THE RHETORIC OF ACHAEMENID ART the rhetoric of achaemenid art a thesis submitted to the department...

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  • THE RHETORIC OF ACHAEMENID ART

    A THESIS

    SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF

    GRAPHIC DESIGN

    AND THE INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS

    OF BİLKENT UNIVERSITY

    IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

    FOR THE DEGREE OF

    MASTER OF FINE ARTS

    By

    Burcu Asena

    May, 2002

  • ii

    I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully adequate in

    scope and in quality as a thesis for the degree of Master in Art, Design and

    Architecture.

    ________________________________________________________

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Mahmut Mutman (Supervisor)

    I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully adequate in

    scope and in quality as a thesis for the degree of Master in Art, Design and

    Architecture.

    ________________________________________________________

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marie-Henriette Gates (Supervisor)

    I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully adequate in

    scope and in quality as a thesis for the degree of Master in Art, Design and

    Architecture.

    ________________________________________________________

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Charles Gates

    I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully adequate in

    scope and in quality as a thesis for the degree of Master in Art, Design and

    Architecture.

    ________________________________________________________

    Assist. Prof. Dr. John Groch

    Approved by the Institute of Fine Arts.

    _________________________________________________________

    Prof. Dr. Bülent Özgüç, Director of the Institute of Fine Arts

  • iii

    ABSTRACT

    THE RHETORIC OF ACHAEMENID ART

    Burcu Asena

    Master in Graphic Design

    Supervisors: Assist. Prof. Dr. Mahmut Mutman

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marie-Henriette Gates

    May, 2002

    Empires are like humans: they are born, they live and they die...

    In the middle of the sixth century B.C. a newly founded empire by the Achaemenid

    Dynasty began to dominate the Near East and its environment, which is known to

    be the treshold of civilization. The conquest of the vast territory was based on

    military power. However to provide the continuum of their rule Achaemenids

    created a new form of art, in their capital city Persepolis, which would be

    recognized and would imply the Achaemenid imperialistic ideology.

    In this thesis, the history and art history of the Achaemenid Empire was analyzed

    with modern data and applications in political propaganda, advertising and

    architecture. The analysis was mostly focused on the capital city Persepolis and its

    art works to reveal the parallels between the modern and the archaeological. The

    aim of this thesis is to discuss the unchanging nature of the events taking place in

    history, and human psychology throughout centuries, even millennia: after 2500

    years, we see the same implications to effect people’s psyche.

    Keywords: Achaemenid History, Persepolis, Apadana Reliefs, Political Propaganda,

    Benetton Ads, Simulacra, The Notion of Gaze.

  • iv

    ÖZET

    PERS SANATININ ANLAMI

    Burcu Asena

    Grafik Tasarım Bölümü Mastır Çalışması

    Danışmanlar: Yrd. Doç. Dr. Mahmut Mutman

    Doç. Dr. Marie-Henriette Gates

    Mayıs, 2002

    M.Ö. altıncı yüzyılın ortalarında, Pers Hanedanı tarafından kurulan imparatorluk,

    medeniyetin beşiği olarak bilinen Yakın Doğu’ya ve çevresine hakim olmuştur. Geniş

    topraklar askeri kuvvetle ele geçirilmiştir. Persler, hükümdarlıklarının devamını

    sağlamak için, başkent Persepolis’te, Pers İmparatorluğu’nun ideolojisini

    simgeleyecek yeni ve farklı bir sanat formu yaratmıştır.

    Bu tezde, Pers İmparatorluğu’nun tarihi ve sanat tarihi, özellikle politik propaganda,

    reklamcılık ve mimari alanında, modern veriler ve uygulamalar temel alınarak

    incelenmiştir. İnceleme, yeni ve arkeolojik arasındaki paralellikleri ortaya çıkarmak

    için başkent Persepolis ve içinde barındırdığı sanat eserlerine odaklıdır. Amaçlanan,

    yüzyıllar, hatta binyıllar içinde olayların ve insan psikolojisinin değişmeyen doğasını

    tartışmaktır: 2500 yıl sonrasında bile insan ruhunu etkilemek için benzer yollara

    başvurulduğunu görmekteyiz.

