World Book,Inc., 2000.John Adams: XYZ Affair, Philadelphia, PA, 1797-05-16. American History: From RevolutionTo Reconstruction and beyond. Accessed 24 November 2013.http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/presidents/john-adams/the-xyz-affair-1797.php. Smith, W. Calvin. World Book: Millennium, 2000 ed., s.v. Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2000.
Bibliography (Visuals)Jays Treaty: Primary Documents in American History. The Library of Congress. November 25, 2013. http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/jay.html.
John Adams. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. November 25, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams.
John Marshall. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. November 25, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Marshall.
Levin, Thomas. 5 Basic Steps to Moneyball Approach in Football Manager. Aid the Boss. November 25, 2013. http://www.aidtheboss.com/moneyball-approach/.Map of Atlantic Ocean. Sampleireland.com. November 25, 2013. http://www.sampleireland.com/map-of-atlantic-ocean.html.United States Secretary of the Navy. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. November 25, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Secretary_of_the_Navy. XYZ Affair. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. November 25, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XYZ_Affair.1789 Militia: Quemahoning Township. Ancestry.com. November 25, 2013. http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pacquema/mil1789.htm.