The Mariners Handbook

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and
for
this
value
to
the
but
This
Diameter
v
a
=
high. The dry
maximum density,
is considered
Conversely,
to
convert
U.
S.
distance;
1 bbl.
is $4.8665. The
.925;
dollars
vice
versa,
exchange
dollars
by
\b
and
dividing
the
product
by
capacity,
and
the
equivalents
are
The
a
thus,
3|
in.
-2Hn.
extreme.
5
the index
the
second ividend
be
given
number
whose
root
period
contains
as
there
are
Thus, in extracting
given number is
the
third
divi-
five figures of
the root are
the
Rate
and
the
Base.
Thus,
bases,
P
a polygon,
 
number of
of
column
headed
the
decimal
zontal
line,
under
the
column
mantissa
are
found,
in
the
headed
0,
and
1,
opposite
314
(the
first
5,
is
found
to
be
umn headed
tional
part)
remainder
is
the
difference.
III.
Find
figures
of
the
mantissa
are
found
is
the
8 (in
the unit
of the required

not
num-
7.92?
(6)
the
cube
of
94.7?
(c)
the
1.6
power
of
512,
a
number
divided
by
the
a
num-
of
equations.
Example.—
Solve
are given such values
minutes.
The
90°
of
its
supplement.
Thus,
the
sine
of
70° =
the
sine
of
110°
natural
and
Fig.
2
Fig.
3
direction and
ship
parts
of
said to
needle,
while
it
will
attract
other, while
of
one
magnet
another, but attract
an
of
a
blue
pole
and
that
in
the
southern
a
or downward
magnetic dip
Agonic
lines
lines that
are drawn
where
the
dip
of
the
magnetic
needle
is
lines connecting all places
magnetic meridian. At
the altered
Malleable and
of
Local
attraction
is
any
disturbance,
temporary
or
other-
wise,
surrounding the
COMPENSATION
the
two
one
influenced
by
is
At
present,
however,
one
of magnets
by the
magnetic
dip
also.
Navy,
is
not
a
permanent
magnet;
has
a
list
ship is
at a dis-
ence
to
meet
at
bear
representation
of
the
visible
horizon,
the
ship
has
Flattery in
arc
The equator
the
poles
of
any
two
places.
Rhumb.
curve.
The
distance
between
two
places,
direction
of
again
thus
found
is
nearly
56°,
or
5
points
and
half
Dep.
189.8
in as
sponding
course
being
26^°,
and
astronomical
observations.
In
is
to
represent
it
is
to
represent
south
latitude;
represented.
Divide
it
is
by 60;
measured on the
and
through
the
points
to rep-
thus completed
into suitable
divide
from B
to C.
Solution.—Referring
right-hand corner
lines
parallel
to
lines
the
ports along
great-
circle
track
sailed
on
each
quarter-point
course.
For
instance,
assume
the
100
mi.
for
each
of a point
a
point
and
log
noted.
When
abeam
miles?
Solution.
by the
a
gun
is
14,
in the
on the
that the two
As
long
of
the
circle
of
danger
much larger,
Greenwich
lines drawn
axis
of
the celestial sphere;
sun's apparent
assumed
passes from
south to
and
the
sea,
forming
a
circles
that
pass
through
horizon
at
right
angles.
Prime
the meridian
it
is
hour
circle
intercepted
 
clear
night
by
Alpha, Andromeda,
and
in
such
as
the sea, increasing
it kctually
the
Mercury
and
Venus;
exterior
planets
and
the
sun,
at
which
time
it
is
most
brilliant.
the
sun,
and
to
the
obliquity
this
reason
would
average,
as
near
the
in
is
recorded
day.
Thus,
Jan.
9,
is
the
center
of
the
observed
be
corrected
only
for
index
vertical
distance
The
the
sun.
Example.
the Nautical Almanac.
noted,
Find the
as
from
the
larger.
The
result
is
the
latitude,
in
the
the
star's
right
by
chronometer
Before noon,
altitude or in the
depend
is
on
line established,
of
the
ship
evident
that
when
the
bearing
of
two
Sumner
lines
are
obtained
whose
point
of
intersection
will
has not moved
is more
with
a
second
line
obtained
by
a
bearing of the object is
taken
by
allowance must
use
being worn
out too
the
appended
on this
sun
at
the
second
sight
is
S

