The Skeletal System Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton

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The Skeletal System Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton. Honors Anatomy & Physiology. The Appendicular Skeleton. The Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder). 2 pectoral girdles attach bones of upper limbs to axial skeleton each: 1 clavicle 1 scapula. Clavicle . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Skeletal System Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton

The Skeletal System Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton

The Skeletal SystemPart 2The Appendicular SkeletonHonors Anatomy & PhysiologyThe Appendicular Skeleton

The Pectoral Girdle(Shoulder)2 pectoral girdlesattach bones of upper limbs to axial skeletoneach: 1 clavicle 1 scapulaClavicle S-shaped, (medial convex anteriorly, lateral concave anteriorly) slender bonelies horizontally across anterior thorax superior to 1st rib

Clavicle medial end = sternal end is rounded & articulates with the manubrium @ sternoclavicular joint

Clavicle lateral end = acromial end is flatarticulates with acromion of the scapula to form acromialclavicular joint

Clavicle last bone to stop growing1 of most frequently fxd bones (2 curves) usually from fall on outstretched armor see compression fx in auto accidents from shoulder strap which can cause damage to median n. (between clavicle & 2nd rib)

Scapula aka shoulder blade, angel bonelarge, triangular, flat bonein superior part of posterior thorax between levels of 2nd & 7th ribs

spine: prominent ridge that runs diagonally across posterior surface Scapula lateral edge: acromion a flattened expanded process, easily felt as hi pt of shoulder (tailors use it as landmark to measure length of arm)glenoid cavity: inferior to acromion, smooth, shallow depression that accepts head of humerus in shoulder jointScapula

Upper Limb6 parts:HumerusUlnaRadiusCarpalsMetacarpals Phalanges Joints:ShoulderElbowWristHand Humerus longest & largest bone of upper limbarticulates proximally with scapula & distally with ulna & radiushead: rounded proximal endarticulates with glenoid cavity of scapula to form glenohumeral joint


Humerusdistal end:capitulum: rounded knob on lateral aspect that articulates with head of radiustrochlea: medial to capitulum, spool-shaped, articulates with ulnaHumerus

Ulna medial aspect of forearmlonger than radiusproximal end: olecranon (prominence in elbow)distal end: head, styloid process (posterior)Radiuslateral aspect of forearmproximal end: head of radius: articulates with capitulumdistal end: styloid process (palpable proximal to thumb)

Ulna & Radiusconnect @ 3 placesinterosseous membraneproximal enddistal end

Carpals proximal to the hand, distal to radius & ulna8 small bones joined by ligamentsarticulations w/each other called intercarpal joints

Carpal Tunnel


Phalanges 14 bones of the digits (each hand)#d I to V beginning with thumbthumb is the pollex has only 2 phalanges, other digits have 3joints between phalanges called interphalangeal jointsPhalanges

Pelvic Girdle2 hip bones (os coxa) which unite anteriorly at pubic symphysis and posteriorly with the sacrum @ sacroiliac joint

Pelvic GirdleFunctions:provides sturdy support for vertebral columnconnects lower limb to axial skeleton

Newborn Pelvis3 bones on each side:IliumsuperiorPubisanterior & inferiorIschium posterior & inferior

Ilium largest of the 3 hip bonesdistinguishing features:Iliac Crestalong superior surfaceSacroiliac Joint (SI Joint)between sacrum and ilium Ilium

Ischium ramus of ischium fuses with pubisdistinguishing features:

Ischial Tuberositywhat you feel when someone sits on your lap


Pubis Acetabulum formed by ilium, ischium, & pubisis the socket half of the hip jointPubic Symphysisjoint between the 2 hip bones

True Pelvis/ False PelvisPelvic Brim: line that distinguishes between true & false palvis

Male Pelvisgenerally male bone heavier & stronger & have larger surface marker (because larger muscles attach)Pelvis:deeper false pelvis, smaller, narrowerpelvic brim heart-shapedacetabulum larger, faces posteriorobturator foramen round

Female Pelvisgenerally bones lighter & thinnerPelvis:false pelvis shallow, widerspelvic brim larger, more ovalacetabulum smaller & faces anteriorobturator foramen oval

Male or Female?

Male or Female?

Lower Limb30 bones in each:1 femur1 patella 1 tibia1 fibula7 tarsals5 metatarsals14 phalanges

Femur longest, heaviest, & strongest bone in the bodyproximally articulates with the acetabulum to form hip jointHead of the Femur: ball part of jointsmall, central depression: fovea capitisGreater Trochanterprominence felt & seen @ side of hip


Femur distally articulates with:PatellaTibia

Patella (kneecap) small, triangular, sesamoid bonedevelops in tendon of quadriceps femoris muscleParts:Base: broad, superior endApex: pointed, inferior endPatella

Tibia shin bonelarger, medial, weight-bearing bone of lower legproximally articulates with femur & fibuladistally articulates with fibula & tarsalsTibia

medial malleolus forms prominence that is palpable & visible on medial ankle

Fibula parallel & lateral to the tibia & considerably smallerhead of fibula on proximal endlateral malleolus at distal end

Tibia & Fibula

Tarsals7 bones:1 calcaneous: heel bone, largest of the tarsals


5 bones between tarsals & phalanges#d I to V from medial lateral

Phalanges 14 bones that make up the 5 digits#d I to V medial to lateralHallux: great or big toe has 2 large heavy phalanges

Arches of the Foot2 arches in foot: allows the foot to support weight of body by distributing weight over the soft & hard tissuesprovide leverage while walkingfully developed by age 12 - 13Arches of the Foot

2 longitudinal arches (medial & lateral

1 transverse arch

Development of the Skeletal Systemall skeletal tissue arises from mesoderm1st bone: skull in 4th wkU/S ~ 24 25 wks:

Medical TerminologyClubfoot:inherited deformity in which baby is born with foot twisted inferiorly & medially1/1000 birthstx: casts or wraps, surgery may be indicated

Medical Terminology2. Genu valgum:knees abnormally close together with increased space between anklesaka knock-knee

Medical Terminology3. Genu varum:knees abnormally separatedwith lower limbs bowed mediallyaka bowleg