The Turkmen Reality in Iraq

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The Turkmen Reality in Iraq - Arshad Hirmizi

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  • The TurkmenReality in Iraq

    Arshad Al-Hirmizi

    2005

  • XfRKTJX VAKTI

    Kirkuk Foundation

    isaN:975-6849-i1-BPublication No : 12English Series : 2

    A publication ofKerkiik Vakfr

    {Kerkuk Foundation)P.O.Box 61 .- BeyoSlu,

    lstanbul/ Turkey

    Kerkiik Vakfi (Kerkuk Foundation)Tepebagr, Megrutiyet Cad.,

    Qavugo$lu l9 Merkezi,No..131, 5th flor, room no. 20Beyo$lu, istanbul / Turkey

    Tel:(o212\29277 90 Faks: (0212)251 51 65ww w. Kerkukvakfi.com w ww.kardaslik.org

    e-mail : kardaslik@kardaslik.orq

    Printed by : Boyut Tan. Mat. Ankara, TurkeyPhone : +90.312.384 73 51

    First Editlonlstanbul - 2005

  • Introduction7

    Chapter OneThe truth about the Turkmen Territories in Iraq

    t1

    Chapter Two,The Stand of British Government duringthe Negotiations of Mosul Question

    35

    Chapter ThreeOccupation Powers Look at Kirkuk&Kifri Figures

    6l

    Chapter Four

    Kirkuk Massacre in 192479

    Chapter FiveGavurbaghi Massacre in Kirkuk

    91

    Chapter SixKirkuk Massacre 1959, The Incident and Truth

    109

  • Chapter SevenThe Demographic situation of the Turkmens in lraq

    t6t

    Chapter EightTuzhurmatu 1954-2004

    183

    Chapter NineErbil in History

    t87

    Conclusion193

    The Turkmen Charterr95

    Bibliography2rl

    Appendix ILaw of Administration for the State of lraq

    for the Transitional Period223

    Appendix 2267

    Map269

  • Ir/\tjI)

    Introduction

    A report of the International Crises Group (ICG)indicates the existence of racial, religious and cul-tural differences in Iraq that may later develop intofissures affecting the united structure of the Iraqisociety. ICG is an international, non-profit and mul-tinational organization, the employees of which op-erate in the five continents, and whose board in-cludes many prominent figures in the fields of poli-tics, diplomacy, business and media. Its headquarteris in Brussels.

    The warning of the Group is totally justified, forIraq has long suffered from a suppressive govern-ment that followed a series of incompatible regimes,all of which failed to produce a unified con$titutionfor the Iraqi people; and a decade's boycott and po-litical isolation has further damaged the social fabricof the nation and obstructed the movement towardbuilding new and civilized Iraq.

    The question that arises here is: will wisdom andinsight inspire the people of Iraq, so that they willcome together in a unified and civilized march to-ward building a modern lraq? Or, will racial andtribal inclinations for immediate rnaterial benefitsfor each disparate group defeat any conclusive andpermanent solution?

  • 8Kana'an Makeyya, in an interview with ICG, be-lieves that the upcoming Iraqi constitution must:"put Iraq before any other factor, so it will be able toexpress what is common among all of us", and "wemust avoid the formulas that prioritize certaingroups, and that say neither "Iraq is an Arab countrywith Kurds minority" nor "Iraq is an Arab and Kurd-ish country with other minorities in it".".

    When she was a member in the Group of the Princi-ples of Democratic Work, Rand Rahim Franki sug-gested two crucial aims. The first enables the differ-ent ethnic groups to live together in peace with nogroup being superior to the others, and which thebenefits of all groups being equally balanced. Thesecond aim is to create a strong Iraqi identity, and asense of joint lraqi citizenship.The truth that must be revealed here is that theTurkmens have been articulating such aims for along time. Reason leads us to accept, as Iraqis, thatIraqi citizenship must be inclusive of everyone,without any single minority or group having specialprivileges; always provided that the right to expresspolitical and cultural differences and opinions isguaranteed.

    This book aims at two things, the first to prove theactual existence of the Turkmens in Iraq, and to re-ply to those who considered them extraneous to theIraqi consciousness, by presenting solid evidence oftheir geographical and demographic existence; andto show their participation in Iraqi affairs and provetheir inclusion in the Iraqi nation.

  • IThe second aim is to prove that racial and culturaldiversity enrich Iraq society, and that all efforts mustbe directed towards serving a free, united, variedand democrat Iraq, where the rule of the law andhuman rights and dignity are maintained.

    The aspirati-ons of civilized nations have proven thatrespect is not something you can earn by the numberof people overpowered, or by thinking in terms ofmajorities and minorities. Rather, human dignity is aguaranteed right and must be respected at all timeswithout di scrimination.

    I hope this humble effort will be considered anothercontribution aimed at highlighting the Turkmenpeople, who comprise the third basic element of theIraqi nation. And I hope this work will be anotherincentive for our brothers of other nations to get toknow this important sector of the Iraoi people, itsliterature, art, culture and its serious participation inthe haqi civilization over centuries.

