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  • The FTTx Mini-Guide

  • The FTTx Mini-Guide

    www.nexans.com

    Table of Contents

    Introduction .................................................................................................................................5

    1 FTTx definitions......................................................................................................................6 1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................6 1.2 FTTH............................................................................................................................6 1.3 FTTB............................................................................................................................6 1.4 FTTN............................................................................................................................7

    2 FTTH/FTTB architectures and performance..........................................................................7 2.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................7 2.2 Passive optical networks…………………………………….........................................8

    2.2.1 Overview ........................................................................................................8 2.2.2 TV and video services ....................................................................................9

    2.3 Outside plant construction .....................................................................................11 2.3.1 Overview ......................................................................................................11 2.3.2 Components.................................................................................................11 2.3.3 Fibre-optic cable performance ...................................................................12

    2.4 PON variants ............................................................................................................12 2.4.1 BPON ............................................................................................................12 2.4.2 GPON............................................................................................................13 2.4.3 EPON.............................................................................................................14 2.4.4 GPON versus EPON ......................................................................................15 2.4.5 EP2P (Ethernet Point-to-Point) ...................................................................16

    2.5 Next-generation PONs ............................................................................................17 2.6 Active optical networks ..........................................................................................18

    2.6.1 Overview ......................................................................................................18 2.6.2 AON versus PON ..........................................................................................18

    3 FTTN architectures and performance .................................................................................19 3.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................19 3.2 FTTN+VDSL...............................................................................................................20 3.3 FTTN+VDSL2.............................................................................................................20 3.4 FTTN+VDSL/VDSL2 versus FTTH/FTTB .....................................................................22 3.5 Enhanced xDSL cables .............................................................................................22

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  • The FTTx Mini-Guide

    www.telecommagazine.com

    4 Factors affecting FTTx deployment ....................................................................................23 4.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................23 4.2 Bandwidth requirements ........................................................................................23

    4.2.1 Overview ......................................................................................................23 4.2.2 The ‘bandwidth-hungry’ contenders .........................................................24

    4.3 Cost per FTTx subscriber .........................................................................................26 4.3.1 Overview ......................................................................................................26 4.3.2 Cost-reduction methods..............................................................................26

    4.4 The regulatory environment ..................................................................................27 4.4.1 Overview ......................................................................................................27 4.4.2 EU Regulatory Framework..........................................................................28 4.4.3 The ‘horizontally-integrated’ business model...........................................29

    5 FTTx deployment status ......................................................................................................29 5.1 Europe......................................................................................................................29 5.2 North America .........................................................................................................30 5.3 Asia ...........................................................................................................................30

    Tables Table 2.1: Key performance characteristics and features of BPON........................................13 Table 2.2: Key performance characteristics and features of GPON .......................................14 Table 2.3: Key performance characteristics and features of EPON........................................15

    Figures Figure 2.1: A point-to-multipoint PON architecture.................................................................9 Figure 3.1: Performance characteristics of ADSL2+, VDSL and VDSL2...................................21 Figure 4.1: Different TV and HSI service scenarios using 20Mbps .........................................24 Figure 4.2: Capex comparison for different FTTx architectures .............................................27

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  • The FTTx Mini-Guide

    Introduction

    In recognition of the growing importance of optical fibre in the access network, Nexans – a global expert in cables and cabling systems – and Telecommunications® have collaborated to produce The FTTx Mini-Guide. Our intention is to provide a clear and objective overview of the various FTTx architectures that are available, as well as highlighting the key drivers for investment.

    The need for objective and accessible information on this potentially complex subject has never been greater. As operators start to offer more bandwidth-hungry services, such as triple play and IPTV, important questions now need to be asked about how these will be delivered to the customer over the ‘last mile’.

    For over a hundred years, copper connections between the central office and the customer have been sufficient. The evolution of DSL technology – which boosts the data performance of the copper-based last mile – has also allowed operators to use their legacy networks to offer ‘high-speed’ Internet access of between 8Mbps and 16Mbps1.

    But is that enough? The general industry consensus is that it won’t be, particularly in markets where demand for high-definition TV (HDTV) and interactive applications takes off. And if customers want more bandwidth than what an all-copper last mile can deliver, other network architectures need to be considered.

    The main candidate to replace copper in the last mile is optical fibre, which, in certain network configurations, can deliver downstream and upstream speeds of more than 100Mbps to the customer. But even if operators do decide that fibre is the best way forward, they still need to address a number of key questions about how to maximise their return on investment. Do they roll out fibre to the node or all the way to the home/building? Do they deploy a passive or active optical network? And if they do deploy a passive optical network (PON), which variant should they opt for? And, perhaps most crucially of all, when do operators need to roll out their chosen fibre access architecture?

    There is also a wider, political context for FTTx. Governments recognise that higher-speed access networks and IT have the potential to make national and regional economies stronger. Given the prominent position that FTTx now occupies on the agendas of operators, regulators and policy-makers, Nexans and Telecommunications® intend this booklet to be a handy and indispensable information resource on the key issues that surround optical fibre in the last mile.

    www.nexans.com

    1 ADSL2+ is theoretically capable of delivering 24Mbps but only to customers who are located less than 300 metres from the central office or remote DSLAM

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  • The FTTx Mini-Guide

    6 www.telecommagazine.com

    1 FTTx definitions

    1.1 Overview The FTTx acronym is widely understood as Fibre-to-the-X, where X can denote a number of destinations. These include Home (FTTH), Premise (FTTP), Curb (FTTC), Building (FTTB), Home (FTTH), User (FTTU) an