The Kite Runner

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The Kite Runner. By Khaled Hosseini. Biography – Early Childhood. Khaled Hosseini was born in Kabul, Afghanistan His father worked with the Afghan Foreign Ministry His mother taught taught Farsi and History at a girls high school In 1970, Hosseini moved with his parents to Paris, France - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Kite Runner

  • The Kite RunnerBy Khaled Hosseini

  • Biography Early ChildhoodKhaled Hosseini was born in Kabul, Afghanistan His father worked with the Afghan Foreign MinistryHis mother taught taught Farsi and History at a girls high schoolIn 1970, Hosseini moved with his parents to Paris, FranceIn 1973 the family returned to KabulIn 1980 the family sought political asylum in The United States

  • Biography - EducationHosseini graduated high school in 1984Obtained his bachelors degree in biology from Santa Clara University in 1988Earned his medical degree in 1993 from the University of California

  • Biography Interesting Facts

    In June 2006 he was awarded the 2006 Humanitarian Award from the UN Refugee Agency. There are currently more than 3.6 million paperback copies of The Kite Runner in print

  • Biography - InfluencesAs a child, Hosseini read a great deal of Persian poetry as well as Persian translations of novelsHis memories of peaceful pre-Soviet era Afghanistan, as well as his personal experiences with Afghan Hazaras, led to the writing of The Kite Runner

    Statue of Khayyam, Persian poet and philosopher at his mausoleum in Neyshabur.

  • Biography - NovelsThe Kite Runner is Hosseinis first novelIt is also the first novel published in English by an AfghanThe novel, tells the story of two young boys in an Afghanistan that precedes the bloody communist coup, Soviet invasion, and the rise of the Taliban. The novel traverses decadesand continentsbringing American readers into a world theyve rarely glimpsed, of violence and poverty and tragic betrayal. At the same time, its a universal tale of friendship, redemption and profound hope. The novel was the number three best seller for 2005 in the United StatesA movie by the same name is set to be released in November 2007A Thousand Splendid Suns is due to be released in May of 2007

  • Biography Perspective on American Agenda in AfghanistanThe two major issues in Afghanistan are a lack of security outside Kabul (particularly in the South and East) and the powerful warlords ruling over the provinces with little or no allegiance to the central government. The other rapidly rising concern is the narcotic trade which, if not dealt with, may turn Afghanistan into another Bolivia or Colombia. Equally important is the lack of cultivable land for farmers Afghanistan has always largely been an agricultural country, and that even before the wars destroyed lands and irrigation canals, only 5 per cent of the land was cultivable. The Bush administration tripled its aid package to Afghanistan. Karzai finally (and courageously) announced that warlords will be forbidden from holding office in the future government. NATO agreed to expand the peacekeeping forces to troubled areas outside of Kabul

  • Biography - Links

  • The People and Cultural Atmosphere of AfghanistanEnglish 4U: The Kite Runner

  • Culture: Definition(s)The behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, racial or ethnic group. (ie. Pashtun)Also, a particular form or stage of civilization (as it pertains to the development of a nation).Further, the development or improvement of the mind by education or training. (ie. Miss McKee is cultured!)

  • Map 1 of Afghanistan

  • Introduction:Afghanistan lies across ancient trade and invasion routes from central Asia into India. This geographic position has been the greatest influence on its history and culture. Invaders often came there and stayed.

  • Trade Route: The Silk Road

  • Ancient City Gates

  • Present Population For the most part, Afghans are farmers, although a significant minority follows a nomadic lifestyle. In the years since the Soviet invasion and the later civil war, a large number of Afghans have fled the country and become refugees in neighboring nations, most typically in Iran and Pakistan. Present Estimates place Afghanistans population at approx. 25 million

  • The Afghans The population of Afghanistan is comprised of a variety of ethnic groups called Afghans. The largest of these groups are: - Pashtun - Tajiks - Hazara

  • Borders? What Borders?The people of Afghanistan are related to many of the ethnic groups in Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan; the borders drawn between these groups are arbitrary.

