The Fall of Rome and Alexander the Great - · PDF fileFollowing Alexander’s...

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Transcript of The Fall of Rome and Alexander the Great - · PDF fileFollowing Alexander’s...

  • The Fall of Greece and Alexander the Great

  • After the Peloponnesian War

    Sparta and Athens are both weakened They still continue to fight small battles

    Macedonia is located to the north They see Greece falling apart

    Philip II able to see it when his son is tutored by Aristotle

    His son is Alexander the Great Saw this as the chance to overtake Greece

  • Map of Macedonia & Greece

  • Philip II of Macedonia

    Philip II became king at 21; attacked Greece at 34 Used the phalanx with sarissas, then a cavalry

    Alexander (at the age of 18) leads the cavalry Greeks try to defend their cities but will not work together

    and are overtaken Ends Greek freedom and independence

    Philip plans on taking Persia next Unable to do this due to his assassination Killed at his daughters wedding by a guard

  • Phalanx with Sarissas

  • Map of Macedonia & Greece

  • Alexander Comes to Power Alexander quickly took power

    Smart (tutored by Aristotle) and tough Thebes tries to rebel - he kills 6000, others are sold into slavery

    Bucephalus is Alexanders favorite horse rides him in every battle until the horse is killed attacking India

    Attacks Persia and defeats Darius III With the win he controlled Anatolia

    Darius tries to cut a deal, he says no Vows to take the entire empire

    Next goes to Egypt - crowned pharaoh Seen as a liberator and welcomed in (Egyptians were

    under rule of Persians and did not like it!)

  • Starts Here Defeats Darius III for this

    Then Egypt

    City of Alexandria


  • Alexander on the Move

    From Egypt he moved into Mesopotamia Defeats Darius again, takes major cities After this, the empire is his to take

    Alexanders armies march towards India Fought for 11 years, covered 11,000 miles

    When they hit the Indus Valley soldiers wanted to return to their families Alexander allows it; heads for home (Babylon) When he returns he dies of a fever

  • Alexanders Vast Empire

  • Cities all over empire renamed in Alexanders honor

  • Following Alexanders Death

    His 3 best generals split the empire Known for doing many great things Spread Hellenistic culture

    A mix of Greek culture with Egyptian, Indian and Persian cultures

    Made Alexandria, Egypt the new home of learning and knowledge (not Athens) Created museums, libraries, other buildings. Became a meeting place for an international

    community of culture

  • The City of Alexandria, Egypt New home of learning and knowledge Had many advancements that made it unique

    Wide streets, split into blocks (Indian influence) Statues of the gods sculpted in public (Greek) Famous museum built to house many things

    Named for the Muses had an observatory, zoo, etc. Had a lighthouse for ships to navigate at night

    Ships pulling into port at all times and from everywhere Alexandrian Library

    Housed many works and old papyrus rolls Promoted works of writers and promoted learning

  • Lighthouse at Alexandria

    Library at Alexandria

  • Achievements of Hellenism What is Hellenism/Hellenistic??

    Greece used to be called Helles Hellenism were the ideas/thoughts

    that were influenced by the Greeks Studies of the stars improve

    Observatory built, size of planets, sun, etc.

    Accurately measured size of Earth Ptolemy comes up with geocentric

    universe model (earth is the center) Advancements in mathematics

    Euclid and Pythagoras- geometry Archimedes- value of pi, levers,

    pulleys, and the screw design

  • Achievements of Hellenism Philosophic Advancements

    Stoicism believed the world was run by a divine power People should live by natural law and harmony Do not show emotions or let them rule you

    Epicureanism world made of atoms and ruled by the gods Gods do not care about humans Goal is to seek out what is pleasurable live modestly and

    understand the world around you Art changes from idealistic to realistic

    Showed emotional faces and new subjects Thoughts break away from the dependency on religion

    and gods and focus more on reason/logic Hellenistic culture spread until around 150 BC when

    Rome became the new place to be.

    The Fall of Greece and Alexander the GreatAfter the Peloponnesian WarMap of Macedonia & GreecePhilip II of MacedoniaPhalanx with SarissasMap of Macedonia & GreeceAlexander Comes to PowerSlide Number 8Alexander on the MoveAlexanders Vast EmpireCities all over empire renamed in Alexanders honorFollowing Alexanders DeathSlide Number 13The City of Alexandria, EgyptSlide Number 15Achievements of HellenismAchievements of Hellenism