The science of Geology Geology is the science that pursues an understanding of planet Earth Physical...

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Concurrent G204 Geology Lab is required Schedule: Reading We ek 1: Introduction toGeology Intr d. to Oregon G eology.... .................................................... Chapter1 We ek 2: Plate Tectonics……………………… …… ................................ C hapter2 Quiz 1: Week 3 (January 23 rd ) We ek 3: Minerals; miner algroups& systematics ................................ Chapter3 We ek 4: Weathering and Soil (Guest lecturer – Prof. ScottBurns). ... C hapter6 We ek 5 : IgneousR ocks... ......................................................................... C hapter4 . Mi d-term exam 1 : Week 6 (February 13 th ) We ek 6 :V olcanoesand igneous activity.. ............................................. C hapter5 We ek 7 : Sedimentary rocks.... ................................................................ Chapter7 We ek 8 : Metamo rphism & m eta. rocks, crusta l deformation …… ..Chapters 8, 10 Mi d-term exam 2 : Week 9 (March 6 th ) We ek 9 :C rust al d eformation, G eologicaltime ..................................... Chapter9 We ek 10 : Earthquakes, Earth interi or,Summar y of Class ............ Chapters 11, 12 Final exam : Ma rch 20 th , 19:30 -21;20 Text: Earth, An Introduction to PhysicalG eology; Tarbuck& Lutgens, Prenti ceH all, 8 th edit ion (alsoused in G202)– custom edition forPortland State U niversity. G 201 G eneral Geology,W interT erm 2007 instructor: Martin J. Streck office: Geol17H phone: 725-3379 email: strec km @p dx.edu Dept. of Geology office hours: T 1 - 2 pm Lecture: T,18:40-21:20, PCAT 160
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Transcript of The science of Geology Geology is the science that pursues an understanding of planet Earth Physical...

  • Concurrent G204 Geology Lab is required

    Schedule:

    Reading

    Week 1: Introduction to Geology

    Intrd. to Oregon Geology........................................................Chapter 1

    Week 2: Plate Tectonics................................Chapter 2

    Quiz 1: Week 3 (January 23rd)

    Week 3: Minerals; mineral groups & systematics................................Chapter 3

    Week 4: Weathering and Soil (Guest lecturer Prof. Scott Burns)....Chapter 6

    Week 5: Igneous Rocks............................................................................Chapter 4

    .

    Mid-term exam 1: Week 6 (February 13th)

    Week 6: Volcanoes and igneous activity...............................................Chapter 5

    Week 7: Sedimentary rocks....................................................................Chapter 7

    Week 8: Metamorphism & meta. rocks, crustal deformation..Chapters 8, 10

    Mid-term exam 2: Week 9 (March 6th)

    Week 9: Crustal deformation, Geological time.....................................Chapter 9

    Week 10: Earthquakes, Earth interior, Summary of Class............Chapters 11, 12

    Final exam: March 20th, 19:30-21;20

    Text:

    Earth, An Introduction to Physical Geology; Tarbuck & Lutgens, Prentice Hall, 8th edition (also used in G202) custom edition for Portland State University.

    G201 General Geology, Winter Term 2007

    instructor: Martin J. Streck

    office: Geol 17H

    phone: 725-3379

    email: [email protected]

    Dept. of Geology

    office hours: T 1 - 2 pm

    Lecture: T, 18:40-21:20, PCAT 160

  • Exams:

    All will be multiple-choice exams; the Final exam will include few additional questions to be answered separately.

    Readings:

    See above, some selection for Week 8, 9, 10 reading will be announced in class.