    I must acknowledge a great debt of gratitude to themany friends who contributed to this study by theirdedicated involvement, for example, in translationand editing. In particular, I must single out for spe-cial commendation Dr. Shaheen Al-Nakeeb,Dr.Hussein Al- Falahi, Rami Qassim and Ian Ren-nie.

    And God Bless.

    Arshad Al-Hirmizi2005

  • 11

    Chapter OneThe truth about the Turkmen Territories in Iraq

    Despite the fact that almost everyone knowsthe ethnic nature of such territories, there has beenbig debate about the identity of the Turkmen's' terri-tories in lraq. Different lraqi ethnicities had lived inthese territories and met the sons of the Turkmenpopulation, which is one of the major ethnicities.They learned their language, sang their songs andstudied their literature and poetry.

    Political and economical situations led some peopleto try to change the national identity in the above-mentioned territories, either by evacuating the na-tives or by flooding it with immigrants who enjoyedsecurity and peace in these territories.

    So many people have introduced, with conclusiveproof, their evidences about the fact of these territo-ries, many books and articles have been published inthe same context and shed light on this matter.

    My previous book "The Turkmen and the IraqiHomeland" dealt with the question of the Turk-men's' territories, and cited a lot of references andresources that talked about the truth of the Turkmenterritories. This research, however, will deal withthis issue from a different angle, which depends onciting the non-Turkmen and non-Turkish writerswho dealt with the subject, and support all that withthe appropriate international maps and documents.

  • 12

    i- The map of the national diversity in the northterritories of Iraq, which was prepared by the Brit-ish, showed the regions of the Christians, the Arabsand the Kurds. It also indicated the regions wherethere were more than one minorityl.

    In the reglon separating Arabs and Kurds, the mapindicated with a different color (Brown) the citycenters and boroughs inhabited by the Turks or rheTurkmens as stated by the map illustration. TheTurkmen's' Territories were defined as follows:Telafer, Mosul villages, Erbil, Altunkopru, Kirkuk,Kifri, Karatepe, Hanekin, Kizlarbat, Mendeli

    2- Miss Gerffude Bell, the oriental secretary of theBritish Higher Commissioner in lraq, mentioned, inher famous letters published by Elizabeth Bourgwenin lnndon in 1961, and translated later into Arabicby Jaffar Al-Khayyat; her observations about Iraqand its political climate.

    Miss Bell, said in her letter dated 14th August 1921sent to her father:"The referendum was carried out, and Faisal waschosen by consensus, save Kirkuk did not vote. Theresidents of Kirkuk's cities and towns are Turkmens,and the villages are inhabited by the Kurds; and bothparties refuse the Arab authority". 2

    t Britirh National Archives, London. File No.F.0.925141335, see Appendix 2' Iraq Fi Resail al-miss Bell "lraq in Miss1917-1926," Translation and Commentary

    Bell's Letters,by Jafaar Al-

  • 13

    3- Mohammad Dhaifallah Al-Mutairi, a Kuwaitiwriter, mentioned the following in his book "TheProblems of Mosul and Iskenderun and the Arabic-Turkish Relations":"Turkmens are spread over a curved geographical

    line that starts from Telafer on the lraqi-Syrian bor-ders and ends at Mendeli on the Iraqi-Irani bordersthrough Kirkuk, the center of the Turkmens with thehighest density of Turkmen population, and Erbil,which was one of the old settlements for the Turk-mens, and the second city after Kirkuk in respect ofnumber of Turkmens. Telafer is the biggest districtin Mosul which includes about two hundred villagesin addition to several cities like Nenawa, Tazehur-matu, Dakuk, Kifri, Hanekin, Kizlarbat, Mendeli,Saadiyeah, Shahraban, and Altawah". 3

    4- Geoff Simons in his book "Future lraq" says that"Turkmens are carrying political problems resultedfrom the geographical borderlines imposed by for-eign countries, and Turkmens speak a Turkic Lan-guage with Oguz dialect".a

    Khayyat, Dar Al-Mawsuat al-Arabiyya, Beirut 2003, P.383.

    3 Mohu**ud Dhaifallah Al-Mutairi: Muskilata Al-Mosulwal-Iskandarona wal-Ilaqat al-arabiyya-al-Turkiyya'?rob-lems of Mosul and Iskandaron and the Arabic-Turkish Rela-tions". l't print, Al-filisriyyah Company of Printing, Cairo2003. Page 71.4 Geoff Simons "Future Iraq: US policy in reshaping theMiddle East". Translated by Saeed Al-Adhm, l" print. Saqibooks, Beirut 2004. Page 64.

  • 14

    5- In his book "Opposites Struggle- Iraqi oppositionafter Gulf War", Dr. Ali Mohammad Al-Shemranistates his opi