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  • Chapter 2 The internet , The web and Electronic commerce

    1

    By: M.Hazazi

    The internet and the web

    Internet lunched in 1969

    National computer network called: Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET).

    The internet is : -Large network that connects together smaller networks all over the global.

    - Actual network.

    - madding up of wires, cables, satellites, and rules of exchanging information between computers

    Connected to the network.

    Being connected to this network is often described as being online.

    The web was introduced at the Center for European Nuclear Research (CERN).

    Before Web, internet was all text.

    Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the internet.

    1st generation of Web is Web1.0 focused on linking information

    2ndgeneration of Web isWeb2.0focused on supporting more dynamic content creation and social interaction. Example; FACEBOOK

    3rdgeneration of Web isWeb3.0 focused on computer-generated information requiring less human

    interaction to locate and integrate information.

    The internet and the web have evolved into one of the most powerful tools of the 21st century.

    Most common use of the internet and web:-

    1. Communication: is by far the most popular internet activity.

    2. Shopping: is one of the fastest-growing internet applications.

    3. Searching: for information has never been more convenient. You can find the latest local, national, and international news.

    4. Education or e-learning: is another rapidly emerging web application. You can take classes on almost any subject.

    5. Entertainment: options are nearly endless. You find music, movies, magazines, and computer games.

    The first step to using the internet and the web is to get connected, or to gain accessto the internet.

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    By: M.Hazazi

    Access Once you are on the internet, your computer become an extension of what seems like a giant computer

    A computer that branches all over the world.

    Providers:

    The most common way to access the internet is through an Internet Service provider (ISP).

    The providers are already connected to the internet and provide a path or connections for individuals

    to access the internet.

    ISP use different connection technology like DSL , CABLE and WIRLESS MODEM

    The most widely used commercial Internet service providers are:

    1. National service providers:

    Like Verizon, AT&T, Sprint and T-Mobile.

    They provide access through standard telephone line, cable or wireless connections.

    Users can access the internet from almost anywhere within the country for a standard fee without

    incurring long-distance telephone charge.

    2. Wireless service providers:

    Offer internet connections for computers with wireless modems and a wide array of

    Wireless device.

    Browser:

    Browsers are programs that provide access to web recourses.

    This software connects you to remote computers, opens and transfers files, displays text and images.

    Provides in one tool in uncomplicated interface to the internet and web documents.

    Browsers allow you to explore, or to surf, the web by easily moving from one web site to another.

    Four well-unknown browsers are:

    Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, Microsoft Internet Explorer, and Google Chrome.

    For browsers to connect to resources the location or address of the resources must be specified,these

    addresses are called Uniform Resource Locators (URLs).

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    By: M.Hazazi

    URLs have two parts:

    1. The 1st part presents the protocol used to connect to resources.

    a. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers.

    b. The protocol http is used for web traffic and is most widely used internet protocol.

    2. The 2nd part presents the domain name.

    a. It indicates the specific address where the resource is located.

    b. The last part the domain name following the dot (.) is the top-level domain (TLD). It identifies the

    type of organization.

    Once the browser has connected to the web site, a document file is sent back to your computer. This

    document is typically contains HypertextMarkup Language (HTML). The browser intercepts HTML

    formatting instructions and displays the document as a web page.

    Web pages also can contain special programming to add intercept and activity. A language called

    JavaScript is often used to trigger simple interactive features such as opening new browser window

    and checking information entered in online forms.

    An advanced use of JavaScript called AJAX. This technology is used to create interactive web sites that

    respond quickly, like traditional desktop application software.

    Applets are written in the Java programming language.

    The Java Applets are used to presents animation, display graphics; provide interactive games, and

    much more.

    Access the internet from variety for mobile device like cell phones. Special browsers called mobile

    browsers are designed on these portable devices.

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    By: M.Hazazi

    Communication Is the most popular internet activity.

    E-mail:-

    o E-mail or electronic mail is the transmission of electronic message over the internet.

    Two basic types of e-mail account are:

    Client based E-mail account; required a special program on your computer known as

    e-mail client.

    Example: Windows Mail, Mozilla Thunderbird and Apples Mail.

    Web based E-mail account;do not required a special program on your computer. Once your

    computer connects to an e-mail service provider, special program called Webmail client is run

    on the email provider server.

    Example: Gmail, Hotmail, and Yahoo.

    A typical e-mail message has 3 basic elements:

    1. Header:

    Appears first and typically includes the following information:

    A. Addresses:

    E-mail addresses have two 2 basic parts:

    The first part is the users name

    The second part is domain name, which includes the top-level domain.

    For example [email protected]

    B. Subjects:

    A one line description, used to present the topic of the message.

    Subject lines typically are displayed when a person checks his or her mailbox.

    C. Attachments:

    Allow you to attach files such as documents and image files.

    2. The letter or message

    3. Signature

    Provides additional information about the sender.

    The information may include the senders name, address, and telephone number.

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    Unwelcomed mail is called spam.

    In an attempt to control spam, anti-virus laws have been added to our legal system.

    Instant Messaging (IM):-

    Allows two or more people to contact each other via direct, live communication.

    Most instant messaging programs also include video conferencing features, file sharing, and remote

    assistance.

    The most widely used instant messaging services are:

    AOLs instant messaging/ Microsofts MSN Messenger/Yahoo Messenger /Google Talk.

    One limitation= doesnt support communication with other Instant Messaging programs.

    Solution = versal instant messenger

    Example; Digsby /Pidgin /Qnext

    Social network:-

    One of the fastest-growing uses of the internet is social networking, or connecting individuals to one

    another.

    There are 3 broad categories:

    1. Reuniting sites:

    - Are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch.

    - Example:Classmates Online and Facebook.

    2. Friend-of-a-friend sites:

    - Are designed to bring together two people who dont know one another but share common

    friend.

    - Example: Friendster and MySpace.

    3. Common interest sites:

    Bring together individuals that share common interest or hobbies

    Examples: LinkedIn and Meetup.

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    By: M.Hazazi

    Blogs, micro blogs, webcast, podcast and wikis

    Blogs

    Many individuals create personal web sites, called web blogs or blogs, to keep in touch with friend

    and family.

    Example :blogger and Word Press.

    Micro blogs

    Publishes short sentences that only take a few seconds to write, rather than long stories or posts like

    a traditional blog.

    Example:twitter.

    Webcast &podcast

    Both of them deliver media content like music and movie over the internet.

    Webcast = use streaming like ; YouTube

    Podcast = do not use streaming

    Wikis

    A wiki is a web site specially designed to allow visitors to fill in missing information or correct

    inaccuracies.

    Example is Wikipedia.

    Create blogs and wikis are example of web authoring

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    Search tools

    Search devices

    Maintain huge database relating o information provided on the web and the internet.

    Special program called, spiders continually look for new information and update the search devices.

    Search Engines: example: google / yahoo / bing / ask

    Specia