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  • Bachelor Thesis, 15 credits, for a

    Bachelor of Science in Business Administration:

    International Business and Marketing

    Spring 2017

    The Entrepreneurial Process Revisited

    -Immigrant entrepreneurship and cultural perceptions. Alen Coralic and Eldar Secic

    School of Health and Society

  • Coralic & Secic

    Authors Alen Coralic Eldar Secic Title The Entrepreneurial Process Revisited -Immigrant entrepreneurship and cultural perceptions.

    Supervisor Marina Jogmark

    Co-examiner Karin Alm

    Examiner Sven-Olof Collin

    Abstract

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore how culture influences the perception of entrepreneurship, in the

    context of immigrant entrepreneurs in a non-core region in Sweden. Our theoretical framework consists

    of previous research about the entrepreneurial process, and cultural differences on national, local and

    business level. A conceptualization of the entrepreneurial process is combined with a three-layer

    theoretical framework of culture. Namely a national, a local and a business culture. The source for this

    empirical research are Balkan immigrants that came to Sweden during the 1990s because of the Balkan

    war, and are now entrepreneurs in Karlskrona, Sweden. The research method used in this thesis

    is interpretivistic with an abductive research approach. The empirical data was gathered through in-depth

    interviews. The empirical results have helped us understand that the perception of the entrepreneurial

    process distinguishes itself depending on culture. The main findings in our research imply that the

    Balkan entrepreneurs in Karlskrona, Sweden, feel that they became entrepreneurs because of non-

    satisfaction within social conditions. And that the Balkan entrepreneurs have adapted more to the Swedish

    culture in their way of working as entrepreneurs. They believe that adaption is the key to entrepreneurial

    success when creating value and developing a firm. However, the Balkan entrepreneurs feel that they are

    still under influence by the Balkan culture as well. This thesis contributes with an insight on how the

    entrepreneurial process is influenced by culture.

    Keywords Immigrant entrepreneurship, Culture, Entrepreneurial process, Non-core region, Context of place,

    Standardization and adaption.

  • Coralic & Secic

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    We would like to start with acknowledging that one should “never stop learning,

    because life never stops teaching”. We have learned so much during these past

    couple of months. A special gratitude to our supervisor Marina Jogmark on her

    guidance, engagement, encouragement and constructive comments. Furthermore,

    we would like to thank Annika Fjelkner for her linguistic expertise and support

    with the structure of this thesis. In addition, we would like to thank the

    entrepreneurs that took the time to participate in our research, this research would

    not have been possible without them.

    Finally, we would like to thank our loved ones, family and friends, for their

    constant motivation and support throughout this stressful period.

    Kristianstad, 26th May 2017

    Alen Coralic Eldar Secic

    Alen Coralic Eldar Secic

  • Coralic & Secic

    Table of content

    1. Introduction ____________________________________________________________ 1

    1.1. Background _________________________________________________________________ 1

    1.2. Problematization _____________________________________________________________ 4

    1.3. Purpose ____________________________________________________________________ 7

    1.4. Research question ____________________________________________________________ 7

    1.5. Delimitations ________________________________________________________________ 7

    1.6. Outline _____________________________________________________________________ 8

    2. Literature review _______________________________________________________ 9

    2.1. Combining two streams of literature _____________________________________________ 9

    2.2. Entrepreneurship – the phenomenon ____________________________________________ 9

    2.3. The entrepreneurial process___________________________________________________ 10

    2.3.1. Recognizing the opportunity _____________________________________________ 10

    2.3.2. Finding the resources___________________________________________________ 11

    2.3.3. Developing the firm_____________________________________________________ 11

    2.3.4. Creating the value______________________________________________________ 12

    2.4. Entrepreneurial activity in context of place_______________________________________ 12

    2.5. Entrepreneurship – a way of self-employment ____________________________________ 13

    2.6. Culture – the phenomenon____________________________________________________ 14

    2.7. National Culture ____________________________________________________________ 15

    2.7.1. The five Dimensions ____________________________________________________ 15

    2.7.1.1. Power distance _____________________________________________________________ 16

    2.7.1.2. Individualism vs Collectivism___________________________________________________ 17

    2.7.1.3. Masculinity vs Femininity _____________________________________________________ 18

    2.7.1.4. Uncertainty avoidance _______________________________________________________ 19

    2.7.1.5. Long term vs Short term orientation ____________________________________________ 20

    2.7.1.6. Criticism against Hofstede`s dimensions _________________________________________ 21

    2.8. Business culture ____________________________________________________________ 21

    2.8.1. The multi-focus model __________________________________________________ 22

    2.8.1.1. Means-oriented vs. Goal-oriented ______________________________________________ 22

    2.8.1.2. Internally driven vs. Externally driven ____________________________________________ 23

    2.8.1.3. Easygoing work discipline vs. Strict work discipline _________________________________ 23

  • Coralic & Secic

    2.8.1.4. Open system vs. Closed system ________________________________________________ 23

    2.9. Local culture _______________________________________________________________ 23

    2.9.1. The importance of the location ___________________________________________ 24

    2.10. Entrepreneurship and Culture ________________________________________________ 25

    2.11. Research Model- CAEP ______________________________________________________ 26

    3. Method _______________________________________________________________ 28

    3.1. Research philosophy _________________________________________________________ 28

    3.2. Research approach __________________________________________________________ 29

    3.3. Choice of theoretical framework _______________________________________________ 30

    3.4. Case study design ___________________________________________________________ 31

    3.5. Case selection ______________________________________________________________ 31

    3.6. In-depth interviews __________________________________________________________ 32

    3.7. Analyses of empirical data ____________________________________________________ 32

    4. Results _______________________________________________________________ 34

    4.1. Becoming an entrepreneur ____________________________________________________ 34

    4.2. Context of place ____________________________________________________________ 37

    4.3. Entrepreneurial decision making _______________________________________________ 39

    4.4. Way of living as entrepreneurs ________________________________________________ 41

    5. Analysis ______________________________________________________________ 43

    5.1. The main finding ____________________________________________________________ 43

    5.2. Recognizing the opportunity __________________________________________________ 43

    5.3. Finding the resources ________________________________________________________ 45

    5.4. Developing the firm _________________________________________________________ 46

    5.5. Creating value ______________________________________________________________ 48

    6. Conclusion ____________________________________________________________ 50

    6.1. Lessons learned by revisiting the entrepreneurial process ___________________________ 50

    6.2. Limitations and further research _______________________________________________ 52

    List of references ________________________________________________________ 54

    Appendices _____________________________________________________________ 64

    Appendix A: Interview guide ______________________________________________________ 64

  • Coralic & Secic

    1

    1. Introduction

    This thesis will explore how culture influence the perception of the entrepreneurial

    process among entrepreneurs with immigrant background in a non-core region in

    Sweden. This chapter will provide a background about the