E,
and
hence
proceed as
and
at
the
extrem-
ity
y
so that it
line.
The
long, being, respectively,
draw
a
line
of the
tq8n
San Francisco
 
the
In
a
enlistment
and
that
capacity,
cers)
Second
Lieutenant
Mister.
the second,
Line and the various
is
Receiving ship
Wabash, Navy
Receiving ship
S.
mouth, N.
be
be accepted
will
be
accepted
with-
ing ratings of men within the limits of
age
pay.
All
pay.
Enlisted
men
detailed
as
crew
messmen
while
detailed
as
signalmen
first class,
ing
having
been
honorably
ratings to as
30
three-quarters of the full
as
such,
and,
owing
to
in the
artificer branch,
electrician, plumber, painter, etc. is enlisted directly
as such.
Naval Apprentices.
ship. He has from one to three or four assist-
ants, according to the size
of
the
ship.
It
the
cleanliness
of
are
If
a
the
deck
without
an
to
the
same
weight
record
of
weather,
stand
and
two
or
more
for
the
pay
department.
Commissary
Steward.
annually
from
for
appointment
by
his
from his
are officers
wish to fit
Francisco,
than
are maintained,
and any
:
at Washington;
the
question
of
food
for
the
men
is
 
reach.
THE
ORGANIZATION
OF
and leaving
accounts,
money,
stores,
and
The
captain
watch,
as
to look
duties by
a
corps
of
specialists,
but
the
the Line,
he
at
tions against an
or
wreck.
a
force.
Hardly
a
year
passes
without
station, whether
this be
to lead
become
excitement,
even
sounded,
whether
at
the
regular
morning
hour
either
and signals; and,
the gun's
Other
the
men
of
the
outlined
above
9.00
Knock-off
bright
at
guns
or
elsewhere,
to
the
executive
12.00
Dinner.
1.00
P.
Muster anchor
except that the
4 to 6 p.
watch
Midnight
to
4 to
8 A.
M Morning
6
12 o'clock, noon,
p. m
man should
or
not.
3.
When
an
officer
is
in
the
per-
formance of his duty, it is not required that men shall
salute
But
it
courtesy
comes on board, in uniform,
the
signal
for
 silence
is
near
another
by
officer, stand
to a
place for formal
and
to
avoid
these
and
to
to
strike
a
mean
and
associating
mating
to
those
of
the
fast
a
a
battle
ship,
by
reason
of
the
displacement
of
12,500
T.,
 
3,
belongs
ships
in
guns
and
a
very
small
this
type
was
landing
operations.
Cutters
used
on
launches
of
the
U.
technically
known
as
small
arms)
are
of
ranging
from
firing
500
shots
per
min.,
a
which
to be
wards
to
the
obtain rapidity
case
and
gripped
and loaded
in
the
efficiency
of
a
limit
adds
anything
transmit the strain
of
all
together,
but one after the other, from inside out, each one taking
a
little
less
than
stretched
beyond
the
one
larger
than
the
other
the
larger is slightly less than the outer diameter of the
smaller.
set,
the
result
will
be
two-fold:
first,
under
these
conditions
a
tube,
running
the
whole
length
here
than
wall
are
like
and
heated
to
a
high
tem-
perature
and
such
as
the
tube,
jacket,
and
to
rough
metal.
for
the
outer
shrinkage
dimensions,
the
tube
is
jected
to
a
inside
out.
placed
hoops
are
placed
or
hoops,
shoulders,
to resist
a
gun
the diameter
clear
for
load-
ing.
In
closing
the
and
guns
of
smaller
caliber,
guns
by
by
a
single
sweep
of
a
caliber
and
above,
and
the
may
first
rotate
a
escape
is
such
that
being
set
out
tightly
against
a
ring
mushroom
w
(see
Fig.
4)
. As
powder
are
base of
the
escape
ship;
and
from what
has preceded.
ing
guns
where
way through
pered
steel.
They
differ
a
ship
and
to
difference may
explode; whereas
had
no
while
it
(the
point)
was
Time
fuses
are
course,
very
impor-
tant
t . M
enough to
resist any
Fig. 2
through
several
channels
(not
shown)
In
of
a
spring
Base
penetration.
This
makes
shell,
instead
impact
against
space.
GUN
MOUNTS
The
the
gun
automatically
to
the
firing
position
(technically,
 to
gun,
The piston rod
admit of
the
beginning
of
motion,
toward
the
oppo-
and
depth
their
resistance
being
added
to
that
The
little
power
required
is
furnished
by
a
beveled
ship.
The
training
the instant when
in
framework
gun
furnishes
rammer is
the
mechanism
are

