The International Magazine on Banana and Plantain ... INFOMUSA The International Magazine on Banana...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    12-Mar-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    5
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of The International Magazine on Banana and Plantain ... INFOMUSA The International Magazine on Banana...

  • INFOMUSAINFOMUSA The International Magazine on Banana and Plantain

    INFOMUSA is published with the support of the Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA).

    CTA

    Vol. 9 No. 1 June 2000

    IN THIS ISSUE Survey of banana endophytic fungi from Central America and screening for biological control of R. similis

    Screening of Fusarium wilt resistant bananas to root- lesion nematodes

    Resistance of Vietnamese Musa germplasm to nematodes

    Somatic embryogenesis in liquid media. Maturation and enhancement of germination of FHIA-18

    Improvement of FHIA-21 hybrid by mutagenesis in vitro

    Evaluation of Musa spp. for resistance to Moko

    Multilocational evaluation of FHIA hybrids in Ghana

    Survey on bananas in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Round table on cooking banana in subtropical zones

    Which banana variety should I grow?

    MusaNews

    Thesis

    Books etc.

    Announcements

    INIBAP News

    PROMUSA News

  • 2 INFOMUSA — Vol 9, N° 1

    Vol. 9, No. 1

    Cover photo: Roadside hawkers in India (S. Uma, NRCB)

    Publisher: International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain

    Managing editor: Claudine Picq

    Editorial Committee: Emile Frison, Jean-Vincent Escalant, Suzanne Sharrock Printed in France ISSN 1023-0076

    Editorial Office: INFOMUSA, INIBAP, Parc Scientifique Agropolis II, 34397 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Telephone + 33-(0)4 67 61 13 02; Telefax: + 33-(0)4 67 61 03 34; E-mail: inibap@cgiar.org

    Subscriptions are free for developing countries readers. Article contributions and letters to the editor are welcomed. Articles accepted for publication may be edited for length and clarity. INFOMUSA is not responsible for unsolicited mater- ial, however, every effort will be made to respond to queries. Please allow three months for replies. Unless accompanied by a copyright notice, articles appearing in INFOMUSA may be quoted or repro- duced without charge, provided acknowl- edgement is given of the source. French-language and Spanish-language editions of INFOMUSA are also published. To avoid missing issues of INFOMUSA, no- tify the editorial office at least six weeks in advance of a change of address.

    Views expressed in articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of INIBAP.

    INFOMUSA Vol. 9, No. 1

    CONTENTS

    Survey of banana endophytic fungi from Central America and biological screening for control of the burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) ............................................................................................3

    Screening of Fusarium wilt resistant bananas to root-lesion nematodes....................................................................................6

    Screening of Vietnamese Musa germplasm for resistance and tolerance to root-knot and root-lesion nematodes in the greenhouse ..............................................................................................8

    Somatic embryogenesis in liquid media. Maturation and enhancement of germination of the hybrid cultivar FHIA-18 (AAAB) ................................................................................................12

    Improvement of the hybrid plantain clone FHIA-21 by mutagenesis in vitro ....................................................................................16

    Evaluation of Musa spp. for resistance to Moko disease (Ralstonia solanacearum, race 2)........................................................................................19

    Multilocational evaluation of FHIA hybrids in Ghana ..........................................20

    Results of a survey on bananas conducted among farmers in the Democratic Republic of Congo ............................................................................................22

    Round table on cooking banana in subtropical zones ........................................24

    – Preliminary study on the advantages of the cooking banana ‘Topocho verde’ (ABB) for the Canary Islands ................................................24

    – The importance of plantains and cooking bananas in Africa: outlets for the subtropical zones ..............................................................................................25

    – Cooking bananas – Classification, production and utilization in South-East Asia ....................................................................................................................28

    Which banana variety should I grow? ..................................................................31

    MusaNews................................................................................................................34

    Thesis........................................................................................................................37

    Books etc. ................................................................................................................39

    Announcements ......................................................................................................39

    INIBAP News ............................................................................................................40

    PROMUSA News ....................................................................................................I-IV

    The mission of the International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain is to sustainably increase the productivity of banana and plantain grown on smallholdings for domestic consumption and for local and export markets.

    The Programme has four specific objectives:

    • To organize and coordinate a global research effort on banana and plantain, aimed at the development, evaluation and dissemination of improved cultivars and at the conservation and use of Musa diversity

    • To promote and strengthen collaboration and partnerships in banana-related research activities at the national, regional and global levels

    • To strengthen the ability of NARS to conduct research and development activi- ties on bananas and plantains

    • To coordinate, facilitate and support the production, collection and exchange of information and documentation related to banana and plantain.

    INIBAP is a programme of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), a Future Harvest Centre.

    INFOMUSAINFOMUSA The International Magazine on Banana and Plantain

    INFOMUSA is published with the support of the Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA).

    CTA

    Vol. 9 No. 1 June 2000

    IN THIS ISSUE Survey of banana endophytic fungi from Central America and screening for biological control of R. similis

    Screening of Fusarium wilt resistant bananas to root- lesion nematodes

    Resistance of Vietnamese Musa germplasm to nematodes

    Somatic embryogenesis in liquid media. Maturation and enhancement of germination of FHIA-18

    Improvement of FHIA-21 hybrid by mutagenesis in vitro

    Evaluation of Musa spp. for resistance to Moko

    Multilocational evaluation of FHIA hybrids in Ghana

    Survey on bananas in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Round table on cooking banana in subtropical zones

    Which banana variety should I grow?

    MusaNews

    Thesis

    Books etc.

    Announcements

    INIBAP News

    PROMUSA News

  • L. Pocasangre, R.A. Sikora, V. Vilich and R.P. Schuster

    Fungi that colonise healthy planttissue and either persist there ina dormant phase or initiate more extensive but symptomless infections are known as endophytes (Carroll 1988, Boddy and Griffith 1989, Yates et al. 1997). When the colonisation leads to a protection of the tissue against bi- otic and/or abiotic stress, these fungi are called mutualistic (Carroll 1990, Latch 1993).

    A survey of endophytic fungi was car- ried out in Central America during January to February 1997. The surveyed countries were Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Cuba in the Caribbean. Eight banana planta- tions were sampled in the region. Twenty-one different Musa spp. culti- vars were sampled, including dessert banana, cooking banana and plantain belonging to seven different Musa genomes: AA, AB, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAAB and AABB.

    The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne is the most im- portant nematode species in banana and plantain production in Central America, West Africa and Australia (Pinochet 1986, Sarah 1989, Schipke and Ramsey 1994). Conventional planting material (suckers) is mainly responsible for the dispersion of nema- todes into new banana plantations.

    The use of tissue culture plantlets pro- vides pest free planting material. How- ever it is well known that tissue cul- ture plantlets are more susceptible to nematodes and Fusarium wilt than suckers (Musanews 1997, Smith et al. 1998). This susceptibility of tissue cul- ture plantlets may be caused by the fact that the plantlets are produced under aseptic conditions and are free of mutualistic fungi, which could in- crease root health status of these plants.

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the natural incidence of endo- phytic fungi on healthy plants of differ- ent banana cultivars in Central Amer- ica and determine the effect of these fungi on the rate of reproduction of R. similis in inoculated and noninocu- lated tissue culture plantlets on four commercial banana cultivars.

    Material and methods Countries surveyed in Central America Root and corm tissue samples were collected from eight banana planta- tions from three cou