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  • 85Van Yznc Yl niversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstits Dergisi The Journal of Social Sciences Institute

    Jennings, C. (1971). Les trois visages de Nana. The French Review, 44 (2). Eriim: https://www.jstor.org/stable/487609?seq=1page scan tabcontents.

    Mamoon, S. (2015). Au Plaisir des Clients: La Femme au Travail dansDeux Romans dEmile Zola. Eriim : www.letras.ufrj.br/neolatinas/medias/sayeedamamoon.pdf.

    McNeil Arteau, G. (2015). Les Documents humains Emile Zola, le journalisme et la littrature (1865-1893), Thse de Doctorat,Universit Laval, Qubec, Canada. Eriim:https://corpus.ulaval.ca/jspui/handle/20.500.11794/26155?locale=fr.

    Moncorger, D. (2014). Etude smantique du substantive pouvoir dans LesRougon-Macquart de Zola, Thse de Doctorat, UniversitLumire-Lyon 2, Lyon. Eriim : theses.univ-lyon2.fr/documents/lyon2/2014/moncorger_d//moncorger_d_these.pdf.

    Olson, S. M. (1994). Zola's Nana| Power in a prostitute's body. GraduateStudent Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. Eriim:https://scholarworks.umt.edu/etd/4125. Ravat-Farenc, C. La nudit en scne et lcran : mancipation ou rification ?.Eriim:http://www.esadparis.fr/wpcontent/uploads/2017/09/NUDITE.pdf.

    Rivers, C. (1995). Face Value: Physiognomical Thought and the LegibleBody in Marivaux, Lavater, Balzac, Gautier, and Zola. UnitedStates of America: The University of Wisconsin Press.

    Sekanics, J. (2017). The Predetermined Deterioration of The Female Body in Zolas Nana, Tcnj Journal Of Student Scholarship,Volume XIX. Eriim: https://joss.tcnj.edu/files/2017/04/2017-Sekanics.pdf.

    Simons, N. (2014). LAltrit et la limite du connaissable dans Nana (1880)dEmile Zola, Mmoire du Bachelor, Utrecht University,Hollande. Eriim : https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/341176

    Sokowski, S. (2011). Subversive Bodies in Nineteenth-Century Narrativesof Paris and London, Doctoral Dissertation, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Eriim:https://rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu/rutgers-lib/34062/.

    Zola, E. (1954). Nana, Paris: Livre de Poche.Zola, E. (2002). Rougon Macquart II Nana, Henri Mittrand (ds). Paris:

    NRF Gallimard.NotesLes citations faites des travaux en anglais et en turc ont t

    traduites en franais par nous.

    Sosyal Bilimler Enstits Dergisi, The Journal of Social Sciences Institute Yl/Year: 2018 Sonbahar / Autumn Say/Issue: 41 - Sayfa / Page: 85-116

    ISSN: 1302-6879 VAN/TURKEY

    Makale Bilgisi / Article Info Geli/Received: 15.07.2018 Kabul/Accepted: 23.08.2018

    Aratrma Makalesi / Research Article

    DEOLOJK SAVA ALANI OLARAK ENVER GKE R*

    ENVER GKE'S POETRY AS IDEOLOGICAL WAR AREA

    Ar. Gr. M. Arif ERZEN Van Yznc Yl niversitesi

    Edebiyat Fakltesi Trk Dili ve Edebiyat Blm

    Yeni Trk Edebiyat ABD erzenmarif@yyu.edu.tr

    z Sovyet Rusya'snda 1930'larda ekillenen sosyalist gerekilik,

    Marksist sanat anlaynn u ve grece saptrlm bir yorumu olarak edebiyat dnyasnda etkili olmutur. Nzm Hikmet'in yolunda iire balayan ve 1940 Kua diye isimlendirilen airler, eserlerindeki ideolojik zemin dolaysyla, bu anlayn Trk edebiyatndaki temsilcileri saylrlar. Bilhassa tematik ortaklklar noktasnda bu adlandrmay hakl klan sz konusu airler, scak/kanl savalar birer ideolojik sorun olarak iirlerine tarken balandklar sosyalist dnya grnn gerei olarak bir taraftan da siyas temelli mcadeleyi bir sava grnmnde resmetmilerdir. Hem Tek Parti dneminde sakncal bulunarak maruz kaldklar basklar hem de Souk Sava dneminin neden olduu siyas kutuplama, kuaa mensup airlerin ideolojik sava kavram dorultusunda deerlendirilmeye uygun iirler yazmalaryla sonulanmtr. Bu isimlerden biri olan Enver Gke (1920-1981), halk syleyilerinin ses imknlarndan yararlanarak kurduu iirini, ezilen snflarn emek kavgasn seslendirdii bir ideolojik sylem sahasna dntrmtr. deolojik savam yolunda yrtlen fikir kavgasnn, siyas atmalarn ve

    * Bu makale, Van Yznc Yl niversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstits, Yeni TrkEdebiyat Bilim Dal bnyesinde hazrlamakta olduum "Toplumcu Gereki Trkiirinde Sava Algs" balkl doktora tezinden retilmitir.

  • 86 Van Yznc Yl niversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstits Dergisi The Journal of Social Sciences Institute

    snf mcadelesinin yalnzca baskn temalar olarak kalmayp Gke'nin poetik dayanaklarn oluturmas bu dorultuda dnlmelidir.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: Cumhuriyet dnemi Trk iiri, Toplumcu gerekilik, deoloji ve edebiyat, Sava, Enver Gke.

