The Paths West History of the American West. Daily Question The population of the United States west...

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Transcript of The Paths West History of the American West. Daily Question The population of the United States west...

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The Paths West History of the American West Slide 2 Daily Question The population of the United States west of the Appalachians was less than 100,000 in 1790. What was the population west of the Appalachians in 1820? Take 3 guesses on a sheet of paper. 7,000,000 Slide 3 Introduction Settlement was the key to American conquest of the continent. Everyone was craving land. By 1840, 8 states formed west of the Appalachians 3 west of the Mississippi What paved the way for settlers to move West? Slide 4 Lt. Zebulon Pike Claim to fame? Pikes Peak Explored the southern reaches of the LA Territory/Rocky Mtns. (1806) Strayed into Spanish Territory Came home with description of Spanish Territory & of interior plains. Slide 5 Stephen H. Long Stepped across the plains in 1820. Unfit for cultivation Uninhabitable for people depending on agriculture. Great American Desert Slide 6 William Becknell Trading expedition 1821-22 Returned home with Mexican silver. Escorted to Santa Fe, NM Sold goods to the Mexicans Generated interest with the governor. Slide 7 The Result Santa Fe Trail Summer, 1822 Becknell blazes a route Started in _______________. Ended in ________________. Huge trading route ($145,000/yr.) Slide 8 Items Exported to New Mexico Tools Household utensils Fabric Latest fashions (American & European) Wallpaper Glass Slide 9 The Medium of Exchange Mexican silver Mules were also traded to the Americans. Missouri started mule production from this point. Many American goods became in hot demand in Mexico. Slide 10 Oregon the most valuable of all the unoccupied parts of the earth. Spain, Russia, Britain had interest Too sparsely populated to fight over. US & Britain joint occupation for 10 yrs. Religious motivations. Slide 11 The Oregon Trail Started in Independence, MO 2,000 miles Problems Mountains Cold, swift streams No spare parts Right pulling animal Mosquitoes Slide 12 Why not the plains? Land assigned to Indians Treeless Great Plainsa desert Desire for greater resources Slide 13 Assignment Look at p. 187-188 in your book. Give a step-by-step account of the journey along the Oregon Trail. Slide 14 The Journey to Texas Tejanos-native-born Mexicans Interested in money, horses, women Pike opened trade with them Rancheros Longhorn cattle-by Spanish Foundation of economy Dress Slide 15 The Journey to Texas Filibusters Land pirates Defeated San Antonio Other invasions reduced the population in half. Slide 16 The Journey to Texas Moses Austin Applied for a land grant in Texas. 300 families Approved in 1821 Died on the way home. Slide 17 The Journey to Texas Stephen F. Austin Claimed Texas as his bride Settlers Given 177 acres of farmland or 4428 acres for grazing Flourishing goods Cattle Cotton Exported to US Slide 18 Slide 19 The Journey to Texas 900 additional families Empresarios-development for land Texans soon outnumbered Tejanos Slavery Banned by Mexico Contract Labor Slide 20 The Journey to Texas Colonization Law (1830) Canceled all empresario contracts Banned immigration from US Occupation of Texas by Mexican Army Texas Fever Cattle was fatter, sugar cane was taller and the cotton was finer GTT-Gone to Texas Slide 21 The Journey to Texas Factions Peace Party (Austin) Self-rule as a Mexican Colony Legalized slavery Free trade w/US Texian War Party Annexation w/US Slide 22 Toward Texas Independence Austin Thrown in Jail Became a believer in independence New leaders David Crockett Samuel Houston Slide 23 Violence in Texas Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Declared national control of local affairs Dictatorship Texans forced Mexican troops from San Antonio Fortified themselves in the Alamo Mexicans invade the Alamo 3/6/1836. 5 hrs., 600 Mexican & 187 Texans died. Slide 24 The Journey to Texas Santa Anna Attacked Goliad-executed 371 Anglos Divided army to burn and plunder Houston surprised Mexicans at San Jacinto River (4/21). Captured and forced to sign a Treaty granting Texas independence. Slide 25 The Republic of Texas Houton-president Tejano prejudice & violence White folks and Mexicans were never made to live together, anyhow. Recognized as an independent country by the U.S. in 1837 Legalized Slavery-barred legal residence of free persons of color. Slide 26 Manifest Destiny John L. OSullivan We were destined by God to expand across the continent James K. Polk Expansionist platform Annex Oregon & Texas Divided Oregon at 49 th parallel 1845-Texas-28 th state Slide 27 Mexican-American War Santa Anna Annexation of TX would be equivalent to a declaration of war. Polk wanted to take California Sent Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor into Mexican Territory Mexico attacked Congress declared war on May 13, 1846 Slide 28 Slide 29 Mexican-American War Guerilla fighting 3 Fronts Northern Mexico New Mexico California Irregular settler forces Slide 30 Mexican-American War 1847-Invasion of Mexico City First amphibious operation in US military history Landed at Vera Cruz Marched across same land as Cortes Mexicans attacked then used guerilla maneuvers. American attacked civilians Slide 31 Mexican-American War Americans conquered Mexico City (9/14/1847) Public Opinion Mostly outrage First American war covered by the telegraph. Slide 32 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Confirmed annexation of Texas Rio Grande-international boundary Reparations Mexico ceded California and New Mexico US paid $15 million US gave American citizens $3.75 million for land they claimed. Slide 33 Results of the War 13,000 Americans killed 20,000 Mexicans Cost the US $2.3 billion in todays dollars. Mexico lost 602 million acres (1/3 of domain) Male citizens of Mexico could choose citizenship in either country. Eventually driven out Slide 34 34 1840 1850 Slide 35 35 Manifest Destiny Expansion to the Pacific Seen as obvious and inevitable Not necessarily a religious idea Spread of democracy and European- American lifestyle Exterminate or convert Native Americans Tame the western landscape Slide 36 36 Manifest Destiny Slide 37 37 What do you think the woman in this picture represents? What is she doing? Slide 38 38 What are these people doing, and why do you think they are in the picture? Slide 39 39 What does this part of the picture show? What is its significance? Slide 40 40 Who else is being forced westward? What is happening here? Slide 41 41 Why do you think this bear was included in this part of the picture? Slide 42 42 Can you tell what is going on here? Slide 43 43 Why do you think the artist painted this picture? What is the larger message he was trying to convey about Manifest Destiny?