  • The PashtunsThe Pashtuns (Pushtuns), who make up the majority of the population, have traditionally been the dominant ethnic group. Their homeland lies south of the Hindu Kush, although Pashtun groups live in all parts of the country. Male Pashtuns live by ancient tribal code called Pashtunwali, which stresses courage, personal honor, resolution, self-reliance, and hospitality. The Pashtuns speak Pashto, which is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

  • Pashtun Rider

  • The TajiksThe Tajiks (Tadzhiks),are the second largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. They live in the valleys north of Kabul and in Badakhshan. They are farmers, artisans, and merchants. The Tajiks speak Dari (Afghan Persian), the 2nd official language.

  • An Artisan of Badakhshan

  • The HazarasIn the central ranges live the Hazaras. Although their ancestors came from a region in northwestern China, the Hazaras speak an archaic (old) Persian. Most are poor farmers and sheepherders. The Hazaras have long been discriminated against. In part, this is because they are minority Shiites (followers of Shia Islam) within a dominant Sunni Muslim population.Most Hazaras live north of the Kabul River in an isolated, wooded, mountainous region known as Noristan.

  • North of the Kabul River

  • The Hazaras

    The Hazaras are of particular importance in our study of The Kite Runner for reasons that will become apparent as you read the novel.

  • Religious DivisionsThe strongest tie among these various ethnic groups is their religion: Islam. The majority of Afghans (99 percent) are Muslims. The population is thus split along religious lines: Sunni (84%) and Shi`a (15%).Each of these two religious groups has its own set of beliefs and traditions. Ostensibly, each has its own culture.Note: The minority Shiites are made up of the Hazaras and Tajiks, whereas the Sunnis are Pashtun.

  • Behaviors and Beliefs

  • IslamAn outline of the belief system of Islam is far beyond the scope of this presentation, of course, though indeed we can list some major tenets, as well as some differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims.

  • from the Quran The Messenger of God said, Islam is built on five pillars: bearing witness that there is no god but God and Muhammad is His prophet, establishing the prayer, giving zakat, hajj, and fasting during Ramadan.

  • The Five Pillars of IslamThe Testimony of Faith (Shahadah) - the declaration that there is none worthy of worship except Allah (God) and that Muhammad is his messenger. Ritual Prayer (Salat) - establishing of the five daily Prayers. Obligatory almsgiving (Zakat) - which is generally 2.5% of the total savings for a rich man working in trade or industry, and 10% or 20% of the annual produce for agriculturists. This money or produce is distributed among the poor. Fasting (Sawm) from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. The Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) - this is done during the month of Zul Hijjah, and is compulsory once in a lifetime for one who has the ability to do it. If the Muslim is in ill health or in debt, he or she is not required to perform Hajj.). Note: Mecca is in Saudi Arabia.

  • Sunni vs. Shia in AfghanistanSunni Muslims comprise the vast majority of the population of Afghanistan. Shiites are in the minority and suffer under the domination of the stronger group. Elsewhere in the world, this is often reversed. In Iran, for example, Shiites are the more powerful group. To complicate things, a minority group can also have the power as was the case in Iraq, and is still is in places such as Bahrain.

  • Disagreement among Muslims?

  • Sunni vs. Shia ContinuedShia Muslims believe that the descendents from Muhammad through his beloved daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali (the Imams) were the best source of knowledge about the Qur'an and Islam, the most trusted carriers and protectors of Muhammad's traditions. In particular, Shia Muslims recognize the authority of Ali - Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law, and the first young man to accept Islam. He is the father of the Prophet Muhammad's only bloodline. This is directly opposed to that of the caliphate recognized by Sunni Muslims. Shia Muslims believe that Ali was appointed successor by Muhammad's direct order on many occasions, and that he is therefore the rightful leader of the Muslim faith.

  • The Caliphs (Sunni Tradition)A Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. It means "successor" or "representative". The early leaders of the Muslim nation following Muhammad's (570632) death were called "Khalifat ar-rasul Allah", meaning the politic