    Abstract

    Socialist realism, shaped in Soviet Russia in the 1930s, has been influential in the world of literature as an extreme and distorted interpretation of Marxist art. The poets who started poetry in the way of Nzm Hikmet and are called as the 1940 Generation are considered as representatives of this understanding in Turkish literature because of the ideological ground in their works. The poets, who justify this naming especially because of their thematic partnerships, have moved hot / bloody wars into poetry as an ideological problem. They have portrayed the political-based struggle in the form of a war as a requirement for the view of the socialist world to which they belong. Both the pressure they were subjected to during the One Party era and the political polarization caused by the Cold War period resulted in the writing of poems suitable for evaluating in the direction of ideological warfare of the poets belonging to the this generation. Enver Gke (1920-1981), one of these names, has transformed his poetry, which was created by the use of the folk speech, into an area of ideological discourse in which vocalized the labor struggle of the oppressed classes. It should be considered in this direction that the idea struggle, the political conflicts and the class struggle carried out in the path of ideological war are not only the dominant themes but also constitute the Gke's poetic bases.

    Keywords: Republican Period Turkish Poetry, Socialist Realism, Ideology and Literature, War, Enver Gke. Giri Trkede "birbiriyle tartmak, atmak, kavga etmek; fiziksel anlamda dvmek" anlamlaryla n plana kan "sav-" kknden tredii dnlen (Clauson, 1972: 793) ve Arapada "harb", Farsada "ceng", Franszcada "guerre", ngilizcede "war" szckleriyle karlanan sava, zengin bir tarihsel ve felsef altyap zerine temellenir. Esasen insanolunun varoluuna ilikin bir mefhum olan ve insan doasndaki iddet eilimleri asndan da dnlmesi gereken sava, tarihin hemen hibir dneminde nemini ve gncelliini yitirmeden eitlenmekle birlikte yaygn kullanm bakmndan daha ziyade siyas bir terim grnmndedir. Zihinde yaratt ilk alg itibaryla sava, anlamazlklar sonucunda yahut belirli amalar dorultusunda kar karya gelerek atan silahl glerin yaratt, kaotik durum olarak tanmlanabilir. Yani savan, amaca ldrerek ulama esasna dayanan iddet temelli eylemler zerine konumland ve insan zihninde ilk olarak bu hliyle karlk bulduu sylenebilir.

  • 87Van Yznc Yl niversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstits Dergisi The Journal of Social Sciences Institute

    snf mcadelesinin yalnzca baskn temalar olarak kalmayp Gke'nin poetik dayanaklarn oluturmas bu dorultuda dnlmelidir.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: Cumhuriyet dnemi Trk iiri, Toplumcu gerekilik, deoloji ve edebiyat, Sava, Enver Gke.

    Abstract

    Socialist realism, shaped in Soviet Russia in the 1930s, has been influential in the world of literature as an extreme and distorted interpretation of Marxist art. The poets who started poetry in the way of Nzm Hikmet and are called as the 1940 Generation are considered as representatives of this understanding in Turkish literature because of the ideological ground in their works. The poets, who justify this naming especially because of their thematic partnerships, have moved hot / bloody wars into poetry as an ideological problem. They have portrayed the political-based struggle in the form of a war as a requirement for the view of the socialist world to which they belong. Both the pressure they were subjected to during the One Party era and the political polarization caused by the Cold War period resulted in the writing of poems suitable for evaluating in the direction of ideological warfare of the poets belonging to the this generation. Enver Gke (1920-1981), one of these names, has transformed his poetry, which was created by the use of the folk speech, into an area of ideological discourse in which vocalized the labor struggle of the oppressed classes. It should be considered in this direction that the idea struggle, the political conflicts and the class struggle carried out in the path of ideological war are not only the dominant themes but also constitute the Gke's poetic bases.

    Keywords: Republican Period Turkish Poetry, Socialist Realism, Ideology and Literature, War, Enver Gke. Giri Trkede "birbiriyle tartmak, atmak, kavga etmek; fiziksel anlamda dvmek" anlamlaryla n plana kan "sav-" kknden tredii dnlen (Clauson, 1972: 793) ve Arapada "harb", Farsada "ceng", Franszcada "guerre", ngilizcede "war" szckleriyle karlanan sava, zengin bir tarihsel ve felsef altyap zerine temellenir. Esasen insanolunun varoluuna ilikin bir mefhum olan ve insan doasndaki iddet eilimleri asndan da dnlmesi gereken sava, tarihin hemen hibir dneminde nemini ve gncelliini yitirmeden eitlenmekle birlikte yaygn kullanm bakmndan daha ziyade siyas bir terim grnmndedir. Zihinde yaratt ilk alg itibaryla sava, anlamazlklar sonucunda yahut belirli amalar dorultusunda kar karya gelerek atan silahl glerin yaratt, kaotik durum olarak tanmlanabilir. Yani savan, amaca ldrerek ulama esasna dayanan iddet temelli eylemler zerine konumland ve insan zihninde ilk olarak bu hliyle karlk bulduu sylenebilir.

    Ancak bilhassa XIX. Yzyl'da dnya zerindeki gelimelerin de etkisiyle sava olgusunun geni bir anlamsal alm kazand grlr ki kavrama ilikin literatrn zenginliine bakmak bu hususta aydnlatcdr. Bir taraftan sanayileen devletlerin sava gerekeleri ve stratejileri bakmndan