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  • The Future is Now: Recruiting, Retaining, and Developing the 21st Century Jail Workforce

    Authors: Jeanne B. Stinchcomb, Ph.D.

    Susan W. McCampbell Leslie Leip, Ph.D.

    Center for Innovative Public Policies, Inc. 1880 Crestview Way, Naples, Florida 34119

    (239) 297-5906 Web:

    This project is supported by Grant No. 2007-DDBXK172 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau

    of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Office for Victims of Crime. Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the

    author and do not represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

    The final draft of this document was submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, on March 27, 2009. It is now being reviewed, and subsequently, will be edited and reformatted for publication by BJA. In the meantime, any attributions, citations, or references to material from this document must clearly indicate that it is a pre-publication draft. For updated information on publication progress, see

  • Table of Contents

    Acknowledgements i

    Executive Summary iv

    Chapter One: Building the 21st Century Jail Workforce: The Future is Now 1

    Setting National Priorities - Jail Leaders Speak Identifying National Workforce Trends - Implications for Jails Aligning the Workforce with the Work to be Done Accommodating Multiple Generations in the Workplace Integrating Recruitment, Retention, and Succession Planning Confronting these Workforce Challenges - Project Methodology Leading the Way - Where Do We Go from Here? References Chapter Two: Recruitment and Selection: Bringing the Best and the Brightest on Board 17 The Strategic Recruitment Planning Process Taking it Step-by-Step Building the Foundation Analyzing Related Information

    Developing the Action Plan Implementing and Evaluating the Strategic Recruitment Plan

    Conclusion Helpful Hints Ideas that Work References Chapter Three: Employee Retention: Keeping the Workers You Worked So Hard to Find 55

    The Recruitment-Retention-Culture Connection Turning Off the Turnover Developing a Strategic Employee Retention Plan When the Honeymoon Ends - Why Staff Stay Keeping the Flame Burning- Initiatives to Maintain Commitment Conclusion Helpful Hints Ideas that Work References

  • Chapter Four: Leadership Development: Advancing the Organization in the 21st Century 103

    The Upcoming Leadership Crisis The Next Generation of Jail Leaders Designing a Leadership Development Initiative Building the Foundation Analyzing Related Information, Policies, Procedures & Options Developing the Action Plan

    Implementing and Evaluating the Program Conclusion Helpful Hints Ideas that Work References Additional Resources Chapter Five: Bringing it All Together: Strategies for Success 136 A Call to Action Doing Nothing is Not an Option Plotting the RoadmapWhere are We Going & How Do We Get There Assessing the Costs and Addressing Culture Appendix A: Project Methodology 145

    Appendix B: Ideas that Work Contact Information 158

    Appendix C: Annotated Bibliography 162

    Appendix D: Summary of National Jail Workforce Survey Results 188

    Appendix E: Subsidiary Reports from the National Jail Workforce Survey 203 Impact of a Unionized Workforce

    Hiring for Road Patrol/Law Enforcement from Jail Employees

    Appendix F: About the Authors 213

  • 2009 Center for Innovative Public Policies, Inc.



    The Center for Innovative Public Policies joins sheriffs and jail administrators throughout

    the country in thanking the U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of

    Justice Assistance (BJA) for their farsighted commitment to addressing the pressing workforce-

    related issues facing the nations jails. We are grateful to BJAs leadership for recognizing the

    necessity of this project and supporting its development, especially Andrew Molloy, Associate

    Deputy Director; Gary Dennis, Ph.D., Senior Policy Advisor for Corrections; Julius C. Dupree,

    Jr., Policy Advisor; and Thurston L. Bryant, Policy Advisor.

