The Food Pyramid

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The Food Pyramid. A guide to daily food choices. Key terms. Nutrients Whole grain Refined grains. Nutrition. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that help maintain the body Some nutrients supply energy to the body - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Food Pyramid

The Food Pyramid

The Food PyramidA guide to daily food choices

Key termsNutrientsWhole grainRefined grainsNutritionNutrients are chemical substances in food that help maintain the bodySome nutrients supply energy to the bodySome nutrients provide the building blocks for the bodys cells and tissues, such as kin, bones, and musclesSome nutrients are necessary for the chemical reactions that take place in the body

NutrientsThe food people eat has a major impact on their healthThe U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services have developed guidelines for healthy eating

Healthy DietsFor a healthy diet, a person must eat a variety of foodsA healthy diet also includes all the nutrients a person needs to stay healthyTo help people make wise choices, the Food Guide Pyramid was developedThe Food Guide Pyramid is a diagram that organizes food into groups that have similar nutrientsIt then recommends how many servings one should eat from each group each day

The food pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid

In with the new: my plate

Grains6 ounces each dayMake half your grains wholeAny food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is a grain product.Bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits are examples of grain products. Grains are divided into 2 subgroups:whole grainsrefined grains.

GrainsWhole grains contain the entire grain kernel the bran, germ, and endosperm. Examples include: whole-wheat flour bulgur (cracked wheat) oatmeal whole cornmeal brown rice

GrainsRefined grains have been milled, a process that removes the bran and germ. This is done to give grains a finer texture and improve their shelf life, but it also removes dietary fiber, iron, and many B vitamins. Some examples of refined grain products are: white flour degermed cornmeal white bread white rice

GrainsWhole grains:brown ricebuckwheatbulgur (cracked wheat)oatmealpopcornReady-to-eat breakfast cereals:whole wheat cereal flakeswhole grain barley

whole grain cornmealwhole ryewhole wheat breadwhole wheat crackerswhole wheat pastawhole wheat sandwich buns and rollswhole wheat tortillaswild rice

Refined grains:cornbreadcorn tortillascouscouscrackersflour tortillasgritsnoodlesPasta:spaghettimacaronipitaspretzelsReady-to-eat breakfast cereals:corn flakeswhite breadwhite sandwich buns and rollswhite rice

Some commonly eaten grain products are: Vegetables2 cups per dayAny vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the Vegetable Group. Vegetables may be:RawCookedFresh FrozenCannedDried/dehydratedMay be whole, cut-up, or mashed

VegetablesDark green vegetablesbroccoli collard greensdark green leafy lettucemustard greensromaine lettucespinachturnip greens

Red & orange vegetablesacorn squashbutternut squashcarrotspumpkinred pepperssweet potatoestomatoestomato juice

Starchy vegetablescornblack-eyed peas (not dry)green bananasgreen peasgreen lima beansplantainspotatoes

Beans and peasblack beansblack-eyed peas)kidney beanslentilsnavy beanspinto beanssoy beanssplit peaswhite beans

Other vegetablesartichokesasparagusbrussel sproutscabbagecauliflowercelerycucumberseggplantgreen beansgreen peppersIceberg lettucemushroomsokraonionsturnips

Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups, based on their nutrient content. Some commonly eaten vegetables in each subgroup are: fruits1 cups per dayAny fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as part of the Fruit Group. Fruits may be:FreshCannedFrozenDriedmay be whole, cut-up, or pureed

fruitsApplesApricotsBananasNectarinesOrangesPeachesPearsPapayaPineapplePlumsPrunesRaisinsTangerinesCherriesGrapefruitGrapesKiwi fruitLemonsLimesMangoesBerries:strawberriesblueberriesraspberriesMelons:cantaloupehoneydewwatermelon Mixed fruits:fruit cocktail100% Fruit juice:orangeapplegrapegrapefruit

Some commonly eaten fruits are:Milk, Yogurt & cheese3 cups per dayAll fluid milk products and many foods made from milk are considered part of this food group. Most Dairy Group choices should be fat-free or low-fat. Foods made from milk that retain their calcium content are part of the group. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not. Calcium-fortified soymilk (soy beverage) is also part of the Dairy Group.