^
There
of the
the
combustion
to
be
oxidized
and
the
substances
it
a
shock,
the
original arrangement of its components is broken up, and the
oxygen
detonation is many
other, as, for example,
Place the
it
is
danger is
explosives that, while having
sensitive to
sensitive,
and
much less sensitive to
sensitive,
but
when
of
the
a
known,
and
therefore
one
of
the
It is, how-
substance that
fuses for exploding
If the
its
instanta-
picric acid arises
of
iron,
as is
the fulminate
handling
imporliant
oxidizable
substance,
charcoal
Broadly
from these
that
it
is
closely
guarded,
but
lay in
exceeded,
the
to
but
with-
out
its
English artillerists
at
slowly
at
first,
developing
a
pressure
that,
motion
so
would lower the pressure if it were not that more
and
more
gas
not
only
maintained
but
the
from the outside
holes with which many forms of powder
grains are pierced.
Various forms of granulation are
shown
in
the
figure,
page
223,
each
form
being
smokeless;
15,
12-in.
In
the
Whitehead
torpedo,
use,
this
power
is
supplied
air being
torpedo. Fig.
Reference
to
this
of the water on the other side of the diaphragm.
If
the
spring, the
other way,
at
the
it is desired to have it run at 10 ft.
below the
spring is
then screwed
the
the
force
the
that it is
is
opened
just
before
the
tube,
being
governed
by
a
torpedo in
must be
resistance
of
the
water
throws
down
the shaft
from the ten-
steering
assumed that the
bear,
gear
is
a
its
original
the
final
course
properly be
and
are
fired
tube.
An
overwater
but
the
torpedo;
7,
third
sighting
the
discussion
has
ended,
so
far
to
is
found
when
most
hope
the
drive
the
of
displaces
a
10,000 T.
of water.
Provided that
this volume
are to
the
ship
bility
of
at rest
section
G.
The
distance
G
a
lever,
at
the
In
this
case,
acts,
cuts
the
her
back
to
an
upright
position.
If
a
rolling
given
midship
section
unsupported,
as
keel, while
shown
a
second
and
This
longitudinal framing
are
called
keelsons,
keel-
son,
and the
were
continuous.
the
keelson,
bracket
Fig.
4
as
indicated
in
Fig.
6.
At
flat type,
framing
along
a
double
bottom.
each
nals
are
therefore
upper
edge
of
the
side
armor.
Such
a
deck
may
armor plate.
is invariably of steel,
that are
found to
hardness,
to
resist
penetration,
and
used
for
ships
was
of
wrought
in
welding
a
a
better
solution
of
back are combined without the
weld,
each other,
of
wrought
iron,
since
has
a
latest battle ships,
as
if
when the propeller is
by
the
constant
X
sure acting on the pistons is ascertained by attaching to
the cylinder an instrument called the
indicator, which
registers on
steam
pressure.
The
water
by
the
total
called the
of
displacement.
Knowing
the
extreme
being
.6,
the
displacement
^.jj^^
100X20
X8X_-6
a
They
Title
XLVIII,
internal capacity
tonnage,
21,000;
vessel are
certain
speed
comes
a
steamer.
the
propelling
instrument,
that
projected
the stream
speed,
per hour, the
follows
that
Example
speed
of
12
kn.
find
103X80
1,250
12
coaling
station
with
the
the
total
quantity
is 75
ufacture of
plant of that
flexibility;
6
mo.,
or
even
1
10%
soon
as
made.
sionally used
is
its
buoy-
Jteart.
The
primary
object
of
of
form
and
would
spread
is
largely
each
being
made
up
a
hemp
stiffer
than
those
with
hemp
making
a
smaller
angle
with
outside
strands,
are
not
able
to
accommodate
therefore, carry
process
is
par-
tially
annealing
it
while
it
its
weight
of
lampblack,
thus
giving
it
in the
proportion
of about 1 bu. to 1 bar. of tar. The mixture
is boiled thor-
Composed of
at
the
Fig.
1
splice
is
the
splice,
no
is twisted
to the
fc»=>*^^**
strands
should
be
tucked
the strands,
the strands
taut and dispose
the
required
out
where
part,
next
to
the
other
half
under
its
correspond-
ing
of the
stranded
rope.
the
rope
other strands, the
overhand
knot
Fig.
5
order
each
strand
will
come
matter under
they
pass
as
long
as
they
make the tucks
tools,
such
as
are
shown
in
Fig.
7,
and
a
size,
the
single
or
double
of
two
and the
the standing
thus completing
its load;
it
bends and
hitches shown
sea
and
on
land.
But
as are
a
less
a
good
barometer
usually
stands,
on
with
or before polar and easterly winds than it does with or
before
equatorial
The
terms
torial
parts
by
in
(southerly in north latitudes, northerly
in the southern
and fine weather,
density
as it
clouds look
will prove. Also, that
by
instruments,
study
but
from
the
in north
A steady barometer, with dry and seasonable
tempera-
A rapid fall,.with westerly winds,
indicates stormy
air and the
indicates
snow.
A
fall,
after
the aneroid apply
to northern latitudes;
Thus, in
motion of
to left;
in the
of
should
may
be
drawn,
namely,
that
if
we
assume
the
be
center c
 
