THE PROCESS OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION .THE PROCESS OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION THROUGH RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE

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Transcript of THE PROCESS OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION .THE PROCESS OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION THROUGH RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE

  • DOI: 10.7816/idil-06-36-03 idil, 2017, Cilt 6, Say 36, Volume 6, Issue 36

    2171 www.idildergisi.com

    THE PROCESS OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION

    THROUGH RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE IN JANE FENN

    HOSKENS LIFE

    F.Gl KOSOY 1

    ABSTRACT

    This article proposes that Jane Fenn Hoskens (1694-1764) in her autobiography

    The Life and Spiritual Sufferings of That Faithful Servant of Christ Jane Hoskens, A

    Public Preacher among the People Called Quakers (1771) meets the criteria for

    Abraham Harold Maslows theory of self-actualization. His theory is humanistic; it

    promotes mans psychological development including the constitution of a competent

    selfhood, a socially congruent persona and a blissful state of existence. Hoskens renders

    her need to actualize herself and achievement of it through her definition of herself on

    religious sphere; she depicts her spiritual crises and recurrent clashes of faith in the way

    to God. Her process of self-actualization requires this effort and through frequent peak

    experiences her choice of Quakerism crystallizes in which she attains clear visions of

    her being and life in general. She finds preaching, writing and missionary activities as

    the tools for self-expression.

    Keywords:.Self-actualization, A.H.Maslow, Jane Fenn Hoskens,

    autobiography, religion, peak experience.

    Kosoy, F.Gl "Jane Fenn Hoskensin Life Adl Otobiyografisinde Dinsel Deneyim

    Yoluyla Kendini Gerekletirme Sreci". idil 6.36 (2017): 2171-2184.

    Kosoy, F. G.. (2017). Jane Fenn Hoskensin Life Adl Otobiyografisinde Dinsel

    Deneyim Yoluyla Kendini Gerekletirme Sreci. idil, 6 (36), s.2171-2184.

    1Yrd.Do.Dr. Frat niversitesi, Faculty of Humane and Social Sciences, Department of Western Languages and

    Literatures, nurgul25(at)yahoo.com, fgulkocsoy(at)firat.edu.tr

    mailto:nurgul25(at)yahoo.com

  • Kosoy, F. G.. (2017). Jane Fenn Hoskensin Life Adl Otobiyografisinde Dinsel Deneyim Yoluyla Kendini Gerekletirme Sreci. idil, 6 (36), s.2171-2184.

    www.idildergisi.com 2172

    JANE FENN HOSKENSN LIFE ADLI

    OTOBYOGRAFSNDE DNSEL DENEYM YOLUYLA

    KENDN GEREKLETRME SREC

    Z

    Bu makale Jane Fenn Hoskensin (1694-1764) The Life and Spiritual Sufferings

    of That Faithful Servant of Christ Jane Hoskens, A Public Preacher among the People

    Called Quakers (1771) adl otobiyografisinde Abraham Harold Maslowun kendini

    gerekletirme kuramna ait ltleri karladn ileri srmektedir. Onun kuram

    hmanistiktir; insann yetkin bir kiilik, toplumsal anlamda uyumlu bir karakter ve

    mkemmel bir mutlulua dayal varlnn inaasn ieren psikolojik geliimini

    destekler.Hoskens, kendini gerekletirme ihtiyacn ve dinsel alanda kendini

    tanmlayarak bunu baarmasn anlatr; Tanrya giden yolda yaad tinsel krizleri ve

    inancnda tekrarlayan sarsntlar betimler. Onun kendini gerekletirme sreci bu

    abay gerektirir ve ska yaad doruk yaantlar ile Kuveykrizmi semesi

    somutlar; bunda kendi varlna ve genel olarak yaama dair net grler kazanr.

    Vaaz vermeyi, yazmay ve misyonerlik faaliyetlerini kendini ifade etme aralar olarak

    tayin eder.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: Kendini gerekletirme, A.H.Maslow, Jane Fenn Hoskens,

    otobiyografi, din, doruk yaants.

  • DOI: 10.7816/idil-06-36-03 idil, 2017, Cilt 6, Say 36, Volume 6, Issue 36

    2173 www.idildergisi.com

    Self-actualization as a term of humanistic psychology means the need and

    desire to actualize ones full potential within environmental conditions into a blissful

    position in the spiritual sense. According to Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-1970),

    one of the pioneers of humanistic psychology, self-actualization realizes when a

    person can express himself completely and freely within his ideals in life. His theory

    includes the utmost development in mind and character of man, his accommodation

    into society and the societys approval of him. This means well-being; as Statt

    observes, it is the ongoing striving to fulfil ones capacities that is a sign of

    psychological health (Statt, 2003: 119).

