The Therapeutic Self: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Culture

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Transcript of The Therapeutic Self: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Culture

  • Slide 1
  • The Therapeutic Self: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Culture
  • Slide 2
  • World War II War Neurosis 26-40% of all casualties had mental health problems
  • Slide 3
  • Preventive Measures for Battle or Operational fatigue, Combat exhaustion, Psychoneuroses Fixed tours of duty. leadership training creating rest camps encouraging solidarity between troop members providing decent food distribution of self-help literature in mass fashion to soldiers
  • Slide 4
  • American Medical Association, War Medicine 5 (1944)
  • Slide 5
  • Letting off Steam to Shrink Resentment War Medicine (1944)
  • Slide 6
  • Slide 7
  • From the Cartoon Booklet, The Story of Mack and Mike
  • Slide 8
  • Menninger Clinic, 1925 Topeka Kansas Drs. Charles F., Karl and William Menninger From Mental Illness to Mental Health
  • Slide 9
  • William Menninger Brigadier General US Surgeon General s Office Neuropsychiatry Division Team Treatment psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and social workers. For every four men wounded, one fellow blew his stack.
  • Slide 10
  • Innovations: Milieu Therapy Group Therapy And Open Hospital
  • Slide 11
  • October,1948 Continuum Model of Mental Health
  • Slide 12
  • Mental Health Legislation 1946 National Mental Health Act, which called for the establishment of a National Institute of Mental Health. 1949 NIMH was formally established; it was one of the first four NIH institutes. Robert Felix, public health psychiatrist, was first director. (3 million dollar budget). 1956- Operating Budget of 18 million dollars 1964 -60 % of NIMH funding given to psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, epidemiologists. Only 15% to psychiatrists.
  • Slide 13
  • Veterans Administration Medical Centers & Training in Clinical Psychology Post World War II: 60% of Cases were Neuropsychiatric Intense Personnel Shortages: Training became most pressing problem Four year Training program in Clinical Psychology launched in 1946 to train 200 individuals at 20 different universities (free for students if they worked at VA hospitals) By 1949, there were 700 students at 41 Universities More psychologists now outside the University than inside.
  • Slide 14
  • Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Clinical Psychologist, Teachers College at Columbia University, training as clinical psychologist 1928 Child Study Department of Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, Rochester, NY. Ohio State University 1939 The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child (book) 1940 Ohio State University 1942- Counseling and Psychotherapy: Newer Concepts in Practice (book) Trained staff at USO (United Service Organization) to counsel soldiers, and wrote counseling manual, Counseling with returned servicemen (1946). Simple techniques to train new clinicians. Sensitive, non- judgmental clinical help for selfhood, individuality, maturity,freedom, and democracy 1945 Set up Counseling Center at the University of Chicago
  • Slide 15
  • JESSIE TAFT c. 1916 Jessie Taft (1882-1960) The Womens Movement in the Point of View of Modern Social Consciousness 1913 Dissertation in Philosophy University of Chicago Director, University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work, 1934
  • Slide 16
  • Jessie Taft and Virginia Robinson based at University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work
  • Slide 17
  • Taft was engaged in a constant effort to comprehend and respond overtly to the salient feelings and impulses of the hour as present living realities, which a child, like an adult, usually seeks to deny consciously. (Taft, 1931, p. 94). The process required, the most sensitive self-conscious activity of understanding and response plus a readiness to accept and carry to the end the losing role. (underlining in original, p. 108). Jessie Taft, Experiment in a therapeutically limited relationship with a Seven Year Old Girl Psychoanalytic Review, 1932
  • Slide 18
  • Carl Rogers Technique of Client/or Person-centered Counseling Non-directive model early 1940s Reflecting Feeling Therapist as Mirror The adoption of the Clients perceptual frame of reference, along with an accepting attitude (empathy, 1948) One client described the process: we were mostly me working together on my situation as I found it. Rogers: The two selves have somehow become one while remaining two. (Rogers, 1951, p. 38).
  • Slide 19
  • Again, if I can really understand how he hates his father, or hates the company, or hates Communists if I can catch the flavor of his fear of insanity, or his fear of atom bombs, or of Russia it will be of the greatest help to him in altering those hatreds and fears and in establishing realistic and harmonious relationships with the very people and situations toward which he has felt hatred and fear. We know from our research that such empathic understanding understanding with a person, not about him is such an effective approach that it can bring about major changes in personality. Carl Rogers, 1952 Barriers and Gateways to Communication, p. 47
  • Slide 20
  • University of Minnesota, Duluth, 1956
  • Slide 21
  • Eliza Computer Program 1966 http://www.masswerk.at/elizabot/ Designed by Joseph Weizenbaum dialogue between a human user and a computer program representing a mock Rogerian psychotherapist.
  • Slide 22
  • Rational-Emotive Therapy Psychologist Albert Ellis, 1955
  • Slide 23
  • Aaron T. Beck (1921 Cognitive Therapy
  • Slide 24
  • Fritz Perls Gestalt Therapy ( 1973)
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Stuart Smalley (Al Franken) from Saturday Night Live not a licensed therapist