The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Russia"Russian Federation" redirects here. The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was also alternatively calledthe "Russian Federation".Coordinates: 60N 90E 
Russian Federation Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Flag Coat of arms
"Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"(transliteration)"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Russia proper (dark green)Recently annexed Crimean peninsula (internationally viewed as territory of Ukraine, but de facto administered by Russia) (light green)
Capitaland largest city
Moscow5545N 3737E 
Official languages Russian official throughout the country; 27 other languages co-official in variousregions
Ethnicgroups (2010) 81.0% Russian 3.7% Tatar 1.4% Ukrainian 1.1% Bashkir 1.0% Chuvash 0.8% Chechen 11.0% others/ unspecified
Demonym Russians (Rossiyane)
Government Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
- President Vladimir Putin
- Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
- Chairman of the Federation Council Valentina Matviyenko
- Chairman of the State Duma Sergey Naryshkin
Legislature Federal Assembly
- Upper house Federation Council
- Lower house State Duma
- Kievan Rus' 862
- Grand Duchy of Moscow 1283
- Tsardom of Russia 16 January 1547
- Russian Empire 22 October 1721
- Russian SFSR 6 November 1917
- Soviet Union 10 December 1922
- Russian Federation 25 December 1991
- Adoption of the current Constitution ofRussia
12 December 1993
- Total 17,098,242 (Crimea not included)km2 (1st)6,592,800 (Crimea not included)sqmi
- Water(%) 13(including swamps)
- 2014estimate 143,700,000 (9th)
- Density 8.4/km2 (217th)21.5/sqmi
- Total $2556 billion (6th)
- Per capita $17,884 (57th)
- Total $2118 billion (8th)
- Per capita $14,818 (49th)
Gini(2011) 41.7medium 83rd
HDI (2013) 0.788high 55th
Currency Russian ruble (RUB)
Time zone (UTC+3 to +12a)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +7
ISO 3166 code RU
Internet TLD .ru .su .
a. Excluding +5.
Russia i/r/ or /r/ (Russian: , tr. Rossiya, IPA:[rsij]( )), officially known as the RussianFederation (Russian: , tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA:[rsijskj fdratsj]( )), isa country situated in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic. From northwest to southeast, Russiashares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast),Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borderswith Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait and Canada's Arctic islands. At17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800sqmi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more thanone-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's ninth most populous nation with 143millionpeople as of 2012. Extending across the entirety of northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans ninetime zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms.The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval stateof Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning thesynthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimatelydisintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion andbecame tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified thesurrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate thecultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest,annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretchingfrom Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leadingconstituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, whichplayed a decisive role in the Allied victory in World WarII. The Soviet era saw some of the most significanttechnological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, and the first man inspace. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the RussianFederation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Union state.The Russian economy ranks as the eighth largest by nominal GDP and fifth largest by purchasing power parity.
Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, have made it one of the largestproducers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states andpossesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power and a permanent member ofthe United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific EconomicCooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organisation forSecurity and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the leading member ofthe Commonwealth of Independent States.
EtymologyMain articles: Rus' people and Rus (name)The name Russia is derived from Rus, a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this propername became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "" (russkaya zemlya), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish thisstate from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus itselfcomes from Rus people, a group of Varangians (possibly Swedish Vikings) who founded the state of Rus ().An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' thatwere adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, (Rossiya), comes from the ByzantineGreek designation of the Kievan Rus', Rossaspelt (Rosa pronounced[rosia]) in Modern Greek.The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is as "Russians" (Rossiyane).
HistoryMain article: History of Russia
Early periodsFurther information: Eurasian nomads, Scythia, Bosporan Kingdom, Goths, Khazars and East Slavs
Kurgan hypothesis: South Russia as the urheimatof Indo-European peoples
In prehistoric times the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home totribes of nomadic pastoralists. Remnants of these steppe civilizationswere discovered in such places as Ipatovo, Sintashta, Arkaim, andPazyryk, which bear the earliest known traces of mounted warfare, akey feature in the nomadic way of life.
In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Sincethe 8th century BC, Ancient Greek traders brought their civilization tothe trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. The Romans settled onthe western part of the Caspian Sea, where their empire stretchedtowards the east. In 3rd 4th centuries AD a semi-legendary Gothickingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia till it was overrun by Huns. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, theBosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, was also overwhelmed by nomadicinvasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lowerVolga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 10th century.
The ancestors of modern Russians are the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to havebeen the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes. The East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: onemoving from Kiev toward present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk toward Novgorod and Rostov.From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia and slowlybut peacefully assimilated the native Finno-Ugric peoples, including the Merya, the Muromians, and the Meshchera.
Kievan Rus'Main articles: Rus' Khaganate, Kievan Rus' and List of early East Slavic states
Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th centurycoincided with the arrival of Varangians, the traders, warriors andsettlers from the Baltic Sea region. Primarily they were Vikings ofScandinavian origin, who ventured along the waterways extendingfrom the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas. According tothe Primary Chronicle, a Varangian from Rus' people, named Rurik,was elected ruler of Novgorod in 862. In 882 his successor Olegventured south and conquered Kiev, which had been previously payingtribute to the Khazars, founding Kievan Rus'. Oleg, Rurik's son Igorand Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavictribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate and launchedseveral military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.
In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest andmost prosperous states in Europe. The reigns of Vladimir the Great (9801015) and his son Yaroslav the Wise(10191054) constitute the G