    Humanistic psychology has its roots in existentialist philosophy with which it

    shares the idea that mans will-power and potentials are substantive in his existence.

    Mans definition of himself on intellectual, spiritual and social bases is important for

    both existentialism and humanistic psychology. Maslow refuses the life-philosophies

    deprived of spiritual elements and ideals in life, and emphasizes the uniqueness of

    man, the integrity of self and self-improvement. In this vein, he bases his theory of

    self-actualization on the priority of individual experience and personality

    development. He claims that after the gratification of basic physiological needs, the

    needs of safety, love and belonging, and esteem come, though the scope of these four

    needs are not strictly fixed for each person. They must be satisfied on the level that the

    individual finds them sufficient. At this point, the need for self-actualization appears

    for man to achieve his full potential and ideals and to express them in psychological

    and social realms within his conditions to a satisfactory degree. This need or inner

    motivation emerges only when he knows his nature and potentials. For it is the state of

    psychological and mental health, if he cannot actualize himself he will be restless and

    unhappy all his life, even if the first four are complete.

    For religion is a personal issue and is involved in the sphere of humanistic

    psychology, there is a close link between Maslows theory which privileges man, and

    religious writings. His theory fits into Jane Fenn Hoskens (1694-1764) autobiography

    The Life and Spiritual Sufferings of That Faithful Servant of Christ Jane Hoskens, A

    Public Preacher among the People Called Quakers (1771) on the psycho-social

    spheres. The work which is regarded as a conversion narrative and the first spiritual

    autobiography by a Quaker woman in America is a narrative of the process of

    individualization through religious experience. Life traces her gradual improvement

    from the state of psychological restlessness, sense of culpability and remorse into a

    state of tranquility sprung from divinity and into her choice of self-expression in

    religion, which enhances her personality and spiritual health. The pattern of

    conversion narrative is the detailed descriptions of a sinful past, long and arduous

    struggle in the lost condition, miraculous conversion - accompanied by praise to God

  • Kosoy, F. G.. (2017). Jane Fenn Hoskensin Life Adl Otobiyografisinde Dinsel Deneyim Yoluyla Kendini Gerekletirme Sreci. idil, 6 (36), s.2171-2184.

    www.idildergisi.com 2174

    for his mercy - concluding with an account of the new life and ministry (Barros and

    Smith, 2000: 27). In this context, the work depicts her spiritual evolution to actualize

    her ideal: to serve God and to gain His benevolence as the title suggests. It is a

    difficult emotional and spiritual completion process, demanding courage, stability and

    full devotion, and it realizes by her recognizing and understanding her true self.

    Hoskens Life as a spiritual autobiography centers on her private experiences

    in her religious life, development of spirit and the emergence of her authorial voice.

    She prefers writing an autobiography because it enables her to render the

    transmutation of her individual self in a religious process. For she is a social being,

    she feels it duty to share her experiences with other people by giving sermons, writing

    her autobiography and acting as a missionary. She writes her work with the idea that

    her evolution gains meaning when shared by other individuals in the world. On the

    other hand, Maslows developmental theory and humanistic psychology in the broad

    sense comprises mans happiness in social terms, too. Both in humanistic psychology

    and in the genre of autobiography, the center of consciousness is the individuals; so it

    can be said that writing and evaluating an autobiography is an exercise of humanistic

    psychology. In addition, writing an autobiography is to share ones own self,

    experiences and ideals in a relatively chronological order. The focus of autobiography,

    and autobiographical truth is not a fixed but an evolving content in an intricate

    process of self-discovery and self-creation, (Eakin, 1985:3) exploring and unfolding

    of self and Hoskens narrative can be evaluated within this approach. For its focus is

    her religious journey to self-actualization, it begins with a dream that she can actualize

    her inner voice: she determines to avoid from sins and follow Gods way. Though it

    seems clear, she has some doubts about which way the right one is and how she will

    achieve this. It will be a hard trial and take time. In the work, her search for spiritual

    truth, her adoption of her aim, her efforts to realize them, her handicaps in

    compromising her spiritual and intellectual aspects, her coming through them, and

    developing herself as a preacher and becoming a role model are rendered within a

    process of autobiographical subjectivity and chronology.

    Born in 1694 in England to Anglican parents, Hoskens witnesses the religious

    upheavals in 18th century England and America, characterized by the emergence of

    various s