The Planet Mars Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9

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Transcript of The Planet Mars Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9

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The Planet Mars Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Slide 2 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 The Red Planet Mars Slide 3 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 Slide 4 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Christian Huygens (1659) W. R. Dawes (1864 1865) Giovanni Schiaparelli (1888) Early observers did not have photography and had to draw what they saw. Slide 5 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 In the years from about 1890 to about 1910 Percival Lowell became enamored with the observations of Schiapereli. Canali for him were canals. He believed in canals and the intelligent life forms needed to dig them. He spent many years talking and writing about them. Percival Lowell Slide 6 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 8 Mars Facts Dist from Sun=1.5+ or app. 1.6 AU (T-B) Year = 1.88 Earth years Sol (Mars day) = 24h 37 m Axis inclination = 25+ deg Dia =.533 Earth dia Surface gravity =.38 Earth Surface Temp = -140 deg C to 20 deg C Slide 7 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 Earth Venus Mars N 2 0.79 2 3 x 10 -4 O 2 0.20 < 0.001 10 -7 Ar 0.01 0.0052 x 10 -4 CO 2 0.0003 64 0.009 H 2 O ~ 0.02 ~ 0.01 ~10 -6 Total 1.00 90 0.01 Comparison of the Atmospheres of the Terrestrial Planets Slide 8 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 The interior of Mars has not been studied by seismic waves. Surface clues indicate that the interior as shown is likely correct. Over time the interior has cooled and vulcanism has ceased. Slide 9 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Surface Features The surface of Mars has been imaged and mapped at least as thoroughly as the Earth. No liquid water has been found although there is much evidence that there has been standing and flowing water in the past. The Southern Hemisphere is somewhat higher in elevation and covered with craters appearing much like The Moon. The lower Northern Hemisphere is much more earthlike. It has giant volcanoes and canyons. Slide 10 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 This topo- graphical map of the Tharsis Rise shows giant volcanoes, a giant canyon, apparent dry river beds and a dry ocean Tharsis Bulge Slide 11 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Olympus Mons If this giant volcano were on Earth is would stand three times higher than Mount Everest and would completely cover the State of Utah Slide 12 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 An image of a dry watershed An image of a dry river bed A topographic map of the mouth of a dry river entering a dry ocean Slide 13 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 A canyon land region called South Candor A panoramic view of a rocky rolling valley Slide 14 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 The North Polar Cap seems to have water ice with much dry ice covering it. There is much information in the apparent layers that have accumulated over eons. The South Polar Cap seems to have less water ice and less layering. Slide 15 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Today Cold Dry Anciently Warm Wet Mars Slide 16 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Robots to Mars From the Mariner Probes in the early 60s to the extremely successful Phoenix Lander 2010 mankind has sent variety of robot orbiters and landers to prepare the way for a future manned mission to the exotic Red Planet. Slide 17 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Viking Program Two Identical Systems Orbiter Lander Mid 70s Search for Living Life Chemical not biological results Red color is iron oxide Slide 18 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 A view from the Viking 2 Lander in summer and winter. The occasional frost layer only lasts until Sun up. Slide 19 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 The Mars Global Surveyor took images in visible and infrared of the entire planet every day for one full Mars year. Among its discoveries was this of recent gullies Slide 20 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 One of the trickiest parts of the Mars Exploration is actually getting the rovers to Mars in working condition. Imagine trying to drop a sophisticated robot about 11-12 stories without breaking it (or even dropping an ordinary DVD player) Slide 21 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 When the Pathfinder lander and the Sojourner rover arrived in 1997 they began the era of faster, cheaper spacecraft. Sojourner can be seen examining the rock Yogi Slide 22 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 The next gener- ation Rovers were two, called the Spirit and Opportunity. Slide 23 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Spirits landing place was similar to the Vikings; this is a 360 panoramic view Spirit View west from the Columbia Hills Slide 24 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 This is a view from Opportunity down into Victoria Crater. It spent nearly a full Earth year finding the best way down into the crater and this is it. Opportunity has now left Victoria Crater in search of another crater to explore. Slide 25 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 9 Here we see the robotic arm at work. It cleans the rock, examines it then analyses it for elements. This is the Instrument complex with the RAT, Imager and Spectrographs Slide 26 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 Discoveries Layering as if by water deposit Spherical pebbles such as in a stream Rust (color) same as the red iron oxide as in Southern Utah Adventures - Stuck in sand dune Covered by dust in a storm Uncovered by a whirl wind Lived through a long Mars winter Are still going strong (four times as long as expected) Intrepid Geologists Slide 27 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 The Pheonix scooped up icy dirt that gave off liquid water when warmed. Slide 28 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 Each Rover has become more become bigger and more complex as we have learned how to build them and use them Spirit Sojourner Cuiriosity Slide 29 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 Mars Pathfinder (Success) Mars Global Surveyor (Success) Actively taking pictures and gathering data Mars Polar Lander (Failed) Mars Atmosphere Observer (Failed) 2001 Mars Odyssey -arrived Oct 24. 2001 -gathering data today Landers (Future) -biology and geology Laboratory -to gather rocks and return them to Earth Slide 30 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 Phobos (Fear) is the large of the two. They are both tiny and badly scarred by impacts but Phobos looks like it was nearly shattered. The Japonese are planning to send a robot to pick up dirt and rock samples from Diemos (Terror) to return them to Earth Slide 31 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 End of Chapter 10 Slide 32 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 Slide 33 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10 Slide 34 Survey of Astronomy Astro1010-lee.com [email protected] Chapter 10