The Policy Drivers of Photovoltaic Industry Growth in California, Germany, and Japan

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La tesi di dottorato The Policy Drivers of Photovoltaic Industry Growth in California, Germany, and Japan di Isabella Alloisio esplora come la “spinta” della tecnologia e il “traino” dei mercati possano essere insieme promotori efficaci dell’innovazione tecnologica fotovoltaica e come possano far conseguire risultati migliori alle aziende che operano nel settore.

Transcript of The Policy Drivers of Photovoltaic Industry Growth in California, Germany, and Japan

  • FREEBOOK AMBIENTE

    Biblioteca gratuita on line di

    Isabella Alloisio

    The Policy Drivers of Photovoltaic Industry Growth in California, Germany, and JapanPhD Thesis in International Law and Economics

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    CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................1

    CHAPTER 1: DISCOVERY, START-UP, AND DEVELOPMENT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY .............................................................................3

    1.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................. 3

    1.2 Solar Photovoltaics ................................................................................................................................................. 5 1.2.1 PV History ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 1.2.2 The Three Phases of Photovoltaic Development ........................................................................................... 8 1.2.3 PV Design and Technology ...........................................................................................................................11 1.2.4 Power Conversion Efficiency ........................................................................................................................16 1.2.5 Energy Payback Time ....................................................................................................................................18 1.2.6 The PV Value Chain ......................................................................................................................................20

    1.3 Concentrating Solar Power.................................................................................................................................21 1.3.1 CSP History ....................................................................................................................................................22 1.3.2 CSP Applications ...........................................................................................................................................23

    1.3.2.1 Linear Concentrator Technology ..........................................................................................................23 1.3.2.2 Parabolic Dish Technology ...................................................................................................................25 1.3.2.3 Power Tower Systems............................................................................................................................26

    1.3.3 The CSP Value Chain ....................................................................................................................................28

    1.4 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................................29

    CHAPTER 2: POLICIES AND MEASURES TO PROMOTE PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY IN THE US AND CALIFORNIA, GERMANY, AND JAPAN ...........31

    2.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................31

    2.2 Solar Energy and Technology Policies in the United States ..........................................................................32 2.2.1 US Solar Technology Policy .........................................................................................................................33

    2.2.1.1 Research and Development Tax Credit System...................................................................................38 2.2.1.2 Patent Law and Policy ...........................................................................................................................39

    2.2.2 US Solar Energy Policy .................................................................................................................................42 2.2.2.1 Energy Tax Credits ................................................................................................................................42

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    2.2.2.2 Feed-In-Tariffs .......................................................................................................................................44 2.2.2.3 Renewable Portfolio Standards .............................................................................................................48 2.2.2.4 The Loan Guarantee Program ...............................................................................................................51

    2.3 State-Level Solar Energy Policies in the United States: the Case of California .........................................53 2.3.1 The Renewable Portfolio Standard ...............................................................................................................53 2.3.2 The Feed-In Tariff ..........................................................................................................................................55 2.3.3 The Net Metering Program............................................................................................................................58 2.3.4 The California Solar Initiative.......................................................................................................................60

    2.4 Solar Energy and Technology Policies in the European Union ....................................................................63 2.4.1 EU Renewable and Solar Technology Policy...............................................................................................63 2.4.2 EU Renewable and Solar Energy Policy ......................................................................................................64

    2.5 Solar Energy and Technology Policies in Germany .......................................................................................67 2.5.1 German Solar Technology Policy .................................................................................................................67

    2.5.1.1 Research and Development Tax Credit System...................................................................................73 2.5.1.2 Patent Law and Policy ...........................................................................................................................73

    2.5.2 German Solar Energy Policy .........................................................................................................................75 2.5.2.1 The PV Roofs Programs ........................................................................................................................76 2.5.2.2 Feed-in Tariffs ........................................................................................................................................77

    2.6 Solar Energy and Technology Policies in Japan..............................................................................................85 2.6.1 Japanese Solar Technology Policy ................................................................................................................88

    2.6.1.1 Research and Development Tax Credit System ...................................................................................93 2.6.1.2 Patent Law and Policy ...........................................................................................................................94

    2.6.2 Japanese Solar Energy Policy........................................................................................................................97 2.6.2.1 Japanese Financial Incentives for Residential PV ...............................................................................97 2.6.2.2 The Net Metering Program..................................................................................................................101 2.6.2.3 The Renewable Portfolio Standard .....................................................................................................102

    2.7 Conclusion ...........................................................................................................................................................105

    CHAPTER 3: PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF ENERGY AND TECHNOLOGY POLICIES TO SUPPORT PV INDUSTRY...........107

    3.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................107

    3.2 The Market of PV: Global Installed Capacity...............................................................................................109

    3.3 The Supply Side: Top PV Manufacturers ......................................................................................................115

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    3.3.1 Q-Cells ..........................................................................................................................................................119 3.3.2 First Solar......................................................................................................................................................122 3.3.3 SunPower ......................................................................................................................................................124 3.3.4 Suntech..........................................................................................................................................................126 3.3.5 Sharp .........................................................................