    We are equally indebted to the National Advisory Panel whose ongoing oversight,

    contributions, and direction maximized the value of the final product to the field. Representing

    jails of all sizes, organizational structures, and geographic regions, these advisors gave

    generously of their time and effort throughout the development of the project. They are:

    Deloris B. Charlton, Jail Administrator, Barnwell County Detention Center, South


    James E. Coleman, Chief Jailer, Shelby County Sheriffs Office, Tennessee;

    Russ Davis, Administrator, Santa Ana City Jail, California;

    Kathleen M. Dennehy, Superintendent of Operations (retired), Bristol County

    Sheriffs Office, Massachusetts;

    Ron Freeman, Chief Deputy, Ada County Sheriffs Office, Idaho;

    Delores Greyeyes, Director, Navajo Nation Department of Corrections, Arizona;

    Julius B. Hopkins, Jail Administrator, Story County Sheriffs Office, Iowa;

    Bobbi Luna, Captain, Multnomah County Sheriffs Office, Oregon;

    Michael D. McCoy, Sheriff, Peoria County Sheriffs Office, Illinois;

    J. Grayson Robinson, Sheriff, Arapahoe County Sheriffs Office, Colorado;

    Ramon C. Rustin, Warden, Allegheny County Jail, Pennsylvania;

    John H. Rutherford, Sheriff, Jacksonville Sheriffs Office, Florida;

    David L. Simons, Superintendent, Western Tidewater Regional Jail, Virginia;

    James N. Sylvester, Chief Deputy, Travis County Sheriffs Office, Texas;

    Carolyn Thomas, Chief of Department, City of New York Department of Correction;

  • 2009 Center for Innovative Public Policies, Inc.


    Timothy P. Ryan, Director, Miami-Dade Department of Corrections and

    Rehabilitation, Florida;

    A. T. Wall, Director, Rhode Island Department of Corrections;

    Mark Welch, Jail Administrator, Finney County Sheriffs Office, Kansas; and

    John E. Wetzel, Warden, Franklin County Jail, Pennsylvania.

    Additionally, we would like to acknowledge the commitment of our partners representing

    national associations, as represented by: Hilary Burgess, Manager of Membership, National

    Sheriffs Association; Charles (Chuck) J. Kehoe, Past President, American Correctional

    Association; and Gwyn Smith-Ingley, Executive Director, American Jail Association. Beyond

    advocating for their members, these representatives provided recommendations for Advisory

    Panel membership, participated in panel meetings, reviewed documents, and shared their insights

    throughout the project. Our gratitude in that regard is likewise extended to the staff of the

    National Institute of Corrections, particularly Jim T. Barbee and Michael P. Jackson.

    For enthusiastically contributing their efforts to the success of this initiative, there are

    several additional individuals who deserve special acknowledgement, including:

    Edye Cleary and Kathleen Zaenglein, graduate assistants at Florida Atlantic University,

    who conducted project research, data analysis and editing;

    Jeff Elkins, who helped to facilitate the first advisory panel meeting;

    Paul A. Gutowski, Human Resources Analyst, Rhode Island Department of Corrections,

    whose feedback and participation helped to assure generational-relevance of the final


    Sandra Thacker, Superintendent of the Peumansend Creek Regional Jail, (Bowling

    Green, Virginia) for sharing creative staff recognition ideas; and

    Elizabeth Layman, President, Price Layman, Inc., whose assistance with travel

    arrangements, coordination, and research enabled administrative aspects of the project to

    proceed smoothly.

    Finally, it is fitting to note a conspicuously missing member of the National Advisory

    Panel, the late Dennis Webb, Chief Deputy, Arlington County (Virginia) Sheriffs Office. As a

    result of his encouragement of this project, along with the support of Sheriff Beth Arthur, Dennis

    was selected as a member of the Advisory Panel. Although a traffic accident tragically ended his

  • 2009 Center for Innovative Public Policies, Inc.


    life in November 2007, his excitement for the project was inspirational, and his legacy of

    innovation lives on.

    As in any endeavor of this kind, the fundamental strength of this initiative is solidly based

    on the genuine support and ongoing engagement of the nations sheriffs and jail administrators.

    It is their passionate commitment to improving recruitment, retention, and leadership

    development that is reflected throughout this document. As they well know, it is the day-to-day

    dedication of qualified employees that sustains the life and achieves the goals of any

    organization. Quite simply, a jails mission is not fulfilled by tremendous programs or policies

    or physical plants, but rather, by top-notch people.

    Jeanne B. Stinchcomb

    Susan W. McCampbell

    Leslie Leip

  • 2009 Center for Innovative Public Policies, Inc.


    Executive Summary

    As the 21st century un