    Anahtar Sözcükler: Pers Tarihi, Persepolis, Apadana Rölyefleri, Politik Propaganda,

    Benetton Reklamları, Bakış Unsuru.

  • v

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    First of all, I would like to thank my supervisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marie-Henriette

    Gates, who was one of my idols during the undergraduate period, for her precious

    comments and encouragement both during the preparation of this thesis and

    before, which led my interest towards Near Eastern archaeology.

    I would like to thank my primary supervisor, Assist. Prof. Dr. Mahmut Mutman, for

    his understanding my passion for archaeology and letting me to work on this

    subject.

    Also, I would like to thank Assist. Prof. Dr. John Groch and Assist. Prof. Dr. Charles

    Gates for their kind interest and help which led me very much.

    My cousin, with whom I have spent my childhood, Assist. Prof. Dr. Özgen Osman

    Demirbaş helped me and encouraged me, like he did throughout my life, who I

    thank very much for being beside me.

    I am greatful to my entire family for their sacrifices and devotion for the formation

    of my character which will shape my whole life. My father, Şevket Baran Asena,

    who portrays the one I would like to become, my mother Mine Asena who directed

    my interest in art, my sister Nurbanu Asena with whom I have lots of fun in hard

    times. My grandmother Fatma Hamzaoğlu took the responsibility of growing me

    and my sister up, still continues her “job” successfully with her delicious meals.

    Whereas my other grandmother Nebahat Asena encouraged me with her wise-

    words through phone calls whenever I needed, as if she felt I am having trouble.

    I would like to thank the whole Göğüş Family: Alphan, Korhan, Aysun and İlhan

    Göğüş. Especially I appreciate the patience and support of Korhan Göğüş, my

    business partner, my friend since my childhood, the one who became a part of me

    in the passed one year, whose optimistic attitude towards life makes me happy and

    thanks to whom many details of this thesis were completed including the

    preparation of figures.

  • vi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    SIGNATURE PAGE..............................................................................................ii

    ABSTRACT........................................................................................................iii

    ÖZET...............................................................................................................iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......................................................................................v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................vi

    LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................viiİ

    1. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................1

    1.1. PROBLEM...............................................................................................1

    1.2. SCOPE of THESIS....................................................................................3

    2. ACHAEMENIDS on THE WAY TO EMPIRE......................................................5

    2.1. FOUNDATION PROCESS of THE ACHAEMENID EMPIRE..............................5

    2.2. PERSEPOLIS: THE ACHAEMENID CAPITAL CITY......................................17

    3. THE ART of THE ACHAEMENIDS.................................................................21

    3.1. ASSYRIAN, EGYPTIAN and GREEK INFLUENCES......................................21

    3.2. ACHAEMENID ART and THE APADANA RELIEFS......................................38

    4. ACHAEMENID ROYAL PROPAGANDA...........................................................51

    4.1. ANALYSIS of PROPGANDISTIC ELEMENTS in THE APADANA RELIEFS.......51

    4.2. THE PROPAGANDISTIC ATTEMPTS of ACHAEMENID EMPIRE COMPARED TO

    OTHER EMPIRES’..................................................................................62

    4.3. BENETTON ADS and THE APADANA RELIEFS..........................................66

    5. SIMULACRA..............................................................................................73

    5.1. SIMULACRA CREATED THROUGH THE APADANA RELIEFS.......................74

    5.2. SIMULACRA CREATED by THE FOUNDATION of PERSEPOLIS...................81

  • vii

    6. GAZE NOTION..........................................................................................91

    6.1. THE GAZE OF LAMASSUS.......................................................................92

    6.2. THE APADANA RELIEFS ANALYZED WITH THE NOTION of GAZE.