The Skeletal System Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton Honors Anatomy & Physiology

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Transcript of The Skeletal System Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton Honors Anatomy & Physiology

  • Slide 1
  • The Skeletal System Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton Honors Anatomy & Physiology
  • Slide 2
  • The Appendicular Skeleton
  • Slide 3
  • The Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder) 2 pectoral girdles attach bones of upper limbs to axial skeleton each: 1 clavicle 1 scapula
  • Slide 4
  • Clavicle S-shaped, (medial convex anteriorly, lateral concave anteriorly) slender bone lies horizontally across anterior thorax superior to 1 st rib
  • Slide 5
  • Clavicle medial end = sternal end is rounded & articulates with the manubrium @ sternoclavicular joint
  • Slide 6
  • Clavicle lateral end = acromial end is flat articulates with acromion of the scapula to form acromialclavicular joint
  • Slide 7
  • Clavicle last bone to stop growing 1 of most frequently fxd bones (2 curves) usually from fall on outstretched arm or see compression fx in auto accidents from shoulder strap which can cause damage to median n. (between clavicle & 2 nd rib)
  • Slide 8
  • Scapula aka shoulder blade, angel bone large, triangular, flat bone in superior part of posterior thorax between levels of 2 nd & 7 th ribs spine: prominent ridge that runs diagonally across posterior surface
  • Slide 9
  • Scapula lateral edge: acromion a flattened expanded process, easily felt as hi pt of shoulder (tailors use it as landmark to measure length of arm) glenoid cavity : inferior to acromion, smooth, shallow depression that accepts head of humerus in shoulder joint
  • Slide 10
  • Scapula
  • Slide 11
  • Upper Limb 6 parts: 1. Humerus 2. Ulna 3. Radius 4. Carpals 5. Metacarpals 6. Phalanges Joints: Shoulder Elbow Wrist Hand
  • Slide 12
  • Humerus longest & largest bone of upper limb articulates proximally with scapula & distally with ulna & radius head: rounded proximal end articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula to form glenohumeral joint
  • Slide 13
  • Humerus
  • Slide 14
  • Humerus distal end: capitulum: rounded knob on lateral aspect that articulates with head of radius trochlea: medial to capitulum, spool- shaped, articulates with ulna
  • Slide 15
  • Humerus
  • Slide 16
  • Ulna medial aspect of forearm longer than radius proximal end: olecranon (prominence in elbow) distal end: head, styloid process ( posterior)
  • Slide 17
  • Radius lateral aspect of forearm proximal end: head of radius : articulates with capitulum distal end: styloid process (palpable proximal to thumb)
  • Slide 18
  • Ulna & Radius connect @ 3 places 1. interosseous membrane 2. proximal end 3. distal end
  • Slide 19
  • Carpals proximal to the hand, distal to radius & ulna 8 small bones joined by ligaments articulations w/each other called intercarpal joints
  • Slide 20
  • Carpal Tunnel
  • Slide 21
  • Metacarpals
  • Slide 22
  • Phalanges 14 bones of the digits (each hand) #d I to V beginning with thumb thumb is the pollex has only 2 phalanges, other digits have 3 joints between phalanges called interphalangeal joints
  • Slide 23
  • Phalanges
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Pelvic Girdle 2 hip bones (os coxa) which unite anteriorly at pubic symphysis and posteriorly with the sacrum @ sacroiliac joint
  • Slide 26
  • Pelvic Girdle Functions: provides sturdy support for vertebral column connects lower limb to axial skeleton
  • Slide 27
  • Newborn Pelvis 3 bones on each side: 1. Ilium superior 2. Pubis anterior & inferior 3. Ischium posterior & inferior
  • Slide 28
  • Ilium largest of the 3 hip bones distinguishing features: 1. Iliac Crest along superior surface 1. Sacroiliac Joint (SI Joint) between sacrum and ilium
  • Slide 29
  • Ilium
  • Slide 30
  • Ischium ramus of ischium fuses with pubis distinguishing features: 1. Ischial Tuberosity what you feel when someone sits on your lap
  • Slide 31
  • Ischium
  • Slide 32
  • Pubis Acetabulum formed by ilium, ischium, & pubis is the socket half of the hip joint Pubic Symphysis joint between the 2 hip bones
  • Slide 33
  • True Pelvis/ False Pelvis Pelvic Brim: line that distinguishes between true & false palvis
  • Slide 34
  • Male Pelvis generally male bone heavier & stronger & have larger surface marker (because larger muscles attach) Pelvis: deeper false pelvis, smaller, narrower pelvic brim heart-shaped acetabulum larger, faces posterior obturator foramen round
  • Slide 35
  • Female Pelvis generally bones lighter & thinner Pelvis: false pelvis shallow, widers pelvic brim larger, more oval acetabulum smaller & faces anterior obturator foramen oval
  • Slide 36
  • Male or Female?
  • Slide 37
  • Slide 38
  • Lower Limb 30 bones in each: 1 femur 1 patella 1 tibia 1 fibula 7 tarsals 5 metatarsals 14 phalanges
  • Slide 39
  • Femur longest, heaviest, & strongest bone in the body proximally articulates with the acetabulum to form hip joint Head of the Femur: ball part of joint small, central depression: fovea capitis Greater Trochanter prominence felt & seen @ side of hip
  • Slide 40
  • Femur
  • Slide 41
  • Femur distally articulates with: Patella Tibia
  • Slide 42
  • Patella (kneecap) small, triangular, sesamoid bone develops in tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle Parts: Base : broad, superior end Apex: pointed, inferior end
  • Slide 43
  • Patella
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Tibia shin bone larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of lower leg proximally articulates with femur & fibula distally articulates with fibula & tarsals
  • Slide 46
  • Tibia medial malleolus forms prominence that is palpable & visible on medial ankle
  • Slide 47
  • Fibula parallel & lateral to the tibia & considerably smaller head of fibula on proximal end lateral malleolus at distal end
  • Slide 48
  • Tibia & Fibula
  • Slide 49
  • Tarsals 7 bones: 1 calcaneous: heel bone, largest of the tarsals
  • Slide 50
  • Metatarsals 5 bones between tarsals & phalanges #d I to V from medial lateral
  • Slide 51
  • Phalanges 14 bones that make up the 5 digits #d I to V medial to lateral Hallux: great or big toe has 2 large heavy phalanges
  • Slide 52
  • Arches of the Foot 2 arches in foot: 1. allows the foot to support weight of body by distributing weight over the soft & hard tissues 2. provide leverage while walking fully developed by age 12 - 13
  • Slide 53
  • Arches of the Foot 2 longitudinal arches (medial & lateral 1 transverse arch
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
  • Development of the Skeletal System all skeletal tissue arises from mesoderm 1 st bone: skull in 4 th wk U/S ~ 24 25 wks:
  • Slide 56
  • Medical Terminology 1. Clubfoot: inherited deformity in which baby is born with foot twisted inferiorly & medially 1/1000 births tx: casts or wraps, surgery may be indicated
  • Slide 57
  • Medical Terminology 2. Genu valgum: knees abnormally close together with increased space between ankles aka knock-knee
  • Slide 58
  • Medical Terminology 3. Genu varum: knees abnormally separated with lower limbs bowed medially aka bowleg
  • Slide 59