THE NECKLACE Guy de Maupassant. Maupassant grew up with wealthy parents in North-West France. He...
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THE NECKLACEGuy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant Maupassant grew up with wealthy parents in North-West France. He spent almost every Sunday with the great French novelist, Gustave Flaubert, who inspired him to begin writing. In his teenage years, he served in the Franco-Prussian War. He got promoted to become a government clerk and he spent most of his free time writing. Between 1880 and 1890, Maupassant had successfully written 300 short stories, 6 novels, 3 travel books, and his only volume of verse. A lot of his stories were about inexplicable, illogical, and contradictory catastrophes. Also, many of his stories were humorous and warm-hearted. Guy de Maupassant is one of the most indispensible authors of French Literature, thanks to his many great short stories like this one, The Necklace.
Short Story SummaryTITLE: The NecklaceAUTHOR: Guy de MaupassantSETTING (Time and Place): 1884 Paris, France Loisels apartment, party at the Ministry of Educations Mansion.
CHARACTERS (List and describe on separate lines):
Madame Loisel - selfish (beautiful, charming, middle class, spoiled, daydreamed)aged quickly, heavy rough, harsh, shrill voice, poorMonsieur Loisel- kind, generous, loyal hard-working, clerk for Ministry of Education, wants to please wife, middle class
Madame Forestier - kind, generous, wealthy, snobby
SUMMARY Madame Loisel is in her apartment dreaming of a better life. She is unhappy and dissatisfied with her social status and mediocre surroundings. Mme & Msr. L receive an invitation to a party at the Ministry.
Plot Summary contdMme. refuses to attend until she has something suitable to wear. She borrows a diamond necklace from her friend Mme. F. Mme. L loses the necklace somewhere on the way home.
Summary continuedThey borrow the money from loan sharks and are forced to live a life of poverty for 10 years until their debts are paid off. Mme. L meets up with Mme F and tells her about the lost necklace, and Mme. F reveals the necklace is fake.
POINT OF VIEW:This short story is told from the 3rd person limited point of view. The author focuses on Mme. Loisels thoughts and feelings.
Conflicts:Internal Mme. Loisel vs. herself: her excessive pride, materialism and shallowness cause her emotional torture as she feels shes been deprived of luxuries.
Conflict contdExternal Mme. Loisel vs. M. different values (although he is tolerant of her behavior and wants to please her)
Elements of the Storys PlotCharacters : Madame Mathilde Loisel, Madame Jeanne Forestier, Cabinet Officials, Madame Loisels Husband, and the Jeweler.
Setting : Set in Paris, France, in the late 1800s.
Basic Situation: Madame Loisel loses the diamond necklace that her friend, Madame Forestier, lent her when she was invited to a ball.Internal Conflict: Madame Loisel has to decide whether or not to tell Mme. Forestier the truth.Complications: The couple doesnt have enough money to buy a replacement necklace.Climax: When Mme. Loisel loses the necklace.Resolution: Mme. Loisel and her husband borrow money to buy a new necklace.
Protagonist: Mathilde Loisel Dynamic Character: Mathilde Loisel.
Static Character: Mme. Forestier, Mme. Loisels Husband.
Other Literary Elements contdIrony Mme. L borrows a necklace to fit in with the rich people she envies, but the loss of the necklace results in her being poorer than she was.
Other Literary Elements contdForeshadowing - Rue de Martyrs the name of the street and the English word martyr- martyr means a great or constant sufferer. Her intense unhappiness cannot be lifted with one party invitation.
PLOT DEVELOPMENT CHART EXPOSITION: We meet Mme. Loisel in her apartment as she is described as extremely unhappy and dissatisfied with her social statusNARRATIVE HOOK: Mme. Loisel receives an invitation to the party.
Plot Development Chart contdRISING ACTION: Mme. Refuses to attend the party without a suitable dress/borrows a necklace/loses it/borrows money to buy a new one/lives life of poverty to pay debt.
Plot Development Chart contdCLIMAX: 10 years later relieved of the debt Mme. L. confesses all to Mme. F. who reveals the necklace is a fake.
Quote Interpretation:Quote We do not succeed in changing things according to our desire, but gradually our desires change. Marcel Proust
Quote contdIn your own words, explain what this quote means to you We cannot always get what we want when we want it. Eventually, our priorities change and what we want changes at the same time.
Quote Interpretation contd How does this quote relate to the story you just read? Madame Loisel is very self-centered at the beginning of the story. She is focused on material possessions. By the end of the story, her perspective changes.
Quote contdForeshadowing- Madame and Monsieur Loisel live on Rue des Martyrs street. A martyr is someone that suffers a great deal and never recovers after their loss. The author foreshadows the suffering that Madame and Monsieur Loisel will have.
Quote contdMood- The mood of this story changes as the characters and their priorities change. In the beginning, Madame L is disappointed, but then she has a great time at the party and the mood shifts to one of excitement and enjoyment.
Mood contdAfter losing the necklace, Madame Ls priorities change and the mood changes to one of tragedy and loss.