The Silk Road Document-Based Question Background

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Transcript of The Silk Road Document-Based Question Background

  • Slide 1
  • The Silk Road Document-Based Question Background
  • Slide 2
  • The Silk Road During ancient times, the Silk Road was just one of many trade routes that were used. For example, the Eurasian Steppe Route connected China with northern Europe. Travelers on this route headed northwest from China across the Gobi desert and then across the vast Kirghiz Steppe, which extended from Mongolia to the Carpathian mountains in eastern Europe.
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  • Pros and Cons The flat terrain of the Kirghiz Steppe made the Eurasian Steppe Route easier to traverse but the danger of raiding bandits and nomadic tribes reduced the traffic on this route.
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  • Silk The silk-making process Silkworm caterpillars feed on mulberry leaves for about five weeks Caterpillars spin their cocoons Cocoons are placed in hot water Cocoons soften and the filaments are unraveled Five to seven filaments are joined to make a thread Threads are woven into silk cloth
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  • Silk making
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  • silkworm and cocoon
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  • silk thread
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  • silk fabric
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  • Document B
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  • Eastern Religions Buddhism is a religion that started in India about 2,500 years ago Hinduism is considered the oldest religion in the world. It started in India so long ago that no one knows exactly when it began. Confucianism developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551 479 BCE).
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  • The Caves In the early 300s CE, a Buddhist monk saw a vision of many Buddhas shining on the cliffs near Dunhuang. Inspired by the vision, the monk began to dig out caves in the cliffs to use as shrines. Buddhist monks continued this practice for about 700 years, during which time about 500 caves were dug.
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  • Caves of the Thousand Buddhas The monks placed clay statues of Buddhist deities in most of the caves and painted many of the walls with Buddhist images. These honeycombed caves became known as the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas.
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  • Cave of the Thousand Buddhas
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  • Buddha
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  • Discovering the caves In 1900 a Taoist monk called Abbot Wang was poking around in Cave 16 of the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas. This cave had been abandoned for about a thousand years. Wang found a concealed door, opened it, and found a small cave filled floor to ceiling with scrolls and paintings.
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  • What they found He had discovered, by accident, the worlds oldest paper archive! The room contained manuscripts from 400 to 1000 CE. Jewish, Buddhist, and Confucian, texts were there, and also secular texts, dealing with the economy and social structure of the region. We learned about the ancient Silk Road from this discovery.
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  • Cultural diffusion The ancient artwork found in the Silk Road regions had a strong multicultural influence. For example, sculptures of the Kushan Empire incorporated the artistic styles of Greece and India. The influence of Greek art can be traced to Alexander the Great, who conquered areas into central Asia.
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  • Cultural diffusion Greek and Indian sculptural styles also transferred along the Silk Road. These styles influenced Buddhist art, including some found as far away at Japan.
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  • Document C
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  • Taklimakan Desert
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  • caravan
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  • The desert The Taklimakan Desert covers about 125,000 square miles. Has small hills and shifting sand dunes Temperatures can reach 100 F Located in current-day northwestern China
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  • Water in the desert Because of the short supply of water, Silk Road travelers sometimes chose to travel this area in the winter when they could carry blocks of ice to use for their water supply!
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  • Choosing a route There are fewer oases in the southern route of the Silk Road, so the northern route was an easier route to follow As a result, the southern route was less popular with bandits Therefore, travelers often chose to take the southern route to avoid the bandits
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  • Oasis
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  • Navigation During the warmer months, caravans often traveled at night and used the stars to guide them. Most caravan guides were trained in nautical schools in India where they had learned to navigate by the stars
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  • Document D
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  • The terrain The Pamir Mountains form a rugged range where the Himalayan, Hindu Kush, Kunlun, and Tian Shan mountains meet. It is one of the highest mountain ranges in the world, with an average height of 13,000 to 15,000 feet.
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  • Document D The mountains are mostly bare rock, with deep canyons gouged out by swiftly running streams. Some of this range is covered by grass, but trees are few. The Pamirs are located mostly in present-day Tajikistan
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  • Pamir Mountains
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  • Pamirs
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  • Marakanda Many markets in Marakanda sold rugs. The rugs came from neighboring areas such as nearby Khotan. The rugs were vividly colored with Chinese and Central Asian designs and often had metallic thread in them
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  • Persian Rugs
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  • Marakanda The city of Samarkand (formerly Marakanda) remains a vibrant urban area in the nation of Uzbekistan. Its economy is based on cotton ginning, silk spinning, wine production, and fruit canning. The region around the city has an excellent climate and good soil for crops
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  • Economy in the area Like in 200 CE, Uzbekistan still grows today: cotton carrots cucumbers onions melons apricots, pears grapes figs
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  • Document E
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  • The Parthians The Parthians came from a region southeast of the Caspian Sea The land was conquered by the Persians around 520 BCE, and then by Alexander the Great (Greek) around 330 BCE. The Parthians gained their independence around 235 BCE and soon ruled a large empire
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  • Invaders The Parthians rarely took the military offensive, but often had to defend themselves against invaders such as the Romans Around 224 CE, the Sassanians overthrew the Parthians, ending their empire
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  • Antioch Inside the city, a wide avenue was lined with columns Merchants set up their wares between the columns The city was divided into section for different trades such as leatherworking, metalworking or weaving Wealthy merchants lived in mansions outside of the city (suburbs)
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  • Columns
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  • Silk again Many Romans greatly desired silk So much gold was paid for the silk that the Roman empires supply of gold was drained! This was one of the reasons the Roman empire eventually collapsed!
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  • Pliny the Roman historian says: Pliny is credited with saying that the cost of silk and spices and other Asian imports drain our empire of one hundred million sesterces every year. That is the price that our luxuries and our womankind cost us!
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  • sesterce