    Grade Allocation:

    Quiz in week 3,

    10%

    Mid-term exams @ 25 % each50%

    Final written exam

    40%

    Grading Policy:

    93-100 A

    90-92 A

    87-89 B+

    83-86 B

    80-82 B

    77-79 C+

    73-76 C

    70-72 C

    67-69 D+

    63-66 D

    60-62 D

    < 60 F

  • The science of GeologyGeology is the science that pursues an understanding of planet Earth Physical geology - examines the materials composing Earth and the processes generating them

    Historical geology - seeks an understanding of the origin of Earth and its development through time; chronology of events

  • Geologic timeAccurate dates to events in Earth history Absolute datingRelative dating and the geologic time scale Relative dating means that dates are placed in their proper sequence or order without knowing their age in years The magnitude of geologic time Involves millions or billions of years Geological processes operateGradually over periods as much as millions of years Episodic in events that may last only seconds to minutes

  • Geologic timescaleAge in millions of years

  • Early evolution of EarthOrigin of planet EarthEarth and the other planets formed at the ~same time from interstellar dustNebular hypothesisLayered structure developed by chemical segregation early in the formation of Earth

  • A view of Earth

    Earths four spheres HydrosphereAtmosphereBiosphereSolid Earth

  • Earth as a machineInternal forcesPowered by heat from the interiorLeads to convection in the earthMoves plates on the earth surface Produce volcanoes, earthquakes, and mountainsExternal forces - Powered by the Sun that drives external processes in the AtmosphereHydrosphereAt Earths surface

  • Earths surface has two principal divisions Continents Ocean basin

  • The workings behind the scene Surface features, like oceans, mountains and others, are the product of internal workings of the earth

  • Earths internal structure

    Layercake Earth Crust continental oceanic Mantle upper lower Core outer inner

  • Earths internal structureMechanical Subdivision of the upper EarthLithosphere (rigid)Asthenosphere(ductile, plastic)Mesosphere

  • Earths SurfaceEarths crust broken into rigid plates7 major platesWhere plates meet are called plate boundariesThree types of plate boundaries

  • Plate BoundariesDivergent (constructive) boundary plates move apart, resulting in upwelling of material from the mantle to create crust Convergent (destructive) boundary plates move towards each other; subduction of oceanic plates or collision of two continental platesTransform (conservative) boundary plates move along each other without either generating new lithosphere or consuming old lithosphere

  • Dynamic EarthThe theory of plate tectonicsTheory, called plate tectonics, has now emerged that provides geologists with the first comprehensive model of Earths internal workings The theory of plate tectonicsInvolves understanding the workings of our dynamic planet Began in the early part of the twentieth century with a proposal called continental drift the idea that continents moved about the face of the planet

  • The Rock CycleThe loop that involves the processes by which one rock changes to another Illustrates the various processes and paths as earth materials change both on the surface and inside the Earth

  • There are three rock classesIgneous (magmatic) rocksSedimentary rocksMetamorphic rocks

  • Igneous Rocks formed from a magma through crystallization either at or beneath the surface examples: lava flows, granite, basalt, pumice MeltingMagmaCooling + CrystallizationIgneous rocksLava

  • Sedimentary Rocks formed through deposition of solid particles or through precipitation examples: sandstone, claystone, limestoneDeposition or PrecipitationCementation + Compaction(Lithification)Sedimentary rocksSedimentTransport

  • Metamorphic Rocks formed through metamorphic transformation due to heat and pressure examples: schist, slate, marbleHeat + Pressure(Metamorphism)Metamorphic rocksCompressionHeat

  • The science of GeologySome historical notes about geology The nature of Earth has been a focus of study for centuries Catastrophism earth changes by large events like floods, eruptions, etc. Uniformitarianism present is key to past; processes same through time, only rates have changed

  • The nature of scientific inquiryScience assumes the natural world is consistent and predictableGoal of science is to discover patterns in nature and use the knowledge to make predictionsScientists collect facts through observation and measurements

  • The nature of scientific inquiryHow or why things happen are explained using a Hypothesis a tentative (or untested) explanation Theory a well-tested and widely accepted view that the scientific community agrees best explains certain observable facts

  • The nature of scientific inquiryScientific methods Scientific method involves gathering facts through observations and formulation of hypotheses and theoriesThere is no fixed path that scientists follow that leads to scientific knowledge