on
which
tack
a
confronted with
farther aft
and,
of
nevertheless, of
so as
hurricane
pleasant weather;
Equally
suspicious
is
a
strong
easterly
foresee
left in southern latitudes.
within the storm
the ship
in relation
the
right, the
as at
by
a
rising
Avoid Center.
storm
the
storm,
starboard
tack.
Vessels,
especially
steamships,
ship's
course
should
be
danger.
Every
precaution
should
then
be
be
seen,
now
and
stand the
approach of
fluctuations
P.
greater
than
tV
season
of
appearance
consult
the
July,
1898.
wind or
gale met
the
atmospheric
of
the
more
State to
If
the Philippine
master of the
ing the beare
use on
January 1,
ing pennant. Its object is to supply
means of
each
matter
and the other
language
latitude, longitude,
and
instruc-
to
be
HOIST
One-Flag
Signal.
A B
--
M
system
lookout,
commercial
lines:
addressed
to
the
expected
approach
of
extremely
severe
and
displayed
together
or
separately,
shall
be
deemed
by
the
Life-Saving
Service
of
by day, or
by day, or two torches
burning near
launching
of
a
and
Albany;
speed
about
5
kn.
1811
 The
India.
1825
 William
Jan.
31;
an
vessels are not
actually
completed;
gunboats
and
other
addition to the usual electrical appliances to be found on
board present-day ocean
approaching,
overtaken, and the officer in charge of the deck is
thus in
There
including
with elec-
wipe dry
as to
expel
water
above the
arm
pass.
Just
before
the
from
the
waist
the
(about 5 sec).
in
which
it
was
first
turned,
for
respi-
hr.,
or
a
time,
after
the
and
Thus
the
limbs
and energy,
using the
body can also
heated
let the patient be stripped of
all
wet
liable
to
able
MODIFICATION OF TREATMENT IN CASE NO
ASSIST-
ANT
a
be
arms to the
and
toward
the
etc.
Remarks.
his admission,
forever
all
allegiance
and
fidelity
the alien has
at
has behaved
on
board
a
any
competent
court,
cer-
Navy or Marine
considered
as
citizens
thereof.
Chinese.
In
nearly
one-half
of
residence.
Even
after
5
Clearance
of
vessel
of
.50
Entry
of vessel under 100 T. from foreign port 1 .50
Clearance
foreign
port
1
permit
on
performed
by
the
Surveyor
in
vessels
T.,
of these
either goes
S.
and
is
confident
the
position of
Course
for
the
benefit
received
from
it.
COAL
is
electrician
steamers and has been given
an
to the
successfully
passed
examination
mate on
ocean steam
for
a
mate's
certificate.
Coast
and
Geodetic
masters,
BECOMES
in the
liberty to refer
great
pleasure
to
recommend
the
earning
875
a
on
a
steamer,
earning
S45
so
per-
treated
and
that
master or
in the
I. C.
Navy. At
present he
service
master Course;
and at
I. C. S.
for
impressed me most
to recommend
secure
and,
to pass the
would fit
on one of
Course
is
one
of
S.
Marine
Engineers'
Course.
By
studying
FIREMAN
NEW
YORK
have never
fact that
Ocean
Naviga-
a
few
able
to
pleasure
expressing my extremely high
hat to
whoever he
* * *
who
stands
greatly
Navigation
Course
his
profession.
SALARY
INCREASED
100
PER
CENT.
Peter
J.
he