Milk, Yogurt & cheeseChoose fat-free or low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. If sweetened milk products are chosen (flavored milk, yogurt, drinkable yogurt, desserts), the added sugars also count against your maximum limit for "empty caloriesFor those who are lactose intolerant, smaller portions (such as 4 fluid ounces of milk) may be well tolerated.Calcium-fortified foods and beverages such as cereals, orange juice, or rice or almond beverages may provide calcium, but may not provide the other nutrients found in dairy products.

Milk, Yogurt & cheeseMilkall fluid milk:fat-free (skim)low fat (1%)reduced fat (2%)whole milkFlavored milks:chocolatestrawberrylactose-reduced milkslactose-free milks

Milk-based dessertspuddingsice milkfrozen yogurtice creamCalcium-fortified soymilk(soy beverage) CheeseHard natural cheeses:cheddarmozzarellaSwissParmesan

Soft cheeses:ricottacottage cheeseProcessed cheeses:American

YogurtAll yogurt:fat-freelow fatreduced fatwhole milk yogurt

Some commonly eaten choices in the Dairy Group are:Meat & beans5 ounces per dayAll foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group. Beans and peas are also part of the Vegetable Group. Select a variety of protein foods to improve nutrient intake and health benefits, including at least 8 ounces of cooked seafood per week.Meat and poultry choices should be lean or low-fat.

Meat & beansMeatsLean cuts of:beefhamlambporkGame meats:bisonrabbitvenisonLean ground meats:beefporklambLean luncheon or deli meats

Organ meats:livergibletsPoultrychickenduckgooseturkeyground chicken and turkeyEggschicken eggsduck eggsBeans and peasblack beansblack-eyed peaslima beans (mature)navy beanspinto beansProcessed soy products: tofu white beans bean burgers veggie burgers texturized vegetable protein (TVP)Nuts and seeds almonds cashews mixed nuts peanuts peanut butter pecans pistachios pumpkin seeds sesame seeds sunflower seeds walnutsSeafoodFinfish such as:catfishflounderhalibutmackerelsalmonsea basssnapperswordfishtrouttuna

Shellfish such as:clamscrablobstermusselsoctopusoystersscallopssquid (calamari)shrimpCanned fish such as:anchoviesclamstunasardines

Some commonly eaten choices in the Protein Foods Group, with selection tips, are:Fats, oils, & sweetsOils are fats that are liquid at room temperature, like the vegetable oils used in cooking. Oils come from many different plants and from fish. Oils are NOT a food group, but they provide essential nutrients. Therefore, oils are included in USDA food patterns.Some common oils are: canola oil corn oil cottonseed oil olive oil safflower oil soybean oil sunflower oil

Fats, oils, & sweetsSome oils are used mainly as flavorings, such as walnut oil and sesame oil. A number of foods are naturally high in oils, like: nuts olives some fish avocados Foods that are mainly oil include mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or squeeze) margarine with no trans fats.

Fats, oils, & sweetsA few plant oils, however, including coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to be solid fats.Solid fats are fats that are solid at room temperature, like butter and shortening. Solid fats come from many animal foods and can be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation. Some common solid fats are:butter milk fat beef fat (tallow, suet) chicken fat pork fat (lard) stick margarine shortening partially hydrogenated oil

Dietary Guidelines for americans Aim for Fitness

Aim for a healthy weightBe physically active each dayBuild a Healthy Base

Let the Pyramid guide your food choicesChoose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grainsChoose a variety of fruits and vegetables dailyKeep food safe to eat Choose Sensibly

Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fatChoose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugarsChoose and prepare foods with less salt

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans were then developedThe guidelines suggest actions to promote healthEating outPeople who eat in commercial restaurants have a wide choice of what to eatYou can eat one meal in a restaurant, and the rest of the meals at homeyou can eat all your meals at restaurantsYou can eat all your meals at homeFor this reason, restaurants are concerned with taste and appearanceHowever, restaurants do try to provide offerings from each part of the Food Guide PyramidEating out: McDonaldsFats, Oils, & SweetsMilk, Yogurt, & CheeseVegetableBread, Cereal, Rice & PastaMeat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, & Nuts Fruit

Institutional foodservicesInstitutional foodservices are much more concerned with nutritionIn many cases, people who eat in institutional foodservices have no choice in where to eatFor example:People in hospitalsSoldiers in the armed servicesPeople in prison facilitiesTherefore, institutional foodservices pay close attention to the nutritional content of each meal they serveThe end