The Spread of Hellenistic Culture

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The Spread of Hellenistic Culture. Chapter 5 Section 5 Page 132. First, A Review…. Philip and Alexander were kings of which country? Macedonia Why did Philip want to take Persia? It had wealthy provinces and to avenge the attacks on Greece years before - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Spread of Hellenistic Culture

  • The Spread of Hellenistic CultureChapter 5 Section 5 Page 132

  • First, A ReviewPhilip and Alexander were kings of which country?MacedoniaWhy did Philip want to take Persia?It had wealthy provinces and to avenge the attacks on Greece years beforeWhat did Alexander do with Dariuss offer of the Western half of the Persian empire?Rejected itHow far had Alexanders army marched in 11 years?11,000 milesWhere was Alexanders tomb located for centuries?Alexandria

  • Hellenistic Culture in AlexandriaAfter Alexander the Greats death, a new culture emerges-Greek HellenicBlended Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian influences togetherLanguage was Koine (koy-nay) in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria

  • Alexandria, EgyptAlexandria the center of commerce and Hellenistic civilizationLocation- great place, located on edge of Nile deltaPopulation over 500,000

  • Modern view of Alexandria

  • Trade and Cultural Diversity Very beautiful, majestic palaces that look over harborShips from all around Mediterranean docked in its spacious harborThriving commerce enabled Alexandria to grow and prosperPeople of all cultures and trade mingled in crowded marketplaces

  • Alexandrias Greatest AttractionsA tomb containing Alexanders glass coffin was stored in AlexandriaAn enormous stone lighthouse called the Pharos soared over the harborThe lighthouse contained a bronze mirror that reflected the light from a blazing fireFamous museum and library dedicated to the Muses, the Greek goddesses of art and sciences

  • Great Library in Alexandria, Egypt


  • Science and TechnologyScholars in Alexandria provided most of the scientific knowledge availableMuseum contained small observatory where astronomers could study the planets and starsAstronomer Aristarchus concluded that the sun was 300 times larger than the earth and that other planets revolve around the sun

  • Incorrect InformationUnfortunately, other astronomers refused to support Artistarchus theoriesBy 2nd century A.D. , another astronomer Ptolemy incorrectly placed the earth at the center of the solar system, and is believed to be true for next 1400 years

  • Earths SizeA scholar named Eratosthenes closely calculated the earths true size using geometry He concluded the earths circumference at 24,662 milesToday we compute the earths circumference to be 24,860 milesHis estimate was within 1% of our modern calculations

  • Mathematics and PhysicsEuclid, a mathematician opened a school of geometry in Alexandria and wrote the book, ElementsBook was used in universities into the 1900sArchimedes, gifted in geometry and physics, studied at AlexandriaAccurately estimated the value of piShared knowledge that helped build different machines

  • Philosophy and ArtTeachings of Plato and Aristotle very influential in Hellenistic philosophy2 major philosophies develop during this period- Stoicism and Epicureanism

  • Stoicism Greek philosopher Zeno founded stoicismPhilosophy based on ethicsProposed people should live life in harmony with natural lawPreached that things like human desires, power and wealth were dangerous distractions that should be controlledEncourage those to focus on things they could control

  • EpicureanismGreek philosopher Epicurus founded EpicureanismTaught the universe was composed of atoms and ruled by gods who had no interest in humansBelieved the main goal of humans was achieve harmony of body and mindToday, the word epicurean means one devoted to pursuing human pleasures

  • Realism in SculptureLike science, sculpture flourished during Hellenistic period, sculptures and statues were displayedLargest known statue was the Colossus of Rhodes- bronze statue stood more than 100 feet highLegend said it straddled the harbor, but experts dont think that is trueWas destroyed by an earthquake, and bronze was sold for scrap

  • Hellenistic SculptorsHellenistic sculptors moved away from the harmonic balance and began to create more realistic worksInstead of a serene face and perfect body, they began to create more natural worksExplored new subjects like ordinary people, and a wrinkled old peasant woman

  • DeclineBy 150 B.C., Hellenistic world was on a declineA new city Rome was growing and gaining strengthThrough Rome, Greek-style drama, architecture, sculpture, religion and philosophy were preserved and became the core of Western Civilization

  • Just for FunWife Swap- Athens/ Sparta