The Soft Stuff is the Hard Stuff
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Human Performance Challenges of Social IntrepreneurismPaul O. Hardt, Ed.D.
Paul O. Hardt, Ed.D.Core Faculty Member, Training and Performance Improvement SpecializationCapella University30+ years experience in the Training and Performance Improvement fieldCo-facilitator, Impact@Work (shop) at Target Corp. Headquarters, Minneapolis
Lessons Learned fromImpact@Work(shops) at Target Corporation
30+ years experience in the human performance improvement field
What does it mean..?
The Hard Stuff is the Easy Stuff
The Soft Stuff is the Hard Stuff
OverviewManagement Decision-making StylesForce Field AnalysisBehavioral Engineering ModelCommunicating Change
Management Decision-making StylesNormativeBehavioralNaturalistic
Assess Decision-making Styles
Barrier ForcesDriving Forces
Driving ForcesEconomicsRegulatoryCompetitionEthicsRecruitmentCustomer pressure
Strategy for Dealing with Resistance (Barriers)
Take Away The Barriers
Behavioral Engineering ModelThomas Gilbert
Behavioral Engineering Model
EnvironmentalInformationResources, ToolsIncentivesIndividualKnowledge, SkillCapacityMotivation
Environment: Resources, Tools
Individual: Knowledge, Skill
Roller Coaster of Change
Relative AdvantageSimplicityCompatibilityAdaptabilitySocial Impact
Paul O. Hardt, Ed.D.Core Faculty MemberCapella Universitypaul.firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction by NetImpact Host******Normative:
Make decisions by the numbers
Decision-making based on rules, usually financial*Behavioral
Concern with the decision-making process
Focus on risks and rewards
Decision may be reached to lose money short-term, so more money can be made long-term.*Naturalistic
Stories---I heard Bob made a lot of money doing X. We should do the same.EthicsIts the right thing to do.IdiosyncraticI read this book this weekend. Everyone is going to read this book, and were going to follow the 10 steps to success the author writes about.SpeculationWere guessing this will result in.
*Accompanying this presentation is an tool that will help you assess the predominant management decision-making styles of some of your key stakeholders.
Use the tool to analyze your audience, and develop strategies that match the decision-making preferences of your key stakeholders.*Kurt Lewins model for the dynamics of change
Driving Forcesforces that are driving the change:
Cost savingsRegulatory requirementsCustomer pressure
Barrier Forcdes.forces resist the change
CostValues of key stakeholdersDifficulties in implementing change*Driving Forcesforces that are driving the change:
*Barrier Forcesforces that resist the change:
*Strategy for dealing with resistance
Take away the barriers, dont push the driving forces harder.
Systems are set up to keep equilibrium.
Organizations like to keep steady state.
When you push on the system, the system pushes back to maintain its balance.
Spend time taking away the barriers, not pushing harder on the drivers.*Taking off from the theme of managing the forces that surround a change,
Thomas Gilbert developed a model for looking at six key systems that are key to promoting improved performance.*The six systems are
Resources and tools
Knowledge and skill
Notice that Gilbert arranged these in two categories, environmental and individual.*Environment: Information
Feedbackthe breakfast of champions
*Environment: Resources and Tools
What are the consequences for people going along with the change.
Look at the positive and negative consequences of staying the same and changing. *Individual: Knowledge and skill
Do people have the skills and knowledge they need to carry out the change?*Individual: Capacity
How are people hired? What are the competencies required to accomplish the change?
Are people hired with the change in mind?***Roller coaster of change
Many roller coaster models of various forms of change
Elizabeth Kubler RossOn Death and Dying
When change is introduced, energy increases. Sometimes there is an initial sense of euphoria or denial.
Then, the reality of the change really hits home, and people become depressed.
If the change is integrated, people can come out of this depression and move on to fully integrate the change.
Sometimes, people dont come out of the depression, and sometimes people fall somewhere in-between.
The idea is to make the curves of this roller coaster of change as small as possible. To make the change manageable and easier to integrate*As background, Dormant says we must build change around these five principles: Relative advantage. Its been said that we all listen to the same radio station, WII-FM which stands for Whats in it for me? In other words, whatever the change, it must have some payoffs for the people going through the change. Dormant suggests that you highlight any advantages the change offers workers. For each disadvantage, offer a counter-advantage. Offer cost-effectiveness figures, so, for those who are financially-oriented, the change can make sense on a dollar and cents basis. Emphasize aspects of the change that offer quick or high payoffs. Simplicity. Prepare a simply worded, comprehensive explanation of the change. This can be your elevator speechyou know, the speech you have to have in your mind,when someone asks you a question and you have to answer in the time it takes to ride an elevator up about 20 floors. So, can you describe, in a few well-chosen, terse sentences that the change is? Youll need to be able to have this elevator speech handy, because youll be asked many times to describe the change. Compatibility. Be ready to explain aspects of the change that are really very similar to what is already being done. Rarely is a change a complete reversal of what is already being done. Show how the change fits what is presently being done. Adaptability. Identify aspects of the change that people will be most apt to want to change or modify. Highlight those areas that can be changed without loss of effectiveness. Be honest about potential problems. Finally, assess the social impact. Identify relationships between key people and groups, and project how the change will affect these relationships. Acknowledge these affects and empathize. Develop and communicate workable alternatives. *Those are some sound, practical, and from my point of view as someone who has worked in the performance improvement field for nearly 30 years, very important general guidelines for facilitating change. Now, lets look at the stages of building acceptance for change. Dormant says the first stage is Awareness. At this stage, people are relatively passive toward the change. They do not avoid information, but they dont look for it, either. If messages are positive, their interest increases. Dormant suggests these strategies for buidling awareness: learn the skill of being an advertising agent or writer. Good advertising programs have a short, positive, easy to absorb message. Try to develop such a message for your change. Credibility is important, so dont try to hide the negatives. People will sense this right away and your credibility will go down. Try to appeal to the basic needs of everyonethe motivations of security, relationships, recognition, self-fulfillment. *The second stage Dormant describes is Curiosity. At this stage, people have heard something about the change, but may not have the whole story. They are curious about the change. Your job is to satisfy that curiosity. You should identify specific concerns people may have about the change. Provide clear information, so you are satisfying the curiosity of the people who will be the primary focus of the change. While satisfying the curiosity of the work force, emphasize the positives of the change, while presenting a balanced view of the negatives, as well. * Dormants third phase of building acceptance to change is Visualization. At this stage, your job is to help the workers see the positives that might come from the change. You should offer images of positive successes that might result from the change. Besides visualizing rewards from the change, offer demonstrations of how the change will work. Coach people, give examples, demonstrate the change. All of these ideas give concreteness to the positive aspects of the change. People believe what they can see. Your demonstrations will help them see the positives of the change. One more way of demonstrating the benefits of the change is to have others, who work in similar jobs, give testimonials to the positives of the change, and demonstrate how they have made the change work for them. * Now that the workers have had a chance to understand the benefits of the change, its time for them to Tryout the change. At this stage, effective training is a must. People must be given a ch