The Real Truth about Lies Unit 5 Watch the video clip and answer the following questions. 1.Why do...

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Transcript of The Real Truth about Lies Unit 5 Watch the video clip and answer the following questions. 1.Why do...

  • Pre-reading Activities - Audiovisual supplement 1Watch the video clip and answer the following questions.Why do people tell white lies?

    2. What are the common white lies?Audiovisual SupplementCultural InformationBecause theyre white and more polite and make people feel all right. I say Im 10 when Im 9 and a half; I pretend Im asleep when my dad walks in, etc.

  • Pre-reading Activities - Audiovisual supplement 2Audiovisual SupplementCultural Information

  • Video Script1I say Im 10 when Im 9 and a half My uncle tells a joke and I try to laugh In gym I fake a headache when I want to quit I say I love the sweater that my grandma knit But thats a white lieWhite lie Thats the kind you want to tell, a white lie White lie So youre mom wont have to yell, a white lie White lie Everybody does it cause it feels all right And its more polite But a lies still a lie, even when its whiteI pretend Im asleep when my dad walks in I said I ate my chicken but I just ate the skinAudiovisual SupplementCultural InformationFrom Lie to Me

  • Video Script2Audiovisual SupplementCultural InformationYour face can say youre lyingWhen your mouth says youre not Your peds are on fire but theyre not too hot When its a white lie White lie Its the kind you want to tell, a white lie White lie So your dad wont have to yell, a white lie White lie Everybody does it cause it feels all right And its more polite, but a lies still a lie Even when its whiteWhile it might be hard to say whats true Would you want a white lie told to you?

  • Video Script3Audiovisual SupplementCultural InformationBut thats a white lie White lieThats the kind you want to tell, a white lie White lie So youre mom wont have to yell, a white lie White lie Everybody does it cause it feels all right And its more polite But a lies still a lie Even when its white

  • Cultural information 1Audiovisual SupplementCultural Information1. A white lie is one that lacks evil intent, as opposed to a black lie, which is most certainly malevolent, though normally we dont bother to specify that lies are evil. A white lie is harmless or trivial, which is frequently said in order to avoid hurting someones feelings.

  • Cultural information 2Prosocial: Lying to protect someone, to benefit or help others.Self-enhancement: Lying to save face, to avoid embarrassment, disapproval or punishment.Selfish: Lying to protect the self at the expense of another, and/or to conceal a misdeed.Antisocial: Lying to hurt someone else intentionally.2. Behavioral scientist Wendy Gamble identified four basic types of lies for a University of Arizona study in 2000:Audiovisual SupplementCultural Information

  • Global Reading - Structural analysis In this text, the author asserts the ubiquitous presence of petty white lies, analyzes its causes, discusses its grave consequences, and concludes that some lies are justifiable, while others are to be avoided.This is a piece of persuasive writing. It is of journalistic style. Structural AnalysisText Analysis

  • Structural analysisStructural AnalysisText Analysis The author begins with the results of two surveys. Then he comments on the consequences of telling lies. In the end, he discusses which lies should be avoided.Part I (Paras. 1-6) introduces the topic by reporting two survey results.Part II (Paras. 7-11) shows that people often tell white lies so as not to hurt others.Part III (Paras. 12-15) deals with the consequences of telling lies.Part IV (Paras. 16-18) discusses whether lies should be avoided at all costs.

  • Detailed reading 1-2Detailed ReadingThe Real Truth about LiesRandy Fitzgerald1 At the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, psychology professor Bella DePaulo got 77 students and 70 townspeople to volunteer for an unusual project. All kept diaries for a week, recording the numbers and details of the lies they told.2 One student and six Charlottesville residents professed to have told no falsehoods. The other 140 participants told 1535.

