the peloponnesian war 431

Click here to load reader

Embed Size (px)

description

 

Transcript of the peloponnesian war 431

  • Essential HistoriesThe Peloponnesian War431-404 BC OSPREYPhilip de Souza PUBLISHING
  • Essential HistoriesThe Peloponnesian War431-404 BC OSPREYPhilip de Souza PUBLISHING
  • First published in Great Britain in 2002 by Osprey Publishing. For a complete list of titles available from Osprey PublishingElms Court, Chapel Way. Botley, Oxford OX2 9LR UK. please contact:Email: info@ospreypublishing.com Osprey Direct UK, PO Box 140, 2002 Osprey Publishing Limited Wellingborough. Northants. NN8 2FA. UK. Email: info@ospreydirect,co.ukAll rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposeof private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under Osprey Direct USA, c/o MBI Publishing,the Copyright, Design and Patents Act. 1988. no part of this PO Box 1. 729 Prospect Ave,publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or Osceola, Wl 54020. USA,transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, Email: info@ospreydirectusa.comchemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying, recording or www.ospreypublishing.comotherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyrightowner Enquiries should be made to the Publishers.Every attempt has been made by the publisher to secure the Dedicationappropriate permissions for material reproduced in this book. If For Debrathere has been any oversight we will be happy to rectify thesituation and written submission should be made to the Authors PrefacePublishers, This book was written under exceptionally difficultISBN I 84176 357 8 circumstances, I am enormously grateful to Rebecca Cullen for her understanding and patience. I am once more indebted to myEditor: Rebecca Cullen wife Debra for her love and supportDesign: Ken Vail Graphic Design. Cambridge, UKCartography by The Map StudioIndex by Bob MunroPicture research by Image Select InternationalOrigination by Grasmere Digital Imaging. Leeds, UKPrinted and bound in China by L. Rex Printing Company Ltd,02 03 04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I
  • Contents Introduction 7 Chronology 9 Background to war The rise of Athens 11 Warring sides Athens and Sparta 19 Outbreak Fear and suspicion lead to war 28 The fighting The first twenty years 33 Portrait of a soldier A ships captain at war 63 The world around war Politics and culture 73 Portrait of a civilian Hipparete, an Athenian citizen woman 79 How the war ended The fall of Athens 85 Conclusion and consequences The triumph of Sparta? 91 Further reading 93 Index 94
  • IntroductionThis book gives a concise account of one of Thucydides work is incomplete, tailing offthe key periods of Classical Greek history. literally in mid sentence, just as he isThe Peloponnesian War, which lasted from explaining what happened after an Athenian431 to 404 BC, was a conflict between the naval victory in 411. It is likely that he hadGreek city-states of Athens and Sparta. It was either died, or at least stopped working on ita confrontation between the leading land by 396 because he does not seem to knowpower of the time, Sparta, and the leading sea about an eruption of Mount Etna on Sicilypower, Athens. In a wider sense it was also a that occurred in this year. We do not knowclash between a cautious, traditional whether he simply had not written any ofoligarchy and an ambitious, innovative the remaining books which would havedemocracy. It is called the Peloponnesian War covered the period 410 to 404 (there werebecause Sparta was the head of an alliance of probably to be two more), or whether he hadGreek states from the Peloponnese, the drafts or notes but no final versions.southernmost peninsula of mainland Greece. Another Athenian historian, Xenophon,The stories of the Peloponnesian War feature continued the story of the war from a pointsome of the great personalities of the just a few months after the latest eventsClassical World, including the revered recorded by Thucydides. This could implyAthenian statesman Perikles, the bold and that Xenophon had a version of Thucydidesresourceful Spartans Brasidas and Gylippos, work which was slightly longer than the onethe flamboyant Athenian general Alkibiades which now survives, for it seems clear that heand the Spartan leader Lysandros, who intended his to be a continuation ofeventually achieved the decisive naval victory Thucydides, although he is less detailed andthat the Spartans needed to win the war. analytical than Thucydides. Xenophon called The enduring fame of the Peloponnesian his work the Hellenika, meaning an accountWar is due in no small way to its principal of the doings of the Hellenes, which was the historian, Thucydides, an Athenian citizen Greeks name for themselves. We canwho took part in some of the early stages of supplement these two main accounts fromthe war as a naval commander. He was exiled the works of many later classical writers, whofrom Athens in 424 and he decided to write provide biographical and historical detailsa detailed account of the war because, in his not mentioned by Thucydides or Xenophon,view, it was such an important war that it along with a small number of originalwas more worthy of a written history than documents from the time of the war, mostlyany previous conflict. He carefully gathered decrees of the Athenians inscribed on stone.as much information as possible, from Thucydides was the first writer who, ineye-witnesses and documents, so that he explaining the origins of a war, made a clearcould offer as accurate and well considered distinction between the immediate, publiclyan analysis of events as possible. He was proclaimed reasons for the conflict and theaware that this sort of history might not longer-term, underlying causes of tensionappeal to those who preferred a more between the two sides. This explanatoryromanticised and sensational account of the scheme is still regularly employed by modernpast, but he observed in his introduction: historians when they seek to account for theThis is a possession for all time, rather than outbreak of more recent wars. It is aa prize piece that is read and then forgotten. testament to the fascination of Thucydides
  • 8 Essential Histories The Peloponnesian Warsubject and the quality of his work that, even regularly study the events of thein the twenty-first century, students of Peloponnesian War for the lessons it canhistory, politics and warfare in universities teach them about politics, diplomacy,and military academies across the world strategy, tactics and the writing of history. This helmet was worn by a Greek heavy infantry soldier, or hoplite in the sixthcentury. By the start of the fifth century the city-states of Classical Greece hadalready fought many small scale wars, mostly as the result of border disputes withtheir neighbours.The Peloponnesian War was on a much grander scale thananything the Greeks had previously seen. (Ancient Art and Architecture)
  • Chronology478 Formation of the Delian League 433 Alliance of Athens and Corcyra; sea465-64 Earthquake at Sparta; (Messenian) battle of Sybota; Athens renews Helots revolt treaties of alliance with Leontini462 Spartans appeal for Athenian and Rhegion help against Messenians; Kimons 432 Revolt of Poteidaia; Megarian forces sent away by Spartans; decrees reforms of Ephialtes; Athenians 431-404 Peloponnesian War form alliance with Megara, Argos 431 Thebans attack Plataia; and Thessaly Peloponnesians invade Attika461 Ostracism of Kimon 430 Plague reaches Athens; Perikles459-54 Athenian expedition to Cyprus and expedition to