  • Detailed reading3-43 The lies were most often not what most of us would call earth-shattering. Someone would pretend to be more positive or supportive of a spouse or friend than he or she really was, or feign agreement with a relatives opinion. According to DePaulo, women in their interactions with other women lied mostly to spare the others feelings. Men lied to other men generally for self-promoting reasons.4 Most strikingly, these tellers-of-a-thousand-lies reported that their deceptions caused them little preoccupation or regret. Might that, too, be a lie? Perhaps. But there is evidence that this attitude towards casual use of prevarication is common.Detailed Reading

  • Detailed reading55 For example, 20,000 middle and high-schoolers were surveyed by the Josephson Institute of Ethics a nonprofit organization in Marina del Rey, California, devoted to character education. Ninety-two percent of the teenagers admitted having lied to their parents in the previous year, and 73 percent characterized themselves as serial liars, meaning they told lies weekly. Despite these admissions, 91 percent of all respondents said they were satisfied with my own ethics and character.Detailed Reading

  • Detailed reading6-76 Think how often we hear the expressions Ill call you or The check is in the mail or Im sorry, but he stepped out. And then there are professions lawyers, pundits, public relations consultants whose members seem to specialize in shaping or spinning the truth to suit clients needs.7 Little white lies have become ubiquitous, and the reasons we give each other for telling fibs are familiar. Consider, for example, a corporate executive whom Ill call Tom. He goes with his wife and son to his mother-in-laws home for a holiday dinner every year. Tom dislikes her special pumpkin pie intensely. Invariably he tells her how wonderful it is, to avoid hurting her feelings.Detailed Reading

  • Detailed reading8-9Detailed Reading8 Whats wrong with that? Tom asked Michael Josephson, president of the Josephson Institute. Its a question we might all ask.9 Josephson replied by asking Tom to consider the lie from his mother-in-laws point of view. Suppose that one day Toms child blurts out the truth, and she discovers the deceit. Will she tell her son-in-law, Thank you for caring so much? Or is she more likely to feel hurt and say, How could you have misled me all these years? And what else have you lied to me about?

  • Detailed reading10-11Detailed Reading10 And what might Toms mother-in-law now suspect about her own daughter? And will Toms boy lie to his parents and yet be satisfied with his own character?11 How often do we compliment people on how well they look, or express our appreciation for gifts, when we dont really mean it? Surely, these nice lies are harmless and well intended, a necessary social lubricant. But, like Tom, we should remember the words of English novelist Sir Walter Scott, who wrote, What a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive.

  • Detailed reading12-13Detailed Reading12 Even seemingly harmless falsehoods can have unforeseen consequences. Philosopher Sissela Bok warns us that they can put us on a slippery slope. After the first lies, others can come more easily, she wrote in her book Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life. Psychological barriers wear down; the ability to make more distinctions can coarsen; the liars perception of his chances of being caught may warp. 13 Take the pumpkin-pie lies. In the first place, it wasnt just that he wanted his mother-in-law to feel good. Whether he realized it or not, he really wanted her to think highly of him. And after the initial deceit he needed to tell more lies to cover up the first one.

  • Detailed reading14-15Detailed Reading14 Who believes it anymore when theyre told that the person they want to reach by phone is in a meeting? By itself, that kind of lie is of no great consequence. Still, the endless proliferation of these little prevarications does matter.15 Once theyve become common enough, even the small untruths that are not meant to hurt encourage a certain cynicism and loss of trust. When [trust] is damaged, warns Bok, the community as a whole suffers; and when it is destroyed, societies falter and collapse.

  • Detailed reading16Detailed Reading16 Are all white lies to be avoided at all costs? Not necessarily. The most understandable and forgivable lies are an exchange of what ethicists refer to as the principle of trust for the principle of caring, like telling children about the tooth fairy, or deceiving someone to set them up for a surprise party, Josephson says. Still, we must ask ourselves if we are willing to give our friends and associates the authority to lie to us whenever they think it is for our own good.

  • Detailed reading17-18Detailed Reading17 Josephson suggests a simple test. If someone you lie to finds out the truth, will he thank you for caring? Or will he feel his long-term trust in you has been undermined?18 And if youre not sure, Mark Twain has given us a good rule of thumb. When in doubt, tell the truth. It will confound your enemies and astound your friends.

  • Detailed reading1--QuesionWhat is the result of Professor Bella DePaulos survey? What conclusion can we draw from the result? According to the survey done by Professor DePaulo, 140 out of 147 people admitted having told lies. As some of the lies are well-intentioned, people may not regard them as lies. This result shows that telling lies is common. Detailed Reading

  • Detailed reading2--QuesionWhat is the result of the survey conducted by Josephson Institute of Ethics? What can